2Lecture contents From cardinal to basic traits Issue 1: What and where are traits?Issue 2: What use are traits?
3Traits: The gistPersonal (‘internal’) rather than situational (‘external’)Stable rather than transitory (across time)Consistent rather than inconsistent (across ‘similar’ situations)General rather than specific (across ‘different’ situations)Universal dimensions: Individual differences (across people)
4Manifest, latent, or manifest because latent? Potential vs. actualInternal vs. interactiveExplanation vs. descriptionBehaviours vs. motives, affects, cognitions
5An early definition“generalized and personalized determining tendencies - consistent and stable modes of an individual’s adjustment to his environment”Allport & Odbert (1936, p. 26)
6Behavioural traits and individual differences from Situational preferencesCognitive stylesExpressive styles
7Traits and individual differences attenuated by Strong situational constraintsTrait combinationsTrait conflictsOther traitsMotivesTemporary moodsRoles
8Allport’s non-common traits Cardinal traitsSingle defining traits that characterise some, but not all, individuals.Central traitsTypically 5-10 traits: “those usually mentioned in careful letters of recommendation … or in brief verbal descriptions of a person” (Allport, 1937).Secondary traitsLike central traits but more specific to particular stimuli or particular responses.
12Have I read you right?You have a need for other people to like and admire you, and yet you tend to be critical of yourself. While you have some personality weaknesses you are generally able to compensate for them. You have considerable unused capacity that you have not turned to your advantage. Disciplined and self-controlled on the outside, you tend to be worrisome and insecure on the inside. At times you have serious doubts as to whether you have made the right decision or done the right thing. You prefer a certain amount of change and variety and become dissatisfied when hemmed in by restrictions and limitations. You also pride yourself as an independent thinker; and do not accept others' statements without satisfactory proof. But you have found it unwise to be too frank in revealing yourself to others. At times you are extroverted, affable, and sociable, while at other times you are introverted, wary, and reserved. Some of your aspirations tend to be rather unrealistic.
17For fun onlyAnswer the following questions using a scale of 1 (not at all) to 5 (very much)1. Do you stop to think things over before doing anything? 2. Would being in debt worry you?3. Do you lock up your house carefully at night?4. Would it upset you a lot to see a child or animal suffer?5. Do you believe insurance plans are a good idea?Add the scores together.
20(P)EN Evaluation E & N result from almost all factor analyses Measures (e.g., EPQ-R) are generally accepted as psychometrically impressiveEach factor score correlates with different biological stuffGenetic contributions to E and N scoresSystemmatic mean differences across highs and lows, e.g., Introverts vs. ExtravertsI want to know more about:predictive/criterion validitycomprehensivenessUtility generally
21Fundamental Lexical Hypothesis The ‘Big Five’“the most important individual differences in human transactions will come to be encoded as single terms in some or all of the world’s languages”(Goldberg, 1990, p. 1216)Single-trait words reveal factors I-V in US, UK, Japan, China, etc
22The Five-Factor Model (FFM) Costa & McCrae (1992)Openness (Curious and unconventional)Conscientiousness (Ordered and persistent)Extraversion (Exuberant and sociable)Agreeableness (Caring and considerate)Neuroticism (Emotional and anxious)
23FFM: Openness to experience FantasyAestheticsFeelingsIdeasActionsValues
28‘Consensus’ on 5 ‘basic’ traits 16PF5 Big 5 FFMTough-Mindedness/Receptivity Intellect OpennessLow Self-Control/High Self-Control Conscientiousness ConscientiousnessIntroversion/Extraversion Surgency ExtraversionIndependence/Accommodation Agreeableness AgreeablenessLow Anxiety/High Anxiety Emotional Stability NeuroticismRemember the two crucial skills of factor analysis:Factor labelingInput variable selection
29FFM Evidence Cross cultural replication Self-other correlations using translationUsing lexical methodSelf-other correlationsBiologicalGenetic inheritanceEvolutionarily consistentCross speciesNeurologicalDiagnosisPrediction
30What is being claimed?The claim that the FFM is comprehensive does not mean that it exhaustively measures individual differences in personality, any more than a comprehensive examination asks every single question a student should be able to answer on a topic. What the model hypothesizes is that almost every personality trait is substantially related to one or more of the five factors, and that any remaining traits…form a miscellaneous category rather than covarying to define a sixth or subsequent factor.Costa & McCrae (1995, p. 218, f. 1)
31Evaluation Description more than explanation. Conceptual fuzziness. Little prediction or control.Person-situation controversy continues.However, the Five Factor approach does seem well grounded and the best trait taxonomy currently available.