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Introduction to Human Anatomy

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1 Introduction to Human Anatomy
Sanjaya Adikari Department of Anatomy

2 Why do you need to study anatomy?
A doctor should be able to localize symptoms and signs Pains Lumps/bumps Withdrawing of blood & giving injections Basic medical procedures

3 Why do you need to study anatomy?
Surgeons need to know what they cut Where to cut How to find the structures/organs Relationship of stuctures/organs Normal variations

4 Subsections in the study of Anatomy
Dissections/Macroscopic structure Histology/Microscopic structure Embryology Genetics

5 Dissection is done in regions
Head and neck (with Nervous control M) Thorax (with Res. Gas exch. M, Blood & Circula M) Abdomen (with Alimentation M) Pelvis & Perineum (with Excretion & Reproduc M) Limbs (with Locomotion M)

6 Anatomical Terms

7 Anatomical Position

8 Anterior = Ventral Posterior = Dorsal Superior = Cephalic Inferior = Caudal Left and Right Medial and Lateral

9 Anatomical planes Para saggital/ Para median

10 A B ‘A’ is lateral to ‘B’ ‘B’ is medial to ‘A’

11 Superior/ cephalic Inferior/ caudal

12 A B ‘A’ is proximal to ‘B’ ‘B’ is distal to ‘A’ A B

13 Pre-axial border Post-axial border

14 Abduction Adduction

15 Flexion Extension Flexion Extension
Movement that carries the limb anteriorly and bends it Extension Movement that carries the limb posteriorly and straightens it

16 Flexion Extension


18 Circumduction Rotation


20 Superficial Deep Closer to the skin/out side
Away from the skin/out side

21 Books Recommended Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy
McMinn’s colour atlas of Human Anatomy Grant’s Dissector Wheater’s Functional Histology by B Young and J.W. Heath or Textbook of Human Histology with Colour Atlas and Practical Guide by Inderbir Singh

Gray’s Anatomy for students Textbook of Anatomy by Inderbir Singh Clinically oriented Anatomy, By Keith L. Moore Human Embryology by Prof. Malkanthi S. Chandrasekera

23 List of things to be brought by you on the day of introduction to dissections
Scalpel blade and handle – 4 sets per group Non toothed-forceps with a broad tip – 4 per group Toothed-forceps with a broad tip – 4 per group Pare of scissors (curved) - 2 per group Cotton wool g packet Gauze bandage - 06 per group Two pairs of socks One sponge (about 2 x 3 x 5 inches) to apply body fluid A grey clothe 60 inches wide and 2 ½ meters long Grant’s Dissector and a Lab coat

24 Instruments Scalpel blade (No 22) Scalpel handle (No. 4)

25 Instruments

26 Instruments Gold-handled, curved fine-tipped Scissors 5-6 inch Forceps

27 Approach to the human bodies
Scissors Forceps

28 Approach to the human bodies
Scissors Forceps

29 Approach to the human bodies
Scissors Forceps

30 Approach to the human bodies
Scissors Forceps

31 Communication with staff
Talk during practical classes Meet us personally in the office ‘Comments box’ next to the Anatomy notice board (of the ground floor) Our: Your: Batch Stu. No.

32 Exams Semester Exams – 4 No separate merit exam
SAQ (40%), MCQ (30%), OSPE (30%) Each OSPE item will have equal weightage No separate merit exam Marks from the 4 semester exams will decide ‘Distinctions in Anatomy’

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