3 II. America under the Articles of Confederation The first written constitution of the United StatesOne-house CongressNo presidentNo judiciaryThe only powers granted to the national government were those for declaring war, conducting foreign affairs, and making treatiesCongress established national control over land to the west of the thirteen states and devised rules for its settlement
4 II. America under the Articles of Confederation (con’t) Congress and the WestIn the immediate aftermath of independence, Congress took the position that by aiding the British, Indians had forfeited the right to their landsCongress was unsure how to regulate the settlement of western land
5 II. America under the Articles of Confederation (con’t) Settlers and the WestPeace brought rapid settlement into frontier areasThe Ordinance of 1784 established stages of self-government for the WestThe Ordinance of 1785 regulated land sales in the region north of the Ohio RiverLike the British before them, American officials found it difficult to regulate the thirst for new landThe Northwest Ordinance of 1787 established policy that admitted the area’s population as equal members of the political system
6 II. America under the Articles of Confederation (con’t) The Confederation’s WeaknessesThe war created an economic crisis that the government, under the Articles of Confederation, could not adequately addressWith Congress unable to act, the states adopted their own economic policiesShays’s RebellionFacing seizure of their land, debt-ridden farmers closed the courtsInvoked liberty trees and liberty polesShays’s Rebellion demonstrated the need for a more central government to ensure private liberty
7 II. America under the Articles of Confederation (con’t) Nationalists of the 1780sNation builders like James Madison and Alexander Hamilton called for increased national authorityThe concerns voiced by critics of the Articles found a sympathetic hearing among men who had developed a national consciousness during the RevolutionIt was decided that a new constitution was needed to avoid either anarchy or monarchy
8 III. A New Constitution The Structure of Government The most prominent men took part in the Constitutional Conventionwealthywell educatedThe Constitution was to create a legislature, an executive, and a national judiciaryThe key to stable, effective republican government was finding a way to balance the competing claims of liberty and powerA final compromise was agreed upon based on the Virginia and New Jersey plans
9 III. A New Constitution (con’t) The Limits of DemocracyThe Constitution did not set federal voting qualificationsThe new government was based upon a limited democracy, ensuring only prominent men holding officeNeither the president nor federal judges were elected by popular voteThe system was confusing
10 III. A New Constitution (con’t) The Division and Separation of PowersThe Constitution embodies federalism and a system of “checks and balances”Federalism refers to the relationship between the national government and the statesThe “separation of powers” or the system of “checks and balances” refers to the way the Constitution seeds to prevent any branch of the national government from dominating the other two
11 III. A New Constitution (con’t) The Debate over SlaverySlavery divided the delegatesThe words “slave” and “slavery” did not appear in the Constitution but it did provide for slaveryThe South Carolinian delegates proved very influential in preserving slavery within the ConstitutionCongress prohibited the slave trade in 1808The fugitive slave clause accorded slave laws “extraterritoriality”The federal government could not interfere with slavery in the statesSlave states had more power due to the three-fifths clause
12 III. A New Constitution (con’t) The Final DocumentDelegates signed the final draft on September 17, 1787The Constitution created a new framework for American development
13 IV. The Ratification Debate and the Origin of the Bill of Rights The FederalistNine of the thirteen states had to ratify the documentThe Federalist was published to generate support for ratificationHamilton argued that government was an expression of freedom, not its enemy
14 IV. The Ratification Debate and the Origin of the Bill of Rights (con’t) “Extend the Sphere”Madison had a new vision of the relationship between government and society in Federalist Papers 10 and 51Madison argued that the large size of the United States was a source of stability, not weaknessMadison helped to popularize the “liberal” idea that men are generally motivated by self-interest, and that the good of society arises from the clash of these private interests
15 IV. The Ratification Debate and the Origin of the Bill of Rights (con’t) The Anti-FederalistsAnti-Federalists opposed ratificationThey argued that the republic had to be small and warned that the Constitution would result in a government of oppressionLiberty was the Anti-Federalists’ watchwordArgued for a Bill of RightsAnti-Federalists did not have as much support as the Federalists didMadison promised a Bill of RightsOnly Rhode Island and North Carolina voted against ratification
16 IV. The Ratification Debate and the Origin of the Bill of Rights (con’t) Madison initially believed a Bill of Rights was pointlessMadison introduced a Bill of Rights to the first CongressThey defined the “unalienable rights” of the Declaration of IndependenceSome amendments reflected English roots, while others were uniquely AmericanAmong the most important rights were freedom of speech and the press, vital building blocks of a democratic public sphere
17 V. We the People National Identity The Constitution identifies three populations inhabiting the United StatesIndians“other persons”“people”Only “people” were entitled to American freedomAmerican nationality combined both civic and ethnic definitions
18 V. We the People (con’t) Indians in the New Nation Indian tribes had no representation in the new governmentTreaty system was used with Indians and Congress forbade the transfer of Indian land without federal approvalBattle of Fallen Timbers led to the Treaty of Greenville in 1795Some prominent Americans believed that Indians could assimilate into societyAssimilation meant transforming traditional Indian life
19 V. We the People (con’t) Blacks and the Republic The status of citizenship for free blacks was left to individual statesCrèvecoeur’s Letters from an American Farmer described America as a melting pot of EuropeansLike Crèvecoeur, many white Americans excluded blacks from their conception of the American peopleThe Naturalization Act of 1790 was limited to “free white persons”
20 V. We the People (con’t) Jefferson, Slavery, and Race John Locke and others maintained “reason” was essential to having libertyBlacks were not rational beingsJefferson’s Notes on the State of VirginiaJefferson did not think any group was fixed permanently in a status of inferiorityHe did not believe black Americans would stay in AmericaFreeing the slaves without removing them from the country would endanger the nation’s freedom
21 V. We the People (con’t) Principles of Freedom The Revolution widened the divide between free Americans and those who remained in slavery“We the people” increasingly meant white Americans
22 Western Lands, 1782–1802 • pg. 240Western Lands, 1782–1802
28 fig07_01.jpgPages 234–35: The Signing of the Constitution, by the mid-nineteenth century American artist Thomas Pritchard Rossiter, depicts the conclusion of the Constitutional Convention of Among the founding fathers depicted are James Wilson, signing the document at the table in the center, and George Washington, presiding from the dais with an image of the sun behind him.Credit: Independence National Historical Park.
29 fig07_03.jpgPage 238: A map of the newly independent United States, engraved in London five months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in The map indicates the location of Indian tribes, as well as the indeterminate western boundaries of some of the seaboard states. The decoration depicts, beneath the American flag, George Washington alongside Liberty with her liberty cap. On the right is Benjamin Franklin, assisted by Justice and Wisdom, drafting the treaty.Credit: I.N. Stokes Collection, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints, and Photographs, The New York Public Library; Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations.
30 fig07_05.jpgPage 244: A Bankruptcy Scene. Creditors repossess the belongings of a family unable to pay its debts,while a woman weeks in the background. Popular fears of bankruptcy led several states during the 1780s to pass laws postponing the collection of debts.Credit: Print Collection, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints, and Photographs, The New York Public Library; Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundations.
31 fig07_06.jpgPage 245 (top): James Madison, "father of the Constitution," a miniature portrait by Charles Willson Peale, painted in Madison was only thirty-six when the Constitutional Convention met.Credit: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC
32 fig07_07.jpgPage 245 (bottom): Alexander Hamilton, another youthful leader of the nationalists of the 1780s, was born in the West Indies in This portrait was painted by Charles Willson Peale in the early 1790s.Credit: Independence National Historical Park.
33 fig07_08.jpgPage 246: A fifty-dollar note issued by the Continental Congress during the War of Independence. Congress's inability to raise funds to repay such paper money in gold or silver was a major reason why nationalists desired a stronger federal government.Credit: New York Public Library.
34 fig07_09.jpgPage 247: The Philadelphia State House (now called Independence Hall), where the Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776 and the Constitutional Convention took place in 1787.Credit: Library of Congress Rare Book & Special Collections Division.
35 fig07_13.jpgPage 260: An engraving and poem, published in 1788 in an American newspaper, after New York became the eleventh state to ratify the new Constitution. North Carolina would ratify in 1789 and Rhode Island in 1790.Credit: Library of Congress.
37 Give Me Liberty! An American History End chap. 7W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-OwnedThis concludes the Norton Media LibrarySlide Set for Chapter 7Give Me Liberty!An American HistorybyEric Foner