4 Kinetic energy of movement Figure 5.10FuelEnergy conversionWaste productsHeat energyCarbon dioxideGasolineCombustionKinetic energy of movementOxygenWaterEnergy conversion in a carHeat energyFigure 5.10 Energy transformations in a car and a cellCellular respirationGlucoseCarbon dioxideATPATPOxygenEnergy for cellular workWaterEnergy conversion in a cell4
12 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate Phosphate group P P P Adenine Ribose H2O Figure 5.12A_s2ATP:AdenosineTriphosphatePhosphate groupPPPAdenineRiboseH2OHydrolysisFigure 5.12A_s2 The structure and hydrolysis of ATP (step 2)PPPEnergyADP:AdenosineDiphosphate12
18 Progress of the reaction bEnergyReactantscFigure 5.13Q Activation energy with and without an enzymeProductsProgress of the reactionEnzymes Only Increase RATE of reaction, NOT the energyLevel of reactants or products!!!18
20 Catalytic cycle of an enzyme 1Enzyme available with empty active siteActive siteSubstrate (sucrose)2Substrate binds to enzyme with induced fitEnzyme (sucrase)GlucoseFructoseH2OFigure 5.14_s4 The catalytic cycle of an enzyme (step 4)4Products are released3Substrate is converted to products20
28 Enzyme inhibitors are important in regulating cell metabolism. Feedback inhibition = product of metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of one of the enzymes in the pathwayFeedback inhibitionEnzyme 1Enzyme 2Enzyme 3ABCDReaction 1Reaction 2Reaction 3Starting moleculeFigure 5.15B Feedback inhibition of a biosynthetic pathwayProduct28
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