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Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt 2005 Access to medical information in a multilingual and cross- cultural.

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Presentation on theme: "Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt 2005 Access to medical information in a multilingual and cross- cultural."— Presentation transcript:

1 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt 2005 Access to medical information in a multilingual and cross- cultural context Anett Kralisch & Bettina Berendt Institute of Information Systems Humboldt-University Berlin, Germany ~berendt}

2 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Motivation use of Internet as information source ease of finding information personal and situational variables 1.

3 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Motivation Use of Internet as information source Ease of finding informations Personal and situational variables 1.2. International eHealth-website Visitors of different CULTURAL BACKGROUNDS LINGUISTIC BACKGROUNDS MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE LEVELS

4 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Motivation Use of the Internet as an information source Ease of finding information Personal and situational variables 1.2. International eHealth-website Visitors of different CULTURAL BACKGROUNDS LINGUISTIC BACKGROUNDS MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE How does the user‘s background affect information seeking behaviour?

5 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Agenda 1.The potential impact of the 3 variables 2. Method & Data 4. Discussion and Outlook 3. Results

6 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Agenda 1.The potential impact of the 3 variables 2. Method & Data 4. Discussion and Outlook 3. Results

7 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt The impact of the 3 variables Medical knowledge Language Culture Information Seeking Behaviour ? ? ?

8 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt The impact of culture (a simplified view) Culture as mental concepts affecting one‘s behaviour and thinking patterns (e.g. Hofstede 1991, Hall 1989, Trompenaars 1995) Cultures can be described through a number of dimensions (e.g. Hofstede, Hall) e.g. people‘s preferences w.r.t:  INFORMATION  TIME  SPACE Different search options correspond to different degrees of preference, e.g. H1: short-term oriented cultures prefer (fast access through) search engines more than long-term oriented cultures. *For further hypotheses see: Kralisch & Berendt IWIPS 2004

9 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt The impact of language (a simplified view) Native speakers (L1) lower cognitive effort higher preference of ACTIVE LANGUAGE use (compared to L2 users) Non-native speakers (L2) higher cognitive effort higher preference of PASSIVE LANGUAGE use (compared to L1 users) Different search options correspond, to varying degrees, to these preferences, e.g. H2: Native speakers prefer search engines more than non-native speakers. * For further hypotheses see Kralisch & Berendt CATAC‘04

10 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt The impact of medical knowledge (a simplified view) Different search options correspond, to varying degrees, to a patient´s or physician´s knowledge and search goals, e.g. Physicians and Patients differ in: in their knowledge of medical terms in their perceptions/differentiation of disease symptoms in other aspects of knowledge about diseases (e.g. Where does the disease occur?) in their search goals H3: Physicians prefer search engines more than patients. * For further hypotheses see Kralisch & Berendt 2005

11 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Agenda 1.The potential impact of the 3 variables 2. Method & Data 4. Discussion and Outlook 3. Results

12 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Method & Data LOGFILE ANALYSIS + QUESTIONNAIRE –eHealth website –data recorded Sept/Oct 2004 The website: –public health –multilingual: German, English, French, Spanish, Portuguese –search options: search engine, alphabetical links, content links The users: –about 160 answered questionnaires + corresponding user sessions –34 countries –15 native tongues –patients and physicians

13 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Questionnaire Embedded in the disease information part of the website Forced choice questions asking for –Native Tongue –Proficiency level of language in which website is read –Country of origin –Country of residence 7-point-Likert-Scale items asking for –(further questions) regarding proficiency level –5 cultural items Battery of questions asking for –demographic data, including –Internet use –medical knowledge

14 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Operationalisation 1.Operationalisation of search preference Which search option was (not) used. In combination with which other search options was the search option used? In which order where the search option used. Number of page requests prior to access of search option. Frequency of use of search option. Frequency of use of search option per page request.  Factor analysis applied for item reduction. 2. Operationalisation of culture Cultural index scores by Hofstede Control through 5 questions regarding cultural items 3. Operationalisation of language Native speaker vs. Non-native speakers according to answers in questionnaire Control of proficiency level in non-native language 4. Operationalisation of medical knowledge Physicians vs. Patients according to answers in questionnaire

15 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Agenda 1.The potential impact of the 3 variables 2. Method & Data 4. Discussion and Outlook 3. Results

16 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results Medical knowledge Language Culture Information Seeking Behaviour

17 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results Medical knowledge Language Culture Information Seeking Behaviour

18 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: Information Seeking Behaviour 1.Use of Alphabetical search & Search engine 2. Use of Search by body parts Characteristics 2 main types of information seeking behaviour (Factor Analysis) active vocabulary use name of disease required (predominantly goal oriented) fast information access little context information passive vocabulary use predominantly exploratory search behaviour more time-consuming highest amount of context information

19 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: Culture Medical knowledge Language Culture Information Seeking Behaviour

20 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: Culture Classical approach: CULTURAL DIMENSIONS INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR

21 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: Culture Classical approach: CULTURAL DIMENSIONS INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR no significant correlation here

22 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: Culture Classical approach: CULTURAL DIMENSIONS INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR here: no significant correlations Our new (explorative) approach: Analyses based on GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS Europe: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Ukraine, United Kingdom N-America: Canada, United States S-& C-America: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico Asia: Hong Kong, India, Malaysia,

23 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: ANOVA Medical knowledge Language Culture in terms of regions Information Seeking Behaviour p =.026 p =.016 p =.134 significant interactions P =.004

24 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: Language Medical knowledge Language Culture Information Seeking Behaviour

25 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: Language Search Behaviour 1 Significant correlations r=.248* alphabetical search & search engine are more used by NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS confirms results in previous studies contradicts “intuitive“ thinking

26 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: Medical Knowledge Medical knowledge Language Culture Information Seeking Behaviour

27 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: Medical Knowledge Search Behaviour 1 Significant correlations r=.231* alphabetical search & search engine are more used by PHYSICIANS corresponds to “intuitive“ thinking

28 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: Interactions Medical knowledge Language Culture in terms of regions Information Seeking Behaviour significant interactions P =.004

29 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Results: Interactions Patients Non-Native speakers (among patients) Native speakers (among patients) 92.7% 7.3% Physicians Non-Native speakers (among physicians) Native speakers (among physicians) 50.0% r=.409**

30 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Conclusion: impact on Info Seeking Behaviour 1. Language and Medical Knowledge Language & Medical Knowledge affect Information Seeking Behaviour medical knowledge appears to have a more important impact strong interactions between Language & Medical Knowledge  Does domain knowledge mediate language effects?

31 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Conclusion: impact on Info Seeking Behaviour 2. Culture no impact of Culture in terms of cultural dimensions only minor impact of Culture in terms of countries however significant differences with regard to some aspects exist: e.g. the number of native speakers among patients (much more in Europe & N-America, p =.001)  Does willingness to accept foreign language information depend on - the distribution of the Internet within the country? - the information offered in a certain languages? - other socio-economic variables ?  Does objective (impact of L2 proficiency level) and subjective language information processing effort (impact of other variables) exist?

32 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Agenda 1.The potential impact of the 3 variables 2. Method & Data 4. Discussion and Outlook 3. Results 4. Discussion & Outlook

33 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Recommendations for website design Patients and Physicians have different preferences in their information seeking behaviour Native speakers and non-native speakers have different preferences in their information seeking behaviour Native language information is more important for patients than for physicians In some regions, offering information in their native language is more important than in others  Realisation in website design through: e.g. separate website areas for patients and physicians e.g. highlighting of more appropriate search options e.g. terminological support for non-native speakers, especially patients e.g. adapted versions for groups of countries

34 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Future Research Does the use of the preferred search option also enhance the user‘s navigational performance?

35 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Future Research Does the use of the preferred search option also enhand the user‘s navigational performance? To which extent do culturally adapted search tools increase the user‘s satisfaction?

36 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Future Research Does the use of the preferred search option also enhand the user‘s navigational performance? To which extent do culturally adapted search tools increase the user‘s satisfaction? How appropriate are culture index scores in the field of HCI? Is a new notion of culture needed that integrates socio-economic variables?

37 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Future Research Does the use of the preferred search option also enhand the user‘s navigational performance? To which extent do culturally adapted search tools increase the user‘s satisfaction? How appropriate are culture index scores in the field of HCI? Is a new notion of culture needed that integrates socio-economic variables? To which extent is the user´s willingness to accept non-native language information affected by the languages offered on the Internet?

38 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Future Research Does the use of the preferred search option also enhand the user‘s navigational performance? To which extent do culturally adapted search tools increase the user‘s satisfaction? How appropriate are culture index scores in the field of HCI? Is a new notion of culture needed that integrates socio-economic variables? To which extent is the users willingness to accept non-native language information affected by the language offer on the Internet? To which extent can domain knowledge mediate language effects?

39 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt Future Research Does the use of the preferred search option also enhand the user‘s navigational performance? To which extent do culturally adapted search tools increase the user‘s satisfaction? How appropriate are culture index scores in the field of HCI? Is a new notion of culture needed that integrates socio-economic variables? To which extent is the users willingness to accept non-native language information affected by the language offer on the Internet? To which extent can domain knowledge mediate language effects? Limited validity of this study: larger data set required.

40 Institut für Wirtschaftsinformatik Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Kralisch & Berendt 2005 Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit! (L1 ) Thank you for your attention! (L2 )


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