Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Trait Approaches to Personality
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Lecture contents From cardinal to basic traits Issue 1: What and where are traits? Issue 2: What use are traits?
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Traits: The gist Personal (‘internal’) rather than situational (‘external’) Stable rather than transitory (across time) Consistent rather than inconsistent (across ‘similar’ situations) General rather than specific (across ‘different’ situations) Universal dimensions: Individual differences (across people)
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Manifest, latent, or manifest because latent? Potential vs. actual Internal vs. interactive Explanation vs. description Behaviours vs. motives, affects, cognitions
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits An early definition “generalized and personalized determining tendencies - consistent and stable modes of an individual’s adjustment to his environment” Allport & Odbert (1936, p. 26)
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Behavioural traits and individual differences from Situational preferences Cognitive styles Expressive styles
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Traits and individual differences attenuated by Strong situational constraints Trait combinations Trait conflicts Other traits Motives Temporary moods Roles
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Allport’s non-common traits Cardinal traits Single defining traits that characterise some, but not all, individuals. Central traits Typically 5-10 traits: “those usually mentioned in careful letters of recommendation … or in brief verbal descriptions of a person” (Allport, 1937). Secondary traits Like central traits but more specific to particular stimuli or particular responses.
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Cattell’s 16 PF (5th Edition) A. WarmthReservedWarm B. ReasoningLowHigh C. Emotional stabilityReactiveCalm E. DominanceDeferentialAssertive F. LivelinessQuietEnergetic G. Rule consciousnessExpedientDutiful H. Social boldnessShySocially bold I. SensitivityLogicalSensitive L. VigilanceTrustingVigilant M. AbstractnessPracticalContemplative N. PrivatenessForthrightPrivate O. ApprehensionSelf-assuredApprehensive Q1. Openness to changeTraditionalFree thinking Q2. Self-relianceAffiliativeIndependent Q3. PerfectionismUnexactingPerfectionist Q4. TensionRelaxedTense
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Have I read you right? You have a need for other people to like and admire you, and yet you tend to be critical of yourself. While you have some personality weaknesses you are generally able to compensate for them. You have considerable unused capacity that you have not turned to your advantage. Disciplined and self-controlled on the outside, you tend to be worrisome and insecure on the inside. At times you have serious doubts as to whether you have made the right decision or done the right thing. You prefer a certain amount of change and variety and become dissatisfied when hemmed in by restrictions and limitations. You also pride yourself as an independent thinker; and do not accept others' statements without satisfactory proof. But you have found it unwise to be too frank in revealing yourself to others. At times you are extroverted, affable, and sociable, while at other times you are introverted, wary, and reserved. Some of your aspirations tend to be rather unrealistic.
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits The 16PF5 (Global Factors) Tough-Mindedness/Receptivity Low Self-Control/High Self-Control Introversion/Extraversion Independence/Accommodation Low Anxiety/High Anxiety
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Hans J. Eysenck’s ‘Big Two’
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Eysenck’s Extraversion Extraversion SociableLivelyActiveAssertive CarefreeDominantSurgentVenturesome Sensation- seeking
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Eysenck’s Neutroticism Neuroticism AnxiousDepressedTenseIrrational ShyMoodyEmotionalLow self-esteem Guilt- feelings
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits For fun only Answer the following questions using a scale of 1 (not at all) to 5 (very much) 1. Do you stop to think things over before doing anything? 2. Would being in debt worry you? 3. Do you lock up your house carefully at night? 4. Would it upset you a lot to see a child or animal suffer? 5. Do you believe insurance plans are a good idea? Add the scores together.
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Eysenck’s PEN model
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Eysenck’s Psychoticism Psychoticism AggressiveColdEgocentricImpersonal ImpulsiveUnempathicCreativeAnti-social Tough- minded
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits (P)EN Evaluation E & N result from almost all factor analyses Measures (e.g., EPQ-R) are generally accepted as psychometrically impressive Each factor score correlates with different biological stuff Genetic contributions to E and N scores Systemmatic mean differences across highs and lows, e.g., Introverts vs. Extraverts I want to know more about: predictive/criterion validity comprehensiveness Utility generally
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Fundamental Lexical Hypothesis The ‘Big Five’ “the most important individual differences in human transactions will come to be encoded as single terms in some or all of the world’s languages” (Goldberg, 1990, p. 1216) Single-trait words reveal factors I-V in US, UK, Japan, China, etc
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits The Five-Factor Model (FFM) Costa & McCrae (1992) Openness (Curious and unconventional) Conscientiousness(Ordered and persistent) Extraversion(Exuberant and sociable) Agreeableness(Caring and considerate) Neuroticism(Emotional and anxious)
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits FFM: Openness to experience Openness FantasyAestheticsFeelingsIdeas Actions Values
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits FFM: Conscientiousness Conscientiousness DutifulnessCompetenceOrderDeliberation Self Discipline Achievement Striving
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits FFM: Extraversion Extraversion GregariousnessActivity levelAssertivenessWarmth Excitement Seeking Positive Emotions
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits FFM: Agreeableness Agreeableness TrustAltruismModestyCompliance Straight- forwardness Tender- mindedness
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits FFM: Neuroticism Neuroticism AnxietyDepressionVulnerabilityImpulsiveness Self- consciousness Angry Hostility
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits ‘Consensus’ on 5 ‘basic’ traits 16PF5Big 5FFM Tough-Mindedness/Receptivity Intellect Openness Low Self-Control/High Self-ControlConscientiousnessConscientiousness Introversion/Extraversion Surgency Extraversion Independence/AccommodationAgreeableness Agreeableness Low Anxiety/High Anxiety Emotional StabilityNeuroticism Remember the two crucial skills of factor analysis: Factor labeling Input variable selection
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits FFM Evidence Cross cultural replication using translation Using lexical method Self-other correlations Biological Genetic inheritance Evolutionarily consistent Cross species Neurological Diagnosis Prediction
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits What is being claimed? The claim that the FFM is comprehensive does not mean that it exhaustively measures individual differences in personality, any more than a comprehensive examination asks every single question a student should be able to answer on a topic. What the model hypothesizes is that almost every personality trait is substantially related to one or more of the five factors, and that any remaining traits…form a miscellaneous category rather than covarying to define a sixth or subsequent factor. Costa & McCrae (1995, p. 218, f. 1)
Tom Farsides ATP PAID 2: Traits Evaluation Description more than explanation. Conceptual fuzziness. Little prediction or control. Person-situation controversy continues. However, the Five Factor approach does seem well grounded and the best trait taxonomy currently available.