Presentation on theme: "Access to Knowledge; New roles for universities and libraries Leo Waaijers Disciple of Eve eIFL Seminar OPEN ACCESS: NEW MODELS FOR SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION."— Presentation transcript:
Access to Knowledge; New roles for universities and libraries Leo Waaijers Disciple of Eve eIFL Seminar OPEN ACCESS: NEW MODELS FOR SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION May 14-15, 2008 Ilia Chavchavadze State University, Tbilisi, Georgia
Research life cycle
in place for -exams -bachelor/master theses -reports -doctoral theses -articles -books -conferences Quality control often organized by publishers Quality control systems
Quality control process Re: articles
Publishers add value by o registration o organizing quality control o presentation o branding of journals distribute publications o limited (toll gated; paper paradigm) o unlimited (open access; internet based) operate a o monopoly based access fee model o market based publication fee model o (+ third party contribution: subsidy, ads) Re: articles -- of articles
Institutes pay in the open access model:subscription model: publication fees (on average €1200 per article) subscription/licence fees document supply fees (per article €10 via libraries or €20 via publishers) copyright clearance fees (for use in readers, course packs etc) contractual costs (collection policy, licencing, digital rights management)
Impactology: manager’s belief that journal impact is a measure of journal and author quality. Impact = over a period of time # citations = f (article age, # authors, discipline, journal type & size, item type, accessibility, citation syndicates and other games, ornamental citations and … quality) ‘real articles’ = articles, reviews, proceedings, but no news items, letters to editor, editorials. ( -> ‘impact officers’ ) period : typically 2 years, but also 4 or 5 years. Further reading Rossner et al. Show me the data, Journal of Cell Biology, 17 December Thomson Scientific Corrects Inaccuracies In Editorial Thomson Scientific Corrects Inaccuracies In Editorial (undated, > Dec. 2007) The quality construct # all citations # ‘real articles’ Re: articles
Michael MabeMichael Mabe, then Elsevier’s Director of Academic Relations: “Extending the use of the journal impact factor from the journal to the authors of papers in the journal is highly suspect;......[impact factors] are not a direct measure of quality and must be used with considerable care.” If this was said in the instruction of a product, would you buy it? Why? Research managers do.
What, in the stem cell research fraud case, is the name of -the author? -his university? -the journal? -the publisher? -the reviewers? Who is responsible? Further reading Just like Hwang Woo Suk? Another fraudulent paper in Science! New England Journal of Medicine Wins Peer-Review Court Case Hwang Woo-Suk National University of Seoul Science American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS Anonymous Re: articles Does it ring a bell?
A multi-coloured field: SHERPA/RoMEOSHERPA/RoMEO Main colours: - publishers require copyrights allow nothing, never - publishers require copyrights allow open preprints - publishers require copyrights allow open postprints - publishers require copyrights allow open preprints and postprints -embargo periods and reuse conditions vary greatly -changes or exceptions can often be negotiated by authors - publishers waive copyrights (open access journals) There are more copyright policies than publishers I n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o a u t h o r s ! white yellow blue green gold Re: articles Copyright combat
want their articles 1.published in a high impact journal As high impact is perceived as high quality this is important for research project financing and personal career. 2.widely circulated and reused Both for ethical reasons (public money means open access to society, colleagues, educators) and personal reasons (more citations). 3.easy to present In CV’s, lists, web sites, readers, eduware etc. 4.preserved and kept accessible perpetually Being protected against digital vulnerability Signing away copyrights to achieve 1 xxx often conflicts with achieving goals 2 and 3. xxx Re: articles Author and institutes alike
The main commercial publishers won’t act They cherish the classical publishing model as their golden goose. However see: Biomedcentral, PLoS, Hindawi, Springer, DOAJBiomedcentralPLoSHindawiSpringerDOAJ Authors did act They signed massively the PLoS open letter and the EC petitionPLoS open letterEC petition Research funders are acting Wellcome TrustWellcome Trust, RCUK's, DFG, MPG, CERN, ERC, NIH, Harvard FAS, IRCSET, Harvard Law School,...RCUK'sDFGMPGCERNERCNIHHarvard FAS IRCSETHarvard Law School Policy makers are acting US Senate and CongressUS Senate and Congress, Council of the European Union, OECD, Australian Research Council, EURAB, EUA, Dutch Cabinet, …Council of the European UnionOECD Australian Research CouncilEURABEUADutch Cabinet Re: articles Time to act
"A consortium comprising the universities & research funders produces N articles in (sub) discipline Y per annum. They want to tender the reviewing process for these articles under the following conditions: 1.The reviewing process must be independent, rigorous and swift. 2.The reviewing may be anonymous, named or open (to be negotiated). 3.All N articles will pass the reviewing process. 4.As a result of the reviewing the articles are marked 1 to 5. 5.Articles with marks 3 to 5 are accepted for immediate posting in the institutional repository and for ( latent - to be negotiated) open publishing in (e.g.) the national research portal. What can universities do? Imagine a call for proposals. Re: articles
6.Subsequently authors may publish their articles in any journal. 7.In their appraisal procedures for staff and research projects members of the consortium will weigh articles with marks 3, 4 and 5 as if they were published in journals with impact factors 3, 8 and 15 respectively (figures are nominal and subject to disciplinary calibration). 8.(The national library will take care of the long term curation of the accepted articles.) Proposals for a three year contract should be sent to ……The allocation of the contract will be based on the best price-performance ratio." Re: articles Imagine a call for proposals. What can universities do? (cont’d)
Fantasizing about: -forming a consortium …… role for eIFL? the position of publishers like BioMed Central, Springer, learned societies, …… will there be a deal at the end of the day? -an answer to the question Can the library be a publisher? At which side of the table the university library will sit: proposal (co-)submitter or (co-)reviewer? Re: articles
Action points for libraries 1.Make universities sign the Berlin Declaration (or any other manifesto), followed up by an open access policy. 2.Set up institutional OAI repositories (preferably as distributed national service). 3.Set up national OA community and OA project (common standards, practices and deadlines). 4.Involve (top) scientists via awareness campaigns. 5.Support open access journals. 6.Make universities tender the review process of their articles. 7.Start today: Andiamo.