Presentation on theme: "1949 1949: „Year of Change“ International Online Teaching Project Beijing University Department of History 北京大学历史学系 Free University Berlin East Asian Seminar."— Presentation transcript:
1949 1949: „Year of Change“ International Online Teaching Project Beijing University Department of History 北京大学历史学系 Free University Berlin East Asian Seminar Sinology
Objective of the module “1949” Introductory Text: different times, different groups, varying interpretations 1949 – year of change. The aim of this module is to demonstrate that historical events do not represent “objective” facts, but that the interpretation of these events – or in other words: the perception - is of greatest importance. The perception depends on a variety of factors, which have to be taken into account. Just to name a few –different times: as it will be shown, the perception of the year 1949 was very different in the period following (that is, the 1950s) and – for example – in the 1990s, when 1949 was seen in front of the mirror of the reform- and opening policy, which had started in 1978. –different groups: another important factor are the different groups/authors and their specific interests; thus, the socialist states and the West interpreted the establishment of the PRC very differently, and it will be shown that diametrical opposed perceptions of “liberation” vs. “totalitarism” could be found in works of different authors writing at the same time. The overall aim of the module 1949 can be described as follows: students shall learn how to deal with different perceptions, how to reflect – also self- critically - on their own choices of certain approaches. Thus, the students will be enabled to deal more adequately with their object of research. Examples/quotations of different works will be analyzed in order to raise awareness of the differences in the perceptions and also to analyze the underlying reasons.
1937-451945-491949 1958 1949: „Year of Change“ civil war marriage law land reform Three-Anti Movement Five-Anti Movement 1. five-year-plan (1953-57) Hundred Flowers Movement Great Leap Forward 1950 1951 1952 1953 19541956 19571955 Anti- Japanese War
Timeline (I) - up to 1949 1937-1945 Resistance War/ Sino-Japanese War, in Chinese known as “Chinese People's Anti-Japanese War” ( 中國人民抗日 戰爭 ). 1945-1949 Civil war between GMD and CCP. 1946 On December 25, 1946, the National Assembly (under Chiang Kai-shek) adopts the third constitution of the Republic of China. 1947 June: The United States lifts the arms embargo against China, and for the first time begins to support the National Government not only with economic loans. November: Elections to the National Assembly and Legislative Yuan in 1947, which is won by the GMD. December: The new constitution goes into effect. 1948 April: Chiang Kai-shek is being elected President of the Republic of China by the National Assembly. Mid 1948: Increasing military success of the CCP. 1949 January: Beiping is taken by the People’s Liberation Army without a fight, and its name is changed back to Beijing. April: Nanjing is taken by the People’s Liberation Army. September: the First Plenum of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) is held in Beijing, with the participation of various political parties, popular organizations, non-Party democrats and representatives from various social strata. The CPPCC draws up a Common Program, which serves as a provisional constitution. It elects a Central People's Government Council, with Mao Zedong as Chairman. On October 1, 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong proclaims the formal establishment of the People's Republic of China. Chiang Kai-shek and a few hundred thousand Nationalist troops and 2 million refugees, predominantly from the government and business community, flee from the mainland to the island of Taiwan.
Timeline (II) -New Democracy (1949-1953) People's Republic of China is established as a new state, which is to be a people's democratic dictatorship under leadership of working class, based on alliance of workers and peasants and on unity with all China's democratic parties and nationalities. 1950: February: Signing of a Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance Treaty between China and the U.S.S.R. May: The New Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China is promulgated and goes into immediate effect; it accords women equal rights in marriage and divorce and enables women of any marital status to hold land in their own names. March: CPC Central Committee issued a Directive on Resolute Suppression of Counter- Revolutionaries, which is directed against supporters of the GMD May: CPC Central Committee issues a Directive on Launching Rectification Movement within Party and Army to combat complacency, bureaucracy and commandism within Communist Party and to improve Party's relations with masses. June: the Agrarian Reform Law is passed: dispossession of landlords, religious institutions and other non-agricultural organizations; all land and agricultural tools are to be evenly distributed among the farmers. November: China intervenes into the Korean War supporting the North Korea. December: the U.S. Commerce Department announces a total trade embargo on China which will remain in place for more than 20 years. 1951 January: Mao Zedong calls on Chinese people to launch nationwide campaign against Corruption, waste and bureaucracy (three anti movement / san fan). CCP Central Committee issues directive for campaign in cities against five evils, bribery, tax evasion, theft of state property, cheating on government contracts and stealing economic information (wu fan). Later that year, a campaign aims at ridding China of rats, sparrows, flies, and mosquitoes.
Timeline (III) - 1953-1957: Transition to Socialism 1953 The First Five Year Plan (1953-57) of development of national economy goes into effect, using the Soviet model of a planned economy March: Death of Stalin The first census reports a population of 580 million and predicts 800 million for 1967. Regulation of Contraception and Induced Abortion approved. 1954 September: the first Session of First National People's Congress is held in Beijing. It adopts the first Constitution of People's Republic of China. Mao Zedong is elected chairman of People's Republic of China, Zhu De vice- chairman, Liu Shaoqi chairman of Standing Committee of First National People's Congress, and Soong Ching Ling and 12 others, vice-chairmen. Zhou Enlai is appointed premier of State Council. First campaign for birth control. Legalization and introduction of contraceptives. Sterilization allowed, but limited to health problems. 1955 October: Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region established the second autonomous region following establishment of inner Mongolian Autonomous Region in 1947. 1956 Begin of an all-embarcing collectivization of agriculture. Socialization of the remaing private engterprises. February: the Twentieth Party Congress in 1956 marks the party’s formal break with Stalin (destalinzation). May: Mao Zedong proposes at Supreme State Conference the “Hundred Flowers Movement”. September: the Eighth National Congress of the CCP is convened in Beijing – the first after the establishment of the CCp. 1957 February: Mao made his speech "On Correct Handling of Contradictions Among People", and thus emphsiszes the aims of the “Hundred Flowers Movement”. April – June: Execution of the “Hundred Flowers Movement” October: Mao Zedong’s second trip to Moscow. The USSR and China sign a secret agreement on the support of the USSR to build a Chinese nuclear industry. 1958 May: begin of the "Great leap forward" movement in China
1945-491937-45 1949 1958 1949: „Year of Change“ marriage law land reform Three-Anti Movement Five-Anti Movement 1. five-year-plan (1953-57) Hundred Flowers Movement Great Leap Forward 1950 1951 1952 1953 19541956 19571955 politics economy culture ideology gender fields/dimensions of analysis civil war Anti- Japanese War
Varying interpretations 1949 – the year of establishment of the People’s Republic of China, was perceived very differently according to historical periods and specific groups: in the following, the perceptions of 1949 are analyzed according to the following criteria 1950sLiberation vs. totalitarism Perception in the 1950s: on the one hand, the “liberation approach” could be found within the socialist states (including China and some left authors in the West), on the other hand, the mainstream of Western authors described the victory of the CCP in terms of “totalitarism”. 1966-76China as model for an unorthodox socialism The time from 1966 to 1976 saw China’s development as a model for an “unorthodox socialism” (compare, for example, Willy Brandt’s détente or Entspannungspolitik in Europe). The students’ movement also showed a very positive stance towards the developments in China. Late 1970s-1980s“Empathy” In the late 1970s and 1980s, the prevalent perception in the West can be described as “empathy”; the model of socialism was left behind, and there was in increasing acceptance of different political systems in the academic world dealing with China. Present interpretationNeo-liberalism, “globalization” The 1990s saw a neo-liberal approach, which stressed the effects of globalization, and – with regard to 1949 – saw a shift to 1978 as the “year of real change” in China; a focus was laid on economic performance.
Interpretations in the 1950s Perception of 1949 in the PR China, the socialist states and by the left in the West 1949 (MISSING SOME QUOTATIONS AND EYE- WITNESSES) In the early perception in the PR China, the socialist states and the left in the West, the year 1949 marks a break between the old and the new, the backward and the progressive - the “delegitimation” of the old was accompanied by the legitimation and construction of the new. From a narrow perspective, it was a break with the more current history of China (the war against Japan and the rule of the Guomindang); from a broader perspective, it was a break with the negative connotations linked with China as a result of the past in general. The year 1949 is seen as a watershed (at the scientific/ political/ individual level), as a positive break-through: liberation, victory, new vs. old. “master narrative”: “liberation” liberation of the farmers from the yoke of the feudal landowners liberation of the women of the feudal chains of family liberation of oppressed China from imperialism
Interpretations in the 1950s Perception of 1949 in the PR China, the socialist states and by the left in the West 1950s: liberation paradigm The 1950s are seen as “the golden years” in contemporary self-perception and in the perception of others (socialist states, China, and Western “progressive” authors) “master narrative”: “liberation paradigm” liberation of the masses creation of a “new” society - the “old” society (characterized by war, expulsion, famine, abuse of power, tyranny, epidemics, plagues, dirt and mess) has been overcome Idea behind: the creative power of mankind to create its own history in accordance with natural law teleological belief in progression, vision of a “better” socialist society China is regarded as part of the international socialist movement development of the PR China as “success story” – efforts of the Chinese people (less emphasis on the support given by the USSR) Focus on positive aspects on development in relation to the past unity stabilization of foreign/domestic political and economic stabilization reversion of the ownership situation/structure equality of women education for the under-privileged land reform (1950 to 1953) marriage law (1950) Korean War as an example: the Korean War was perceived as defending the newly established state
Interpretations in the 1950s Perception of the 1950s in the capitalist “free” world 1950s: totalitarism paradigm “master narrative”: “totalitarism” China as part of the communist movement Communism is seen as a totalitarian system which acts as a threat to freedom and democracy in the Western world cold war/ anti-communist stance: The communist victory as a victory of a totalitarian regime in the tradition of the old Chinese empire. One also find comparisons to totalitarian regimes in the West (Hitler) or Stalin’s regime; the reforms of the 1950s are regarded as running contradictory to the people” Certain aspects are perceived as negative and there is a prevalence of negative terms “red China” red leaders abolition of the family no freedom racist connotations (“yellow peril”) communism as coercion, constraint and terror the land reform is regarded as fight against the landowners and the destruction of a traditional order the Korean war is seen as an aggressive act against the US and the interests of the free world.
Interpretations in the 1950s main representatives quotations 1950s: In the final HTML version the appropriate quotations will be translated into English and assigned to the relevant sections liberation: the European left: Eva Siao, Simone de Beauvoir the socialist world PR China „Die Chinesen haben zu essen, satt und reichlich zu essen. Hunger gibt es nicht mehr, und sie können sich Kleidung kaufen. Das ist beides so viel. Mit diesen Dingen sind sie schon reich, und sie wissen, daß es noch besser werden wird und sind mit Begeisterung dabei.“ … „Hier entsteht eine vollkommen neue Welt, man baut ein neues, freies China.“ (Eva Siao 1990:178) „Die siegreiche Revolution eröffnete China die leuchtenden Perspektiven, sich in ein blühendes und mächtiges Land zu verwandeln“ ( Arturow 1951:10). „In diesem Lande, das unablässig in Bewegung ist, leitet die Gegenwart ihren Sinn aus der Vergangenheit ab, die sie hinter sich läßt, aus der Zukunft, die sie verheißt.“ (de Beauvoir 1960:414) „Im heutigen China nutzen die einem gewährten Gewinne allen; es waltet da eine glückliche Harmonie, die jedem zugute kommt." (de Beauvoir 1960:487) „Das charakteristischste Merkmal der Entwicklung in der chinesischen Volksrepublik war ein gewaltiger politischer Aufschwung im chinesischen Volke, der den Wiederaufbau und die Weiterentwicklung der Wirtschaft zum Ziel hatte." (China 1957:208). „Die Gründung der VR China 1949 beendete die Periode des revolutionären Krieges in China, sie schuf einen einheitlichen Staat, der ein neues Kapitel in der Geschichte des chinesischen Volkes, der Völker Asiens und der Weltgeschichte eröffnete.“ (Dubinski 1961:300)
Interpretations in the 1950s main representatives quotations 1950s: totalitarism totalitarism: US-American and European mainstream Lionel Max Chassin A. Doak Barnett BILD: Pieter van Blättjens Buchtitel von 1963 „Die gelbe Gefahr hat rote Hände“ ist symptomatisch für diesen Blick. „Lebensstandard in China heißt Essen. Das Märchen vom Reichtum ist das Märchen von 10 Gängen und am Schluß eine halbe Schale Reis stehen lassen.“ (Stucki 1964:56) “The cause of Mao’s triumph lies in the fact that appealing as he did to ancient and deeply rooted reflexes, he gave a faith, a creed, to the peasants of China. Totalitarian doctrines are always based upon simple slogans, easy to exploit. Hitler chose, as the theme for Germany‘s external relations, abolition of the Treaty of Versailles; internally, the theme was the struggle against Jews and Communists. Mao had only to follow a beaten track. His external theme was the eternal theme of xenophobic nationalism, of the struggle against foreign imperialists, who themselves but barely emerged from barbarism, had "enslaved" the higher civilization that was China. As for internal themes, he cleverly appealed to the instincts of social justice and proprietorship which are so strong in the human heart. In proclaiming agrarian reform, in despoiling the landlords and lowering taxes, in giving landless farm hands plots to hold as their very own, Mao played the best of cards - to be cynically discarded once victory was won.” (Lionel Max Chassin, The Communist Conquest of China: A History of the Civil War 1945-1949, Harvard University Press: Cambridge Mass. 1965) (Chassin 1965: 248-249) (originally published in French 1952)
Interpretations in the 1950s main representatives quotations 1950s: totalitarism totalitarism: US-American and European mainstream “As these facts indicate, the first stage of the Communist revolution in Peiping has been mild, and in a sense, no revolutionary changes have occurred, although the way is now clear for the Communists to introduce revolutionary changes when they decide to do so. For most people in Peiping, who do not even try to look very far into the future, the change of regime has been a sugar-coated pill that has been easy to swallow. It is difficult to predict, however, what the popular reaction will be in the future, if the medicine becomes stronger and the sugar coating is dispensed with. It is difficult, in fact, even to analyze exactly what the reaction of various persons and groups has been to date. It is safe to say, however, that, apart from a few diehards with strong vested interests in the old regime, and a few Kuomintang troops and secret-service men who have gone underground, there has been no real opposition to the Communists. Almost everyone has accepted the Communists as the wave of the future in China. Their acceptance takes various forms, though, ranging from enthusiastic optimism or moderate hopefulness to passive acquiescence or cynical resignation. On the basis of my limited observation, I would say that a large part, if not the majority, of professors, students, professional workers, intellectuals, and the like, together with certain labor leaders, fall into the first category and are enthusiastic about what they believe the Communists will do for China. In my opinion, most other people, the numerical majority of the population, are moderately hopeful, passively acquiescent, or cynically resigned.” A. Doak Barnett, China on the Eve of Communist Takeover, Thames and Hudson: London 1963, p. 345
Interpretations during Cultural Revolution main representatives quotations 1966-1976: China as model for an unorthodo x socialism Roderick McFarquhar Delia Davin Further quotations will be added… Women-work: Women and the Party in Revolutionary China, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1976. Alan Lawrence (Ed.), China’s Foreign Relations since 1949, London and Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1975.
Interpretations in the 1970s-80s main representatives quotations 1970s- 1980s: empathy Cambridge History „Twenty years later, looking back on the turmoil of the Cultural Revolution, most people felt nostalgic for 1956 and regarded it as the best period in the history of the People’s Republic, calling it “the golden year”. (Liu Binyan 1990:61) Cambridge History, Bd 14.: „After 1949, moreover, shared ideological commitment to Marxism and a broad consensus on ambitious industrialization and social transformation further contributed to elite cohesion.“ (Cambridge History:57) „On balance, both the broader achievements of the initial period and the specific successes of Korea and collectivization left Mao‘s position at the end of 1957 as strong as ever despite the setback of the Hundreds Flowers.“(61) „A „new democratic state“ was established that was not an orthodox dictatorship of the proletariat but, instead, a „people‘s democratic dictatorship“ in which the peasantry, petty bourgeoisie, and national bourgeousie joined the working class as ruling classes.“ (78) „Despite resentment of particular features of CCP rule, the regime had obtained far-reaching popular support as a result of achievements in securing social order, launching economic development, improving living conditions, and restoring national pride. At the same time it had accomplished a basic social and institutional transformation so that by 1956 China had entered the socialist stage.“ (142)
Present interpretations Perception of the 1950s in the discourse of the 1990s (US-American, neoliberal) present inter- pretation: neo- liberalism “master narrative” deconstruction of the “golden years“ thesis (including re- interpretation of assumptions which had dominated up to that time) continuation/resumption/enforcement) of negative views already in existence in the 1950s (totalitarianism) 1949 as an “artificial demarcation point” focus on continuing trends, subsumed into the first years of communist rule from GMD rule/ imperial rule (instead: 1978 as the actual turning point with the “policy of reform and opening” Questioning of 1949 as watershed 1950s: failure instead of success the 1950s are seen as a failure to the CCP the “golden years” are regarded as a myth 1949: discontinuity to the “revolutionary period”: – relationship to the farmers – before 1949 CCP as representative of the farmers – later on the land had to finance the cities (Cheng/Selden 1997). – CCP regarded themselves as representative of the workers’ class, but these strata did not become themselves actors/agents of policy making (see Perry 1997: 246f). –a new focus is put on the continuities to GMD rule: concepts, structures and policies in the areas of politics, economy and military have been part of political life since 1927 (Kirby 2000:211f, see also Cheek 1997:8). Very often a direct continuity to the 1930s is stressed, a time which was called a “Vertagte Revolution” (Jürgen Domes) or as a “abortive revolution” (Lloyd E. Eastman) New evaluation of the policy of the GMD
Present interpretations Perception of the 1950s in the discourse of the 1990s (US-American, neoliberal) present inter- pretation: neo- liberalism 1978 instead of 1949 as year of (dramatic change) (see Chan 1994). –not the period before 1949 but before 1978 is called “old regime” (Mao Yushi 2000:20) – relationship between time before 1978 and afterwards (economic and political reforms) is seldom stressed – only in some parts, e.g. role of fight against analphabetism (Goldman/Nathan 2000:317).
Present interpretations main representatives Quotations present inter- pretation: neo- liberalism In the final HTML version the appropriate quotations will be translated into English and assigned to the relevant sections US-American, European sinologists/political scientists But also many academics from China working in the West (or having their training received in the West) David Shambaugh Tony Saich Mark Selden „The century-long presence of these four fenomina are also healthy reminders that the filed of Chinese studies has for too long accepted 1949 as an artificial demarcation in studying modern China‘s development. It seems far more fruitful to consider developments on both sides of the 1949 devide along a continuum of development rather than accepting a priori the assumption that a „New China“ characterized by the communist party-state dawned on Ocotber1, 1949.“ (Shambaugh 1997:126) Su Shaozu and Yu Guangyuan for example underline the discontinuity. Based on criteria of political participation they seek to “push back the “Golden Age” to the period of “New Democracy” that preceded the CCP’s 1949 victory. They view the effective abondenment of the moderate politics and the inclusive nature of the United Front that accompanied CCP rule in many of the areas it controlled as a great mistake”. (vgl. Saich 1997:305) „The authoritarian strands which had been present in state-buildiing before 1949 quickly submerged the more populist and quasi- democratic aspects of the pre-1949 legacy.“ (Saich 1997:316, 305). In einigen Fällen erfolgt eine völlige Umwertung früherer Aussagen: etwa bei Selden, der in seinem Klassiker zur Yan´an-Periode (1971) die Erfolge der KPCh beim Zusammenschluß unterschiedlicher sozialer Schichten positiv als Demokratie-Potential gewertet hatte, während er in der revidierten Fassung von 1995 eben diese Politik der KPCh als einerseits eine Volks-Mobilisierung und andererseits als „repressive commandism“ charakterisierte (Selden 1995:241).
Present interpretations main representatives quotations present inter- pretation: neo- liberalism US-American, European sinologists/political scientists But also many academics from China working in the West (or having their training received in the West) David Shambaugh Tony Saich Mark Selden It’s new that on the other hand the continuity with the preceding period of GMD is also and especially underlined: “concepts, structures and policies in politics, economy and military had been part of Chinese political life” since 1927. (Cheek 1997:8). Diesem china-zentrierten Entwurf steht nach wie vor eine Minderheiten-Position entgegen, die die 1950er Jahre bis zum Großen Sprung, mit dem und nachfolgend mit der Kulturrevolution spezifische maoistische Gesellschaftsmodelle etabliert worden seien, als vorrangig vom sowjetischen Modell und damit als „von außen bestimmt“ bewerten (Goldman/Nathan 2000:297-308). Der traditionellen Totalitarismus¬doktrin folgend, die ein Scheitern der totalitären Systeme per se implizierte, werden die 1950er Jahre und die folgenden Perioden als Perioden eines totalitären Systems charak¬terisiert. Dabei werden dem Maoismus einerseits starke Ähnlichkeiten zum Stalinismus und Züge des Faschismus, andererseits jedoch auch wichtige Unterschiede zugesprochen: Vor allem die Arbeitseinheiten (danwei) und weniger die Polizei seien Akteure des Terrors gewesen, das Militär und weniger die Geheimpolizei habe die Innenpolitik beeinflußt, und die Lokalkader seien in China weniger kontrolliert worden (Goldman/Nathan 2000:304).
Present interpretations main representatives quotations present inter- pretation: neo- liberalism US-American, European sinologists/political scientists But also many academics from China working in the West (or having their training received in the West) David Shambaugh Tony Saich Mark Selden „Im Austausch für begrenzte Wohlfahrt (wie sie mit der Einrichtung der staatlichen Einheiten danwei gegeben waren) haben die Städter ihre Rechte, Autoritäten in Frage zu stellen, verloren“ (Xiao Zhou 2000:31). „The Communist Party that had brouhgt China out of civil wars has become a major obstacle to state-building in post-1949 China.... A revolutionary party is not necessarily conducive to state-building, for state-building is not the same as waging revolution.“ (Zheng Shiping 1997:15). „... far from having revolutionized society, Communist policies and the social processes they encouraged actually stabilized society in some respects and prevented change that would otherwise have occured.“ (vgl. Stockman 2000:9 „In contrast to the conventional of the image of the mid-1950s as a time when basic urban problems were resolved in China, the strike wave indicates that we might better view the era as one in which fundamental social cleavages became evident.“ (Perry 1997:234).
1949: „Year of Change“ politics economy culture ideology gender fields/dimensions of analysis 1949 as starting point for…
Politics Content will be structured according to the following criteria: Short introductory text (reflecting the new structure/influence of social classes) Topics: –Success vs. failure –Continuity and discontinuity of CCP rule –Rural areas vs. urban areas –Social improvements vs. dictatorship/individual freedom/political participation Facts & Figures: –Constitution –Political structure (role of 8 parties) –Party and mass organizations including information on selected persons/leaders –Foreign policy (Bandung conference [Nonaligned Movement], socialist states, integration of China into socialist world, Korean war, role of developing countries)
Economy Content will be structured according to the following criteria: Short introductory text (reflecting the establishment of a planned economy) Topics: –Success vs. failure –Collectivization of rural economy –Rural areas vs. urban areas –Dispossession of foreign capital Facts & Figures: –Statistics (GDP, income development, output of selected goods)
Economy Quotation: „Beginning Industrialization The Communist victory in 1949 had stimulated migration from the villages back to the cities. China‘s urban population grew rapidly from about 57 million in 1949 to almost 100 million in 1957. By 1960 it would be 131 million. Continued migration from rural areas kept city unemployment high until both rural and industrial workers could be brought under institutional control. Industrial labor, China‘s “proletariat“, had been elusive in the Republican era because unskilled workers were recruited from the countryside by labor contractors who cooperated with factory managers in opposing labor unions. In 1949 three fifths of the labor force in manufacturing were still self-employed craftsmen. By 1957 most of them had been absorbed into urban handicraft cooperatives; meanwhile, the labor force had doubled and more than half of it worked in factories.“ In: Fairbank, John King, China - a new history, 1992, p.357.
Getreideproduktion u. Bevölkerungswachstum JahrBevölkerung Getreideproduktion (in Tonnen) Getreideproduktion pro Kopf (in Kilogramm) 1949541 670 000113 180 000209 1950551 960 000132 130 000239 1951563 000 000143 690 000255 1952574 820 000163 920 000285 1953587 960 000166 830 000284 1954602 660 000169 520 000281 1955614 650 000183 940 000299 1956628 280 000192 750 000307 1957646 530 000195 050 000302 (Quelle: Ostkolleg der Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung (Hg.): VR China im Wandel, Bonn 1988.)
Nationaleinkommen nach Sektoren/ National income according to sectors Jahr National- Einkommen insgesamt Landwirt- schaft IndustrieInvestbauTransportHandel Pro Kopf 194935,824,54,50,11,25,566 195258,934,011,52,12,58,8104 195790,842,525,74,53,914,2142 Nationaleinkommen nach Sektoren (Mrd. Yuan) und pro Kopf der Bevölkerung (Yuan), in laufenden Preisen (Quelle: Ostkolleg der Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung (Hg.): VR China im Wandel, Bonn 1988.)
Nationaleinkommen Jahr Landwirt- schaft IndustrieInvestbauTransportHandel 194968,412,60,33,315,4 195257,719,53,64,314,9 195746,828,35,04,315,6 Zusammensetzung des Nationaleinkommens nach der Entstehung (in Prozent) (Quelle: Ostkolleg der Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung (Hg.): VR China im Wandel, Bonn 1988.)
Culture Content will be structured according to the following criteria: Short introductory text (reflecting the victory of Marxism as leading ideology) Topics: –Literature, art, music, film… Facts & Figures: –Art & Artists
Ideology Content will be structured according to the following criteria: Short introductory text (reflecting Marxism and the starting criticism of western bourgeois ideas incl. academic world) Topics: –Totalitarianism –Influence of USSR vs. own achievements –Marxism seen as progressive ideology –Against Marxism as continuation of autocratic rule (GMD/imperial rule) Facts & Figures:
Gender Content will be structured according to the following criteria: Short introductory text (reflecting the role of women in society) Topics: –Marriage law as liberation of women –Focus on anti-feudalism vs. remaining of family responsibilities (no „real liberation“) –Success vs. failure –Concept of family economy Facts & Figures: –Education (decreasing illiteracy) –Women’s role in state, party & military Quotation: „Schließt euch zusammen, nehmt teil an der Produktion und an der politischen Tätigkeit, damit die wirtschaftliche und politische Stellung der Frauen verbessert wird.“ Widmung Mao Zedongs für die Zeitschrift Die Frau des neuen China, Nr. 1, 20. Juli 1949
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