Presentation on theme: "1 A Continental Divide? Social capital in the US and Europe Pippa Norris and James Davis Harvard University and NORC."— Presentation transcript:
1 A Continental Divide? Social capital in the US and Europe Pippa Norris and James Davis Harvard University and NORC
2 Structure I. Theoretical framework II. Data and evidence III. The distribution of social capital IV. Generational trends V. Conclusions
3 I. Theories of social capital Social capital “Connections among individuals – social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them.” Social Capital Generalized reciprocity Social TrustSocial tolerance Social Connectedness Formal memberships Informal social networks
4 Putnam’s Claims: Social networks and trust matter for societal cooperation Social capital has consequences for democracy Social capital has declined in post- war America
5 Declining social trust, US Note: Q. “Do you think that most people can be trusted, or that you can’t be too careful in dealing with people?” % agreeing that ‘Most people can be trusted’ Source: US General Social Survey, 1974-1994
6 Associational members, US 1974-94 Sport Politics Church Note: The percent of Americans who report that they are members of a political club, a labor union, a sports club, a hobby club, a literary or art group, a professional society or a church group. These associations were selected for comparison as functionally equivalent to the list of associations included in the ESS. Source: US General Social Survey, 1974-1994
7 US Trends, GSS Informal Sociability Associational Membership Social Trust First year of series197419721974 Latest year200219942002 Data points181520 Number of cases25,93619,68829,669 Standardized regression coefficients Models A: Year-.025** -.008 -.070** Models B: Year dummies-.038**-.032** -.090** Models C: Year Birth cohort -.207.396 -.003 -.011.000 -.153** Source: US General Social Survey 1972-2002
8 Key questions: Has social capital eroded in Europe? Parallel social trends e.g. Rise of TV entertainment Changing roles of women and men Suburban sprawl Or is social capital different in Europe? Path-dependent Role of the state Cultural traditions eg role of unions, churches etc Impact of Communism on civil society
10 Surveys European Social Survey 2002 15 nations 1 st release (EES-15) Nordic Sweden, Norway, Finland Northern Europe Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Switzerland Mediterranean Europe Greece, Spain, Portugal, Israel Central Europe Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia U.S. General Social Survey
11 Age difference due to… Linear social trends Formative experiences & social change Curvilinear patterns Life cycle effect from early to middle age then retirement Period effects Decisive events eg fall of Berlin wall Contrasts by type of society
13 III: Associational membership, EES-15 Note: “For each of the voluntary organizations I will now mention, please use this card to tell me whether any of these things apply to you now or in the last 12 months, and, if so, which.” Source: European Social Survey 2002. Pooled sample. Weighted by dweight.
14 Social capital in EES-15, 2002 Note: The mean level of membership in 12 types of voluntary association and the mean score on the Social Trust scale by nation. Source: European Social Survey 2002 Weighted by dweight.
20 V: Conclusions 1. Major inequalities in social capital: Northern Europe v. Southern and post-Communist Europe 2. Social trust similar among young and old in many countries, but some fall by age in English-speaking and Nordic states 3. Social tolerance and informal networks stronger among young 4. Associational membership is a life-cycle effect, greatest among the middle-aged. 5. Contrasting patterns in the US and Europe http://naticent02.uuhost.uk.uu.net