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Biology Donald Winslow 8 April 2011

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1 Biology Donald Winslow 8 April 2011
Animals Biology Donald Winslow 8 April 2011

2 Kingdom Animalia Sponges (invertebrate)
Radially symmetrical animals (invertebrate) Bilaterally symmetrical animals Most invertebrate Most of Phylum Chordata are vertebrate

3 Patterns of symmetry Bilateral symmetry Radial symmetry
Photo by Richard Snow

4 Phylum Porifera (sponges)
Multicellular, cell-tissue organization Mostly marine, some freshwater Radially symmetrical or asymmetrical Flagellated larvae (parenchymula) Sessile adults Maintain internal water currents for feeding No nervous system or sensory organs

5 Radiate animals Phylum Cnidaria Phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies)
Class Hydrozoa Class Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) Class Staurozoa Class Cubozoa Class Anthozoa (sea anemones & corals) Phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies)

6 Bilateria Bilateral symmetry & cephalization Phylum Acoelomorpha
Superphylum Protostomia Mouth develops from blastopore (1st opening) Superphylum Deuterostomia Anus develops from blastopore & mouth later

7 Phylum Platyhelminthes
“flatworms” Free-living & parasitic species Anterior ganglia, ladder-type NS Sensory organs Excretory system Usually hermaphroditic & outcrossing Parasitic spp w/ complex life-cycles

8 Phylum Nematoda Longitudinal muscles & muscular pharynx
Anterior & posterior nerves, sense organs Usually separate sexes Females larger than males Microscopic eggs

9 Phylum Mollusca Coelom usually only around heart
Unsegmented with organ systems Trochophore & veliger larvae in many Gills (ctenidia) or lung Circulatory system usually open Variation in body size Mantle, mantle cavity, shell, foot, head

10 Phylum Mollusca Classes Caudofoveata & Solenogastres
Class Monoplacophora—one shell plate Class Polyplacophora—8 shell plates Class Scaphopoda—tusk shells Class Gastropoda—snails & slugs Class Bivalvia—clams, mussels, etc. Class Cephalopoda—squid, octopus, etc.

11 Phylum Annelida Segmented worms Marine polychaetes
Earthworms & other oligochaetes Leeches


13 Phylum Arthropoda Diversity & abundance
Exoskeleton & chitin, ecdysis (molting) Somites, tagmata, jointed appendages Complex muscular system, no cilia Open circulatory system & hemocoel Mouthparts, complete digestive tract Excretory glands & Malpighian tubules

14 Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Trilobita Subphylum Myriapoda
extinct marine animals Subphylum Myriapoda Centipedes & millipedes Subphylum Chelicerata Horseshoe crabs, spiders, scorpions, etc. Subphylum Crustacea—crustaceans Subphylum Hexapoda—insects

15 Phylum Echinodermata Sea stars (“starfish”)
Sea urchins and sand dollars Bristle stars Sea cucumbers Crinoids

16 Phylum Chordata Subphylum Urochordata—tunicates
Subphylum Cephalochordata—lancelets Subphylum Vertebrata (Craniata)‏ The fishes (paraphyletic)‏ Class Amphibia (paraphyletic)‏ Class Reptilia (paraphyletic)‏ Class Aves (monophyletic)‏ Class Mammalia (monophyletic)‏

17 Characteristics of chordates
Notocord, often endoskeleton Dorsal hollow nerve cords Often predators Pharyngeal gill slits, often become gills Paired appendages—fins, limbs, wings Postanal tail Segmented myotomes

18 Spotted Gar

19 Class Amphibia Can use land, but usually tied to water for reproduction Webbed feet, forelimb usually with 4 digits Skin smooth & moist with many glands, chromatophores, no scales Respiration by skin, gills, and/or lungs, 3-chambered heart (2 atria)‏ Ectothermal, paired mesonephric kidneys, urea main nitrogenous waste Separate sexes, usually oviparous, mesolecithal eggs laid in water Metamorphosis Order Apoda (caecilians)‏ No legs, tropical forests, internal fertilization, egg-guarding Order Caudata or Urodela (salamanders)‏ Internal fertilization, female picks up spermatophore Aquatic species metamorphic, gills as larvae & lungs as adults Terrestrial species develop directly; plethontids breathe thru skin Paedomorphic species (mudpuppy, axolotl) retain gills as adults American newts: aquatic larvae, terrestrial efts, aquatic adults Parental care Order Anura (frogs & toads)‏

20 Order Anura (frogs & toads)‏
Vocalization External fertilization during amplexus Egg, tadpole stages, adult Family Ranidae Bullfrog, leopard frog, etc. Family Hylidae Treefrogs Family Bufonidae Toads

21 Class Reptilia (paraphyletic taxon)‏
Shelled, amniotic egg Extra-embryonic membranes Amnion, chorion, allantois Most species entirely terrestrial Dry, scaly skin, chromatophores Powerful jaws, ectothermic Internal fertilization, separate sexes Adaptations to conserve water Higher blood pressure than amphibians No gills, respiration usually by lungs Main nitrogenous waste is uric acid

22 Class Reptilia Order Testudines (turtles)‏ Superorder Lepidosauria
Order Squamata Order Sphenodonta Superorder Archosauria Order Crocodilia

23 Characteristics of modern birds
Long neck Wings Feathers Pneumatized skeleton Beak No teeth Short tail (pygostyle)‏

24 Avian taxonomy Order Podicipediformes (grebes)‏
Order Pelecaniformes (pelicans, cormorants, etc)‏ Order Ciconiiformes (herons, storks, vultures, etc)‏ Order Anseriformes (swans, ducks, geese)‏ Order Falconiformes (hawks, eagles, kites, falcons)‏ Order Piciformes (woodpeckers)‏ Order Passeriformes (songbirds)‏

25 Characteristics of mammals
Hair, keratin, follicles Glands: sweat, scent, sebaceous, and mammary Teeth diphyodont & usually heterodont Secondary palate, eyelids & external ears 4 limbs, many types of locomotion 4-chambered heart; nonucleated red blood cells Muscular diaphragm, often horns or antlers

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