Presentation on theme: "Energy and Life 8-1. Energy Energy is the ability to do work –Work can be playing a sport, thinking, or building a protein in a cell –All living things."— Presentation transcript:
Energy and Life 8-1
Energy Energy is the ability to do work –Work can be playing a sport, thinking, or building a protein in a cell –All living things obtain and use energy
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Autotrophs: organisms that use light energy from the sun to make food –Organisms that do photosynthesis or something similar to obtain energy –Examples: plants and algae
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Heterotrophs: organisms that obtain energy from the food they consume –Organisms dependent on consuming other organisms for food –Examples: animals (us ) and fungi
Chemical Energy and ATP Energy comes in many forms –Examples: light, heat, electricity, kinetic energy, potential energy Most energy used in living systems comes from breaking chemical bonds
Chemical Energy and ATP ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate): chemical compound living things use to store and release energy
Chemical Energy and ATP ATP structure: Adenine Ribose 3 phosphate groups
Chemical Energy and ATP Energy is stored in the bonds between the phosphate groups Energy is released when the bonds between the second and third phosphate is broken Energy!
Chemical Energy and ATP The resulting molecule is called ADP –Adenosine Diphosphate –It can have phosphate groups re-attached to be used again Energy!
Chemical Energy and ATP Cells keep a lot of ADP on hand When energy becomes available cells store it by adding a third phosphate to an ADP –Making ATP When a cell needs to do work the third phosphate is broken off, releasing energy
Using Biochemical Energy Most energy in a cell is used for active transport Also used for protein synthesis, contracting muscle cells, etc. –All life processes
Using Biochemical Energy Cells keep a small supply of ATP on hand –Cells regenerate ATP from ADP using energy in food molecules like glucose –Done by mitochondria
Using Biochemical Energy A single glucose molecule contains 90 times more energy than an ATP molecule –Jobs done in a cell require tiny amounts of energy –We couldnt consume enough food to maintain life if a glucose molecule were consumed for each cellular job
Using Biochemical Energy Making ATPs from glucose is like making change –Similar to having 100 $1 bills instead of a $100 bill if all you need is a candy bar