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March 2005 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod Kate Hone Brunel University, West London, UK.

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Presentation on theme: "March 2005 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod Kate Hone Brunel University, West London, UK."— Presentation transcript:

1 March 2005 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod Kate Hone Brunel University, West London, UK

2 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Overview of Presentation Context of work at Brunel Definitions Analysing behaviours Illustrative example Preliminary results and discussion Next steps?

3 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Motivation for Research EPSRC grant Commenced October 2002 Emotion recognition technology is currently being developed with the aim of improving the quality of human-computer interaction. Research in this domain emphasises solving the technical difficulties involved, through the design of ever more complex recognition algorithms.

4 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Experimental Design To what extent and how do people naturally express emotions with extant systems? And how will when they behave if believe they are interacting with an affective system? Hypothesis : that users will express more emotion: –if system acts affectively –if they are told that system is affective

5 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Application development

6 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 WOZ scenario – different views ParticipantResearcher

7 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Transana Transana – open source software – analysis tool - was originally created by Chris Fassnacht. It is now developed and maintained by David K. Woods at the Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

8 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Definitions Emotion - spectrum of personality traits, mood, states etc Picard - Mount Everest analogy - affect = whole spectrum of inner experiences - emotional expressions = what is revealed to others Norman - affect = underlying and unconscious - emotion = rational conscious element Multimodal and multipurpose nature of communication Kendon’s continuum Bavelas – debunking body language

9 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Human Communication of Emotions We use all of our senses, including our ‘sixth sense’, our environment and time to recognise and communicate feelings. Appearance Movement Touch and Smell VoiceSpace Time

10 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005

11 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Development of method for coding affective behaviours IPA –Uses phonemes – sounds identified from use –any language – not all sounds occur in any one –phonetic – broad transcription commonly adequate –allophones – variations of sounds can be transcribed if necessary (phonemic or phonological transcription) International Affective Alphabet IAA –Uses affectemes – expressions identified from use –any language – not all expressions occur in any one –affectemic – broad transcription commonly adequate –allaffects – variations of expressions can be transcribed if necessary (affectic or affectological transcription)

12 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Transcript Key words (allopnones) Keyword families (allaffects) Development of coding scheme

13 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Transcript Key words (allopnones) Keyword families (allaffects) Development of coding scheme

14 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Reliability - Inter-observer agreement Double coding Onset and offset boundaries Ratings of valence and intensity Cohen's kappa - agreement levels range 0.29 to 1.0, mode of 1.0 mean of 0.78. Percentage agreements - range 89% to 100% mode 100% mean of 97.24 Validity Retrospective walkthroughs

15 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Summary –Affectemes are concerned with a multimodal, multipurpose communication approach. The Affectemes approach does not assume to map to underlying emotions, nor to be linked to particular theoretical basis of emotions, but hopes to identify communicative episodes. –Affectemes are units of meaning. Perceived messages can be rated for valence and intensity. –Affectemes are composed of lower order elements – body movements, intonation patterns, facial expressions etc –Particular affectemes might be relevant for particular applications or used in particular types of domains.

16 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Examples of wide range of emotional expressions

17 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Allaffects Example of variations of an emotional display

18 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 Main findings VARIABLESCORINGSIGIN ACTED AFFECTIVE CONDITION believedYes/no.003More participants believed the system was affective believed game adapted Yes/no.005More believed game adapted to them rungs completedCount.007More rungs of game completed SAM valenceRating Scale.002After playing game more reported themselves as feeling happier VARIABLESCORINGSIGIN TOLD AFFECTIVE CONDITION Blinkratecount.037Participants blinked more AIM negative scoreTest score.043More likely to report themselves as generally being susceptible to negative affect Self reported showed emotion Yes / no.042More likely to say they had showed their emotions

19 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod March 2005 What next? More analysis of existing data Describe affectemes in set terms? (like manner voice and place of phonemes) Establish which channels are more important for particular types of message? Analyse onsets and offset times? Compare to other more detailed coding schemes? Develop non verbal appraisal analysis framework? Investigate floods of basic emotions? Look for sequential patterns? Use Anvil? More on method – reliability decay? A follow up experiment Using protocol of common behaviours identified from first experiment – this time comparing groups untrained or trained to use set affecticons.

20 March 2005 Affectemic Analysis Lesley Axelrod Kate Hone Thanks to EPSRC for grant GR/R81374/01 “It doesn’t do to leave a live dragon out of your calculations if you live near him” Tolkein - Lord of the Rings “I think the answer is a set of ethical standards of responsible practitioners….. I think it's a collaboration between the technologists and society. I mean, they say war is too important to leave to the generals. I think technology is too important potentially to the technologists. I think it's got to be a whole social discussion.” Ray Kurzweil


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