We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byDakota Ridgway
Modified over 2 years ago
From molecules to cells © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
THE CELL Organelles CHLOROPLASTS, MITOCHONDRIA, NUCLEUS etc Supramolecular assemeblies ENZYME COMPLEXES, RIBOSOMES, CHROMOSOMES Macromolecules NUCLEIC ACID PROTEINPOLYSACCHARIDELIPID Building blocks NUCLEOTIDEAMINO ACID SIMPLE SUGARFATTY ACID & GLYCEROL Precursors from the environment CO 2, H 2 O, MINERALS The levels of organisation in cells © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Elements in living & non-living material EARTH’S CRUSTHUMAN TISSUES RANK ELEMENT% % 1stO62,5000H60,300 2ndSi21,2000O25,500 3rdAl6,4700C10,500 4thNa2,6400N2,450 5thCa1,9400Na0,730 6thFe1,9200Ca0,266 7 th Mg1,8400P0,134 8 th P1,4200S0,132 9 th C0,0800K0,036 10thN0,0001Cl0,032 © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Elements in living & non-living material EARTH’S CRUSTHUMAN TISSUES RANK ELEMENT% % 1stOxygen62,5000Hydrogen60,300 2ndSilicon21,2000Oxygen25,500 3rdAluminium6,4700Carbon10,500 4thSodium2,6400Nitrogen2,450 5thCalcium1,9400Sodium0,730 6thIron1,9200Calcium0,266 7 th Magnesium1,8400Phosphorus0,134 8 th Phosporus1,4200Sulphur0,132 9 th Carbon0,0800Potassium0,036 10thNitrogen0,0001Chlorine0,032
Water Formula H 2 O Structure Slightly ( ) negative at the oxygen end and slightly positive at the hydrogen end -- ++ ++ O HH © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The association between the polar water molecules Weak hydrogen bonds © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Comparing molecules H2SH2SHydrogen sulphide HFHydrogen fluoride H2OH2OWater NH 3 Ammonia CH 4 Methane Boiling point / °C Melting point / °C Molecular mass FormulaMolecule Compared to molecules of similar size and properties water has a very high melting point and boiling point © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Thermal properties The molecules of water can absorb a lot of heat energy Water has a very high thermal capacity (4.2 J°C -1 g -1 ) The hydrogen bonding forms a lattice which does not easily fall apart as the temperature rises © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Thermal properties and life Water is a very, thermally stable medium Water helps living organisms resist changes in their environment To make water change from a liquid to a vapour requires a lot of energy Evaporation of water on a the surface of a body cools it down significantly © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
African elephants (Loxodonta africana) bathing © Shirley Burchill 2007 © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Solvent properties The polar properties of water make it a good solvent for: Polar molecules (e.g. sugars and alcohols) These form hydrogen bonds with the water molecules Ionic compounds (e.g. salts, acids and bases) These dissociate into their component ions © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Solvent properties and life Water is a very important transport medium for living organisms because of its solvent properties and because it remains a liquid over a large range of temperatures Water is also an important medium for biochemical reactions © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Cohesion The cohesion (stickiness) between water molecules Water molecules are also attracted to wettable surfaces Very tall thin columns of water can be supported before they break The tallest are at the physical limits of water trees (sequoia and eucalyptus are 100m tall) © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Giant red wood Sequoiadendron giganteum California USA Public Domain image Eucalyptus grandis NSW Australia Public Domain image
Surface tension Water molecules hold together forming a skin at the surface This is strong enough for some organisms to be supported Water Skater © Shirley Burchill 2007 Water skater Gerris gibbifer © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Density Water is densest at 4°C whilst it is still a liquid So ice floats on the surface of water Organisms which live in water do not risk freezing solid so easily Freezing is usually fatal Water forms a good habitat for living organisms Iceberg, Antarctica © Shirley Burchill 2007 © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
Transparency Water is a transparent liquid, light passes though it Blue light, with the most energy, penetrates furthest, red light is the weakest and penetrates least Plants can photosynthesise under water Animals can use their visual systems Kelp forests (Macrocystis pyrifera) California © Mike Graham, Phycology Moss Landing Marine Laboratories © Text 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
1 Water. Life on earth evolved in water,and all life still depends on water. At least 80% of the mass of living organisms is water and almost all chemical.
TOPIC 3: CHEMISTRY of LIFE. 3.1: Chemical Elements and Water.
Water: The Facts Water is possibly the most important compound in living organisms. Water consists of 1 atom of oxygen combined with 2 atoms of hydrogen.
Ch. 4 Chemical Basis of Life. 4.1 Life requires about 25 chemical elements.
Chemistry of Life. Small to large AtomsElementMoleculeMacromoleculeCellsTissuesOrgansOrganism.
Water. Properties of Water Polar molecule Cohesion and adhesion High specific heat Density – greatest at 4 o C Universal solvent of life.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2-1 Chapter 2 Lecture Outline See PowerPoint Image Slides.
Intro: Answer the best you can. We will learn all this and much more this unit. 1.What are proteins? 2.Why do we need proteins? 3.What are lipids (fats)?
Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.1 Atoms, Elements & Compounds 6.2 Chemical Reactions 6.3 Water and Solutions 6.4 The Building Blocks of Life.
Section 2.2. What do you know about water? Unique Properties of Water: Most abundant compound in nearly all living things.
Chapter 15 Water. Water Molecules l O is more electronegative than H l Gives O a partial negative charge l Bent shape makes molecule polar l Strong hydrogen.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life Revised by R. LeBlanc.
AP Biology Chapter 3 Water and the Fitness of the Environment.
Chemistry in Biology. Elements in the Human Body (CHON 96%)
Biochemistry Chemical reactions in living things..
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.
Chemistry in Biology 6. The Big Idea Atoms are the foundation of biological chemistry and the building blocks of all living things.
1. 2 Ice = less than 0°C (solid) Water = 0°C – 100 ° C (liquid) Steam = greater than 100 °C (gas)
QOD: In a group of 4, each pick one paragraph of the article to read. (note: paragraph 2 is the hardest one, the back page will be more helpful) When.
Pre-AP Biology Water Properties (2.2) Part 1. Earth 2/3rds covered by water.
Water – The Unique Substance VCE Chemistry Unit 2: Environmental Chemistry Area of Study 1 – Water.
Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Unit 2: Biochemistry and Cells Review.
Physical Science Acids & Bases. Solutions and Suspensions A mixture of flour & water suspension Colloidal dispersion solution Suspension - the particles.
HERBERT M. SAN PEDRO LECTURER
Liquids and solids They are similar to each other u Different than gases. u They are incompressible. u Their density doesnt change much with temperature.
What is it that makes up an atom? Essential Question Biochemistry.
The Chemistry of Life Chapter 2. vocabulary Atom the most basic and smallest unit of matter Atom the most basic and smallest unit of matter –Nucleus –Nucleus.
Inorganic Compounds. Usually small Usually small Lack carbon and/or hydrogen Lack carbon and/or hydrogen Many contain ionic bonds Many contain ionic bonds.
A Summary of How Theories Develop in Science: – based on a series of verifiable observations & measurements. leads to a conclusion based on inductive reasoning.
Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Water Edited by Janet A Renshaw School of Biological Sciences.
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.