Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality

3 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Lecture contents Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory  Repertory Grids Rotter’s Social Learning Theory Mischel’s Cognitive-Affective Personality System  Behavioural signatures Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory

4 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality George Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory The Psychology of Personal Constructs (1955) Fundamental postulate: “A person’s processes are psychologically channelized by the way in which he anticipates events.” (Kelly, 1955, p. 46) "Man looks at his world through transparent templates which he creates and then attempts to fit over the realities of which the world is composed." (Kelly, 1955, pp.8-9) "Constructs are used for predictions of things to come, and the world keeps on rolling on and revealing these predictions to be either correct or misleading. This fact provides the basis for the revision of constructs and, eventually, of whole construct systems." (Kelly, 1955, p.14)

5 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Repertory Grids 1. Select elements (e.g., roles, self-elements) 2. Select or elicit bipolar constructs (e.g., original triad method) 3. Rate each element on each construct (e.g., 1-7) 4. Analyse ratings

6 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Julian Rotter’s Social Learning Theory Social Learning and Clinical Psychology (1954) Behaviour potential  Likelihood of one of several possible behaviours being adopted  Behaviour potential is a function of expectancy and reinforcement value Expectancy  Subjectively expected consequences of each possible behaviour (e.g., trust, locus of control of reinforcement) Reinforcement value  Subjective evaluation of those consequences’ costs and rewards

7 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Walter Mischel’s Cognitive-Affective Personality System (CAPS) Personality and Assessment (1968) Reviewed correlations between trait scores and behaviours, and between behaviours across (sometimes very similar) situations. Seldom found correlations above.30

8 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Behavioural signatures “Might the same person who is more caring, giving, and supportive than most people in relation to his family also be less caring and altruistic than most people in other contexts? Might these variations across situations be meaningful stable patters that characterize the person enduringly...?” Mischel (quoted in Pervin & Johns, 1996, p. 403)

9 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Intraindividual profiles for verbal and physical aggression for one person

10 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Observational learning Vicarious conditioning Self-efficacy Goals and standards

11 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Observational Learning: Bandura (1965)

12 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Vicarious conditioning Berger (1962) People witnessed a tone followed by the appearance of another reacting in pain to an electric shock. These witnesses later exhibited a conditioned emotional response to the tone. Mineka et al. (1984) Rhesus monkeys developed an intense, enduring, and generalised fear of snakes after briefly witnessing intense parental reactions to real or toy snakes.

13 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality The General Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwartzer) I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough. If someone opposes me, I can find the ways and means to get what I want. I am certain that I can accomplish my goals. I am confident that I could deal efficiently with unexpected events. Thanks to my resourcefulness, I can handle unforeseen situations. I can solve most problems if I invest the necessary effort. I can remain calm when facing difficulties because I can rely on my coping abilities. When I am confronted with a problem, I can find several solutions. If I am in trouble, I can think of a good solution. I can handle whatever comes my way. (1) not at all true, (2) barely true, (3) moderately true, (4) exactly true

14 Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality From Ellen McCooney’s Homepage "I have missed more than 9000 shots in my career. I have lost almost 300 games. On 26 occasions I have been entrusted to take the game winning shot... and I missed. And I have failed over and over and over again in my life And that is precisely......why I SUCCEED." - Michael Jordan


Download ppt "Tom Farsides ATP PAID 3: Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Personality."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google