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Animal Ecology Donald Winslow, Zoology 26 January 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Ecology Donald Winslow, Zoology 26 January 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Ecology Donald Winslow, Zoology 26 January 2011

2 Ecology (Ernst Haeckel) An organism’s relationship to its biotic and abiotic environment. Ecologists study factors that affect spatial distribution and abundance of organisms.

3 Biological hierarchy Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism Population Community Nine-banded armadillo

4 Ecological hierarchy Organism Population Community Ecosystem Landscape Biome Biosphere Agricultural corridor within forested landscape in southern Indiana.

5 A population American coots (Fulica americana) at Lake Thunderbird. Photo by Zac Ottis

6 A community Ruddy Ducks and Eared Grebes at Great Salt Plains Lake

7 Coast Live Oak forest at Camp San Luis Obispo, California An ecosystem (biotic and abiotic components interacting)

8 A landscape Coastal oak woodland and chaparral at Camp San Luis Obispo in California

9 A biome Sonoran desert near Phoenix, Arizona

10 Broad fields in ecology Physiological ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Biogeography

11 Physiological ecology Energy budgets Endothermy Metabolic thermoregulation (bird or mammal) Ectothermy Behavioral thermoregulation (e.g. reptile)

12 Population ecology Demes and metapopulations Demographic parameters Population dynamics and regulation Role of resources Metapopulation dynamics sources & sinks

13 A metapopulation Source Sink

14 Demographic parameters Population abundance and density Age structure Sex ratio Growth rate Survivorship

15 Age structures of human populations in Afghanistan and Belgium From Hickman, et al Integrated Principles of Zoology, 13 th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.

16 Exponential and logistic models of population growth From Hickman, et al Integrated Principles of Zoology, 13 th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.

17 Community ecology Species interactions Competition Niche, tolerance ranges, habitat Predation & parasitism Models & mimics Keystone species—starfish & mussels Species diversity

18 Ecosystem ecology Gross and net productivity Trophic levels and food webs Producers, consumers, decomposers


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