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Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker INTERFACE Ltd, Moscow IMT RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker INTERFACE Ltd, Moscow IMT RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker INTERFACE Ltd, Moscow IMT RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 2007

2 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 2 NanoMaker - innovative solution for nano- lithography NanoMaker is a hardware/software system and is intended for nanotechnologies. It provides friendly graphic interface to create and design structures of nano-size as little as 10 nm based on e-beam lithography method for SEMs, make simulation of resist exposure, calculate exposure dose values/times in correlation with proximity effect correction for 2D/3D structures, compensate static distortion of e-beam deflecting system, significantly reduce total exposure time by reading and actively suppressing dynamic distortion of e- beam deflection. NanoMaker system is developed and launched as commercial product by Interface Ltd. NanoMaker system is a result of long and fruitful cooperation with a team of scientists based on IMT RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, Russia Preview Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker

3 3 NanoMaker SEMs Family Lithography systems JEOL PHILIPS ZEISS LEICA LEO Hitachi Tescan Focused Ion Beam Machines ZRM-20 STM/AFM’s -(scanning probe microscopes) Cost starts from USD 100,000 Cost starts from USD1,000,000 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker The goal of NanoMaker is to “extract” from a standard electronic microscope maximum resolution capacity in lithography mode. Practically it means to convert a standard lab electronic microscope into a full-functionality e-beam lithography system by fitting software to compensate dynamic and static distortion and hardware to control e-beam. Just note that price for scanning electronic microscope starts from USD 100,000.00 and price for full- functionality e-beam lithography system starts from USD 1,000,000.00. Goals

4 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 4 NanoMaker purpose NanoMaker is a unique complex, which facilitates Scanning Electronic Microscopes to obtain the ultimate resolution and compensate inaccuracies of microscope charachteristics It is developed - to create and design structures of various geometry forms and of nano-size as little as 10 nm to be exposed by e-beam lithography method -to overcome proximity effect appearing when micro- and nano- structures are exposed including 2D and 3D structures - to compensate static distortion of e-beam deflecting system by calculation methods - to significantly reduce total exposure time by reading and actively, “on-the-fly”, suppressing dynamic distortion of e-beam deflection - to work with 2D and 3D structures in resist, create multilevel structures - to work with non-standard elements such as sone plates, kinoforms, hologramms etc.

5 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 5 NanoMaker purpose (continued) - to simulate the results of resist exposure by matching exposure dose and time parameters to provide 100% of known-good output - to provide programmable control over e-beam move, blanking system, stage etc. - to provide compatibility with other graphic software systems to import and export other known formats for images and support various types of SEMs, AFM/SPM, ZRM etc. equipment - to support operations of scanning metrology microscopes and to work with fields, markers, video, rotations etc. - to provide image acquisition and carry out postprocessing with image adjustment and alignment - to work with large fields and provide seamless stitching of images Some of the features are unique and are not available in the market

6 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 6 NanoMaker hardware To provide capabilities of lithography systems Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker Pattern Generator NanoMaker consists of two main parts: Pattern Generator Board and Software modules. Pattern Generator Board is to control the exposure process by assigning physical parameters as it is sketched in the slide. Software modules are intended to solve a number of tasks depending on requirements to be mentioned further. Image acquisition To control blanker To control stage To control e-beam position

7 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 7 NanoMaker hardware Pattern Generator with PC Board Controller Hardware comprises two units: analogue unit and digital unit Analogue unit is a separate box with its own stabilized power supply unit. Digital and Analogue units are connected by fiber optic cable to provide high speed noise protective data transfer. Digital unit is a PC Board Controller. Pattern Generator board provides: Two 16-bit Digital-to-Analogue Converters (DACs) (60ns Settling Time) One 8-bit Analogue-to-Digital Converter (ADC) Beam Blanker On/Off switch (TTL output level) Internal/External scan mode switch (TTL output level) Output XY DACs and input ADC voltages can be tuned for arbitrary intervals in ±10.0 V range.

8 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 8 NanoMaker software To provide capabilities of lithography systems NanoMaker provides integrated development environment to create structures and design data NanoMaker provides functions to control exposure and stage operations. NanoMaker provides functions to acquire foreign images and insert additional structures under alignment control NanoMaker provides functions to compensate inaccuracies of microscope and improve lithography yield, i.e. : compensates distortion and dynamic delays calculates proximity effect correction makes simulation and predicts the results of exposure

9 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 9 NanoMaker solution NanoMaker system can be supplied to the end user in various combinations: NanoMaker/Full NanoMaker complete system fully solves the task to convert scanning electronic microscope into e-beam lithograph NanoMaker/Full to create and design structures of nano-size as little as 10 nm based on e-beam lithography method for SEMs, make simulation of resist exposure, calculate exposure dose values/times in correlation with proximity effect correction for 2D/3D structures, compensate static distortion of e-beam deflecting system, significantly reduce total exposure time by reading and actively suppressing dynamic distortion of e-beam deflection NanoMaker/Workbench NanoMaker/Writer NanoMaker/Lite NanoMaker /Workbench – module to design 2D and 3D structures, solve a problem of proximity effect correction and to have output data in formats (GDSII, DFX, ELM…) acceptable by most brands of existing lithographs. Inversion is also possible. It means that data released in mentioned above formats can be further corrected or re-designed and exported back in the same format. NanoMaker/Workbench has a friendly interface and can work both in online and off-line mode (without being directly connected to a scanning microscope). NanoMaker/Writer + Pattern Generator Board combination enables to control scanning electronic microscope or lithograph parameters with the help of Generator. It is this stage when conversion to lithograph is done and the best resolution to achieve proper lithograph quality is “extracted”. The functions of Pattern Generator Board are elementary. That is to assign e-beam location (DAC), to take the image at the given location (ADC), and to switch on/off blank e-beam NanoMaker/Editor – demoversion of NanoMaker to introduce the basic functions.

10 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 10 NanoMaker software modules diagram Proximity & Simulation Proximity Effect Correction Exposure & Development Simulation · Editor (Specialized 2D/3D CAD) · -Design of (hierarchical / multilayered ) structure -Load / Save Graphical Data Base (GDB) files -Import/Export GDS, DXF, ELM formats · Stage Control -Stage Driver Exposure (Writing ) With Alignment&Compensation for Dynamic/Distortion Errors SEM inaccuracies characterization for active compensation -Dynamic ( definition of dynamic delay ) -Distortion ( definition of SEM optical system distortion ) · Alignment & Adjustment (Working with Video) -Scan Field Alignment Using Test Pattern or Stage -Stage Adjustment to Test Pattern or to Scan Field -Image Acquisition Recommended Parameters Database NanoMaker/Workbench NanoMaker/Writer Interface Ltd. www.nanomaker.com Postprocessing Negative, Union, Frame, Shrink, Erase, Stratification, Overlaps out… Pattern Generator Board

11 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 11 Practical implementations of modules Import of structures *.DXF, *.CSF, *.GDS, *.TIF, *.BMP and holograms with complex topography up to 100 Mgb Data designing or redesigning NanoMaker/Workbench Designing own structures OFFLINE MODE *.DFX, *.CSF, *.GDS Export of data NanoMaker/Writer ONLINE MODE Or transfer of structures PG

12 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 12 Unique features of NanoMaker In the market of similar software unites NanoMaker offers unique features: Proximity effect correction for 2D and 3D structures Simulation of proximity effect and resist development "Distortion compensation" - compensation of static distortions of deflection system Measurement and active countermeasures of dynamic distortions of deflection system and as a result – possibility to exposure without beam blanker Advantage features for hologram/kinoform applications

13 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 13 Proximity effect Proximity effect correction is especially important for closely packed, differently sized pattern elements. Though it is applicable to simple structures as well. The proximity effect becomes apparent in small enough areas when forward and backward scattering takes place in the substrate and leads to overexposure, thus resulting in breaking the accuracy of the structure.  0 – e-beam width when reaching resist  – e-beam width when reaching substrate  – e-beam width when leaving resist. It defines actually exposed area In the figure it is depicted an e-beam exposed to a chip. The chip consists of substrate covered with resist. Initially the e-beam was focused. However when it permeates both-way trough substrate and resist, electron scattering takes place. As a result radiation dose is disproportioned and final exposed area (  ) is significantly more than it was initially (  0 ) assigned. This fact is depicted in the slide. The resulting radiation dose redistribution in resist is known as proximity function and has the following values of parameters:  - fractions of micron,  0 – hundredths of micron,  - microns. The fact is the more e-beam energy the more disproportion is. The value of disproportion is as well subject to parameters of substrate and resist. To the convenience of the users NanoMaker offers its own integral database of Recommended Parameters. It enables to fast match assignments of parameters.

14 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 14 How Proximity effect works Z Simple exapmple to demonstarte the impact of proximity effect An elementary structure is shown. The total area is about 20 micrometers. The structure resembles field-effect transistor (FET). It consists of two rectangulars and has a line of 0.2 micrometers width. All gaps between elements are of the similar width (0.2 micrometers). The circuit is designed on Silicon chip with accelerating voltage of 25 Kilo electro Volt.

15 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 15 How Proximity effect impacts If proximity effect is not corrected then the result coud be depicted this way Simulation Photo of the exposed pattern The fact the top line is missing is due to insufficient radiation dose, contrary, excessive dose resulted in gaps vanishing between rectangular.

16 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 16 How proximity effect is corrected NanoMaker provides function to calculate the dose distribution along the area. Figure shows the areas depicted by isolines, which highlight the zones with uniform characteristics. In our case it means that each zone has ascending dose from 105% up to 125% against 100% initial dose.

17 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 17 Result of proximity effect correctin After simulation shows satisfied results exposure is done 100% of known-good output

18 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 18 Simulation proximity effect and resist development One more unique feature of NanoMaker is possibility to output the lithography image simulated in the screen. It is possible to assign and alter various dose/time parameters and then follow it with preview in the screen as if resist development has taken place. In the preceding figures we can notice the coincidence with the experimental data obtained. This way simulation process effects in saving time and physical resources. We have to note that resulting accuracy of proximity effect correction is very much subject to accuracy of assigned parameters. Wrongly assigned, from accuracy point, parameters can even increase distortion effect. That is why NanoMaker maintains the database of Recommended Parameters for most common types of substrate.

19 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 19 Sample of proximity effect correction for 3D structure Simulation ofeExposure dose. Iisolevels after correction An AFM image of a relief of transparent polymer DOE after copying from metal replica. Presently the problem to create 3D structure with e-beam lithography, say for optical applications, comes into consideration more and more often Topographic expression of 3D structure

20 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 20 Example of creating 3D structure Using 3D proximity correction and electron lithography, objects with arbitrary 3D shape could be created with single exposure session. Kinoform optics

21 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 21 Distortion compensation (static) One of the significant NanoMaker function is capability to compensate distortions, both static distortion of deflection system and dynamic distortion of e-beam long jump. The static distortions arise from electromagnetic lenses imperfection. NanoMaker provides with a function to measure the distortions of microscope operative field and store the values of deviation from pattern grid. These values are used for calculation of e-beam trajectory to meet the parameters of a given pattern grid. Ideal shape of scanning Actual shape of canning

22 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 22 Distortion compensation (dynamic) NanoMaker/Writer provides with one more absolutely unique feature to measure and carry out active countermeasures of dynamic distortions of deflection system. Common solution -Use blanker system -Wait till e-beam is settled at the point Result Waiting time usually exceeds pure exposure time several times NanoMaker solution -No blanker system is required - Compensate distortion by addressing to the trajectory resulting into ideal line Result Calculated exposure time is pure time of total exposure process

23 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 23 Example of distortion compensation The structure with long jump of e-beam No compensationWith compensation

24 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 24 Alignment This function enables to make lithography of complex multi-layer structures. It enables: - to read and acquire the existing lithography image - make exposure in a new coordinate frame - rotate and compress/stretch the image - align a new lay with existing objects of the image as per given markers

25 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 25 Alignment (example) Here we will demonstrate how it works on the samples prepared with the NanoMaker alignment function. In the figure shown gold contacts along with markers were done with optical lithography tools. With the help of NanoMaker the dimensions of gold contacts were measured, depicted and aligned with the given layers and whereupon they were pickled in hetero-structure on GaAs.

26 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 26 Alignment consequence With NanoMaker the dimensions of gold contacts were measured, depicted and aligned with the given layers and whereupon they were pickled in hetero- structure on GaAs. First optical lithography Placing metallic ferromagnetic material in the places marked by cross lines. a) b) c) d)

27 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 27 World market Nearest competitors The nearest competitors at the market are: -NPGS -Raith GmbH We refer to the book: Micro-lithography, Micromachining and Microfabrication (ed. P Rai-Choudhury),Volume1: Microlithography, Section 2.5, written by M. McCord and M. Rooks. Web ref: http://www.cnf.cornell.edu/cnf_spie54.html

28 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 28 World market Interface Ltd.JC Nabity *** Lithography Systems Raith GmbHLeica Lithography Systems Ltd. FunctionalityNanoMakerNPGSElphy-PlusEBL Nanowriter Proximity correctionYesNoYesNo Development simulationYesNoYesNo 3D**** structure editorYesNo Alignment **Automated or manual Automated StitchingAutomated, accuracy limited by stage Automated, 0,1 um accuracy with laser stage Automated, with laser stage Energy0-40 kV for typical SEM, but depends on target instrument 10 to 100 kV DAC speedMid-range, 1us per exposure point (1 MHz) Low, 10 us per exposure point (100 kHz) Mid-range, 0.4 us per exposure point (2.6 MHz) Mid-range, 1us per exposure point (1 MHz) Throughput ** limited byDAC speed, PC performace, not with scan coils Settling time of scan coils, transmission rate of ISA bus Settling time of scan coils StageSupport for any automated stage optional laser controlled Control computerPC compatible ISA|PC bus DOS/Windows PC compatible ISA|PC bus DOS/Windows PC compatible DOS/Windows PC compatible

29 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 29 Resume The main purpose of NanoMaker system is to convert standard electronic microscope into lithography system Successfully defined and solved Proximity Effect Correction problem for 2D and 3D structures that enables to fulfill designing and simulation Unique functions are developed and implemented  Proximity effect correction for 3D structures  Static distortion compensation  Dynamic delay correction NanoMaker – is a commercial product that can be customized as per customer’s requirements

30 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 30 Future projects - To extend functionalities for Atomic Force Microscopes - To provide a bridge between big machines to create dies and SEMs to replicate

31 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 31 Photo Gallery (Cantilever needle) FrontSide view The examples of integration of NanoMaker into AFM are shown at the slides as possibility to grow up tips for cantilevers with high accuracy. Actually this is an unique technique which is used for industrial needs. The process is done in the standard work chamber. This technique is used in manufacturing probes/sondes and calibration standard for scanning sonde microscopy. NanoMaker enables to grow up the tip of a standard silicon cone tip and get tip with diameter of 100-200 nm and length up to unites of micrometer.

32 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 32 Photo Gallery (Implementation for fun) Imitation of gecko paws performed in lab with JEOL - 840 Nature Materials - published the photo to illustrate macroscopic adhesive properties by showing a spider-man toy clinging with one of its hands to a horizontal glass plate. The toy (15 cm high; weighing 40 g) has its hand covered with the microfabricated gecko tape, which provides a 0.5 cm2 contact with the glass and a carrying capacity of >100 g.

33 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 33 Photo Gallery (Nano World) The width of line is 10 -20 nm The smallest map of the world.

34 Ultimate 3D e-beam lithography for nano/micro-structuring with NanoMaker 34 Contacts We thank you for your attention Please visit our site www.nanomaker.comwww.nanomaker.com Contact us at e-mail: export@interface.ru or sales@nanomaker.comexport@interface.ru sales@nanomaker.com


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