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2008 SoloPower Thin Film CIGS Photovoltaics Rommel Noufi SoloPower, Inc. 5981 Optical Court, San Jose, CA 95138

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Presentation on theme: "2008 SoloPower Thin Film CIGS Photovoltaics Rommel Noufi SoloPower, Inc. 5981 Optical Court, San Jose, CA 95138"— Presentation transcript:

1 2008 SoloPower Thin Film CIGS Photovoltaics Rommel Noufi SoloPower, Inc. 5981 Optical Court, San Jose, CA 95138 www.solopower.com email: rnoufi@solopower.com

2 2008 SoloPower 2 Acknowledgements: Bulent Basol SoloPower, Inc., California Robert Birkmire Institute of Energy Conversion, Delaware Bolko von Roedern, Michael Kempe, and Joel Del Cueto National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado

3 2008 SoloPower 3 Outline Status of the Technology – Laboratory cells – Modules Challenges Ahead

4 2008 SoloPower 4 Status of PV 3700 MW produced world wide 266 MW produced in the US Thin Film Market Share: 10% world wide, 65% in the US Source: PV News, Photon International, Navigant Consultants

5 2008 SoloPower 5 Status of Thin Film PV Currently, FIRST SOLAR [ CdTe ] is the largest Thin Film manufacturing company in the US -277 MW in 2007 -910 MW expected in 2009 Demonstrated the viability of Thin Film PV -High Throughput -Large Scale -Low Cost per Watt Source: First Solar.com

6 2008 SoloPower 6 PVNews Reported US Production thru 2007 Source: PVNews

7 2008 SoloPower 7 CIS PV Companies Production of CIGS modules has also been demonstrated by: Würth Solar, Showa Shell, Honda, and Global Solar Energy (<20 MW manufactured) Ascent, CO DayStar Technologies, NY/CA Energy Photovoltaics, NJ Global Solar Energy, AZ HelioVolt, TX ISET, CA MiaSole, CA NanoSolar Inc., CA SoloPower, CA Solyndra, CA Stion, CA Aleo Solar, Germany AVANCIS, Germany CIS Solartechnik, Germany CISEL, France Filsom, Switzerland Honda, Japan Johanna Solar Tech, Germany Odersun, Germany PVflex, Germany Scheuten Solar, Holland Showa Shell, Japan Solarion, Germany Solibro, Sweden SULFURCELL, Germany Würth Solar, Germany

8 2008 SoloPower 8 ZnO, ITO 2500 Å CdS 700 Å Mo 0.5-1 µm Glass, Metal Foil, Plastics CIGS 1-2.5 µm CIGS Device Structure

9 2008 SoloPower 9 Best Research-Cell Efficiencies

10 2008 SoloPower 10 Parameters of High Efficiency CIGS Solar Cells Sample NumberV oc (V)J sc (mA/cm 2 )Fill factor (%)Efficiency (%) M2992-110.69035.5581.219.9 (World Record) S2212-B1-40.70434.3379.4819.2 S2232B1-30.71333.3879.5418.9 S2232B1-20.71733.5879.4119.1 S2229A1-30.72032.8680.2719.0 S2229A1-50.72432.6880.3719.0 S2229B1-20.73131.8480.3318.7 S2213-A1-30.74031.7278.4718.4 Tolerance to wide range of molecularity Cu/(In+Ga) 0.95 to 0.82 Ga/(In+Ga) 0.26 to 0.31 Yields device efficiency of 17.5% to 19.5%

11 2008 SoloPower 11 “Champion” Modules CompanyDeviceAperture Area (cm 2 ) Efficiency*Power (W) Würth SolarCIGS650013.084.6 Shell Solar GmbH CIGSS493813.164.8 Showa ShellCIGS360012.844.15 Shell SolarCIGSS737611.786.1 * Global SolarCIGS839010.288.9 * First SolarCdTe662310.267.5 * *Third party confirmed

12 2008 SoloPower 12 Optical Band-Gap/Composition/Efficiency Absorber band gap (eV) theoretical High efficiency range

13 2008 SoloPower 13 Closing the Gap between Laboratory Cells and Modules Primary Focus: Utilizing Lab Technology base to translate results to manufacturing

14 2008 SoloPower 14 CIGS Modules are Fabricated On: I.Soda lime glass as the substrate; cells are monolithically integrated using laser/mechanical scribing. Courtesy of Dale Tarrant, Shell Solar Monolithic integration of TF solar cells can lead to significant manufacturing cost reduction; e.g., fewer processing steps, easier automation, lower consumption of materials.

15 2008 SoloPower 15 CIGS Modules are Fabricated On: (cont.) The number of steps needed to make thin film modules are roughly half of that needed for Si modules. This is a significant advantage. Substrate preparation Base Electrode Absorber First Scribe Third Scribe Top Electrode Junction Layer Second Scribe External Contacts Encapsulation CIGS Modules Process Sequence

16 2008 SoloPower 16 CIGS Modules are Fabricated On: (cont.) II.Metallic web using roll-to-roll deposition; individual cells are cut from the web; assembled into modules. III.Plastic web using roll-to-roll deposition; monolithic integration of cells.

17 2008 SoloPower 17 Challenges

18 2008 SoloPower 18 Long-Term Stability (Durability) Improved module package allowed CIGS to pass damp heat test (measured at 85°C/85% relative humidity). CIGS modules have shown long-term stability. However, performance degradation has also been observed. CIGS devices are sensitive to water vapor; e.g., change in properties of ZnO. - Thin Film Barrier to Water Vapor - New encapsulants and less aggressive application process Stability of thin film modules are acceptable if the right encapsulation process is used. Need for better understanding degradation mechanisms at the prototype module level.

19 2008 SoloPower 19 Processing Improvements: I. Uniform Deposition over large area: (a) significant for monolithic integration (b) somewhat relaxed for modules made from individual cells II. Process speed and yield: some fabrication approaches have advantage over others III. Controls and diagnostics based on material properties and film growth: benefits throughput and yield, reliability and reproducibility of the process, and higher performance

20 2008 SoloPower 20 Processing Improvements: (cont.) IV. Approaches to the thin film CIGS Deposition 1.Multi-source evaporation of the elements - Produces the highest efficiency - Requires high source temperatures, e.g., Cu source operates at 1400°-1600°C - Inherent non-uniformity in in-line processing - Fast growth rates my become diffusion limited - Complexity of the hardware with controls and diagnostic - One of a kind hardware design and construction - Expensive - Throughput, and material utilization need improvement

21 2008 SoloPower 21 Processing Improvements: (cont.) IV. Approaches to the thin film CIGS Deposition (cont.) 2. Reaction of precursors in Se and/or S (Selenization) to form thin film CIGS: two stage process - Variety of materials delivery approaches: (a) sputtering of the elements (b) electroplating of metals or binaries (c) Printing of metal (or binaries) particles on substrate - Reaction time to form high quality CIGS films is limited by reaction/diffusion - Modules on glass are processed in batch mode in order to deal with long reaction time - Flexible roll-to-roll requires good control of Se vapor and reaction speed - Ga concentration thru the film is inhomogeneous limiting performance

22 2008 SoloPower 22 Processing Improvements: (cont.) V. Reduction of the thickness of the CIGS film -Reduces manufacturing costs: higher throughput and less materials usage -More sensitive to yield, e.g. threshold thickness non- uniformity, pin-holes -Challenge is to reduce thickness and maintain performance Thin Cells Summary

23 2008 SoloPower 0.4 µm cell - Optical

24 2008 SoloPower 24 Toward Low Cost Module performance is a significant determining factor of cost Cell processing affects performance The benefits of each process and how it is handled in manufacturing need to be assessed To date, relatively high cost methods adapted for manufacturing

25 2008 SoloPower 25 SoloPower has developed a low cost electro- deposition process to manufacture CIGS solar cells and modules A conversion efficiency approaching 14% has been confirmed at NREL Modules have been manufactured demonstrating process flow electrolyte anode VV SoloPower Advances

26 2008 SoloPower 26 The Electrodeposition Process Hardware is low cost Can be high throughput once the hardware is tuned to the specifics of the process Near 100% material utilization Pre-formed expensive materials are not required, e.g. sputtering targets, nano-particles Crystallographically oriented CIGS films with good morphology and density have been demonstrated Thickness and composition control of the deposited films are integral part of the process Readily scalable

27 2008 SoloPower SoloPower Confidential C2318

28 2008 SoloPower 28 Future Commercial Module Performance Based on today’s champion cell results and a module/cell-ratio of 80% Technology Future commercial performance Relative Performance (s.p. Si =1) Relative-cost/relative- performance (50% thin film cost advantage) Silicon (non-stand) 19.8%1.180.85 (competitive) Silicon (standard) 17.0%1.001.00 (reference) CIS15.9%0.940.53 (highly competitive) CdTe13.2%0.780.64 (highly competitive) a-Si (1-j) 8.0%0.471.06 (about the same) a-Si (3-j) (or a-Si/nc-Si) 9.7%0.570.88 (competitive) Source: Bolko Von Roedern, PVSC 2008, IEEE May 12,2008, San Diego

29 2008 SoloPower Best Production-Line PV Module Efficiency Values From Manufacturers’ Web Sites Compiled by Bolko von Roedern, September 2008

30 2008 SoloPower Best Production-Line PV Module Efficiency Values (cont.) From Manufacturers’ Web Sites Compiled by Bolko von Roedern, September 2008

31 2008 SoloPower 31 Further Reading Sources “Accelerated UV Test Methods for Encapsulants of Photovoltaic Modules” “Stress Induced Degradation Modes in CIGS Mini-Modules” Michael D. Kempe et al, Proceedings of the 33 rd IEEE,PVSC, May 11, 2008, San Diego “Modeling of Rates of Moisture Ingress into Photovoltaic Modules” Michael D. Kempe, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 90 (2006) 2720–2738 “Stability of CIS/CIGS Modules at the Outdoor Test Facility Over Two Decades” J.A. del Cueto, S. Rummel, B. Kroposki, C. Osterwald, A. Anderberg, Proceedings of the 33 rd IEEE,PVSC, May 11, 2008, San Diego “Pathways to Improved Performance and Processing of CdTe & CuInSe 2 Based Modules” Robert W. Birkmire, Proceedings of the 33 rd IEEE,PVSC, May 11, 2008, San Diego “The Role of Polycrystalline Thin-Film PV Technologies in Competitive PV Module Markets” Bolko von Roedern and Harin S. Ullal, Proceedings of the 33 rd IEEE,PVSC, May 11, 2008, San Diego “High Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells: Highlights and Challenges” Rommel Noufi and Ken Zweibel Proceedings of the 4 th WCPEC, May 7, 2006, Hawaii

32 2008 SoloPower 32 The End

33 2008 SoloPower 33

34 2008 SoloPower 34 PV Energy Cost Costs are constant 2005 dollars Residential and commercial are cost to customer Utility is cost of generation Solar Electricity cost DOE, Solar America Initiative Projections and Goals

35 2008 SoloPower 35 CIGS Manufacturing  For high quality – Stoichiometric control [Cu/(Ga+In), Ga/(Ga+In), S/(S+Se)] – Good microstructure – Bandgap control  For low cost – Low cost equipment – High materials utilization Requirements for a CIGS absorber film growth technique for high efficiency devices include:


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