Presentation on theme: "CBR CBR 207: Writing Effective Community-Based Research Proposals."— Presentation transcript:
CBR CBR 207: Writing Effective Community-Based Research Proposals
2 Welcome &Introductions Name Affiliation What is your experience with CBR and/or proposal writing? What are your concerns about writing a research proposal?
3 Learning Objectives Upon completion of this workshop you will be able to: Differentiate between Community Based Research (CBR) and Academic research Describe the various components of a CBR proposal, including a letter of intent Describe the basic elements required in the preparation of a Research Proposal and their purpose. Create a research outline that includes: community research priorities, questions, rationale, objectives, methodology and data analysis plan, ethical considerations, timeline and budget, and action outcomes
4 Agenda Definition of CBR CBR vs. traditional academic research Benefits of CBR Key components of a CBR proposal LUNCH Theory into Practice: Identify community research priorities, questions, rationale, and objectives Methodology and data analysis plan, Ethical issues, timeline and budget, and action outcomes Wrap -Up NOTE: CBR is a collaborative process, so we will be collaborative today!
6 Research Proposals Brainstorm activity In your small groups, brainstorm answers to the following questions: 1. What is a research proposal? 2. What are the components of a CBR proposal? Be prepared to present your answers to the class.
7 Definitions of CBR CBR is research that is conducted by, with or for communities (Sclove et al., 1998) CBR is research with a substantial level of community participation for the purposes of community improvement and social change (Loka Institute, 2002) CBR is a...collaborative approach to research that equitably involves all partners in the research process and recognizes the unique strengths that each brings. CBPR begins with a research topic of importance to the community with the aim of combining knowledge and action for social change to improve community health and eliminate health disparities (W. K. Kellogg Community Health Scholars Program, as cited in Minkler & Wallerstein, 2003)
8 Principles of CBR CBR capacity enhancing community relevance collaboration joint data ownership social action outcomes sound methods ethical review process- oriented
9 Academic Research vs. CBR Academic ResearchCBR Outside ExpertTeam of Stakeholders Expert defines what needs to be researched and how Stakeholders collectively decide focus of research Report may or may not be used to make changes Early buy-in from stakeholders increases impact Capacity leaves with expertCapacity is built internally
10 Sample CBR Proposal Take a moment to read the sample CBR proposal to yourself. Then, as a group, we will discuss the following questions: What are your impressions of this sample CBR proposal? Did anything surprise you? What are the proposals strengths and weaknesses? What questions do you have about it?
Key Components of a CBR Proposal 1.Letter of Intent 2.Abstract 3.Background/Rationale 4.Research Objectives 5.Research Question(s) 6.Literature Review 7.Research Methods 8. Ethical considerations 9. Human resources & team skills 10. Community involvement 11. Budget 12. Timeline
12 1. Letter of Intent What is a letter of intent? How is it different from a CBR proposal?
13 1. Letter of Intent contd … Letters of Intent should: be well-informed have clearly defined objectives demonstrate strong community ties be relevant to community needs demonstrate innovation demonstrate collaborative approaches have policy, social change, programming benefits
14 1. Letter of Intent contd … Choose your funder(s) wisely: Wellesley CIHR SSHRC City Health Canada Laidlaw United Way Trillium Who else?
15 Background The purpose of this research is to fill a gap in knowledge regarding the housing status of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) in Ontario. This study will investigate the types of supports that PHAs believe they need in order to secure safe, affordable housing. 2. Abstract
16 Research Goals and Objectives The goal of this research is to increase knowledge about the housing needs and experiences of PHAs and to highlight the ways in which current social policy in this area impacts on their housing situation. Iinterrelated housing issues for PHAs will be examined by: a)establishing a baseline of the housing status of PHAs in Ontario; b)identifying the range of housing options currently available to PHAs; c)identifying the characteristics of appropriate housing for PHAs; and, d)determining housing options required by PHAs that will ensure access to health and social services. 2. Abstract
17 Methodology The target population of the survey will be a cross section of PHAs in Ontario who are living in a range of housing situations and the study sample of 500 individuals will be stratified into groups according to: gender, region, PHAs from HIV- endemic countries, and PHAs from Aboriginal communities. Interviews with key informants about their knowledge/experience of current housing policies and how they impact on the lives of PHAs will also be conducted. Surveys will be analyzed using the SPSS quantitative data analysis program; qualitative data will be analyzed using thematic analysis. Outcomes The study will provide valuable information on how policy can be developed in such a way as to increase access to affordable and appropriate housing for PHAs in Ontario. 2. Abstract
18 3. Research Rationale Rationale (no more than a couple of paragraphs) Sets the context for the research Connects study to funding priorities Anticipated use of findings Allows reviewers to follow your thoughts Helps to determine how community was involved in determining need Example: There is an increased risk of HIV infection among youth who migrate to Ottawa and other large centres
19 4. Research Objectives A paragraph or two… Builds on rationale Clearly stated and realistic Empirical (measurable, observable) This research will seek to identify the factors that place migrant youth at risk for HIV. This research will seek to explain the quality of life/service/policy issues among migrant youth.
20 5. Research questions A paragraph or less…. The specific questions your research will address to achieve your objectives. What specific factors place youth who migrate to Ottawa from rural communities at risk for HIV infection. What specific issues impact quality of life, and service and programming needs? How do certain policies impact on migrant youth? How will community be involved in answering them?
22 From Theory to Practice… Rationale: There is an increased incidence of anti- Muslim violence in Ottawa-area high schools. 1. Determine your research objective(s). 2. Determine your research questions.
24 Individual & Partner Work 1.On your own, come up with a research rationale relevant to you and/or your organization. This should be related to a pressing problem in the community and ideally should be fundable (You will need to research funding guidelines carefully before deciding on your rationale.) 2. Develop research objectives and questions for your rationale. 3. Share with a partner to get feedback. Revise as necessary.
25 6. Literature Review What is literature? Scientific journals, published reports, unpublished reports, books, conference abstracts, web resources, etc. 1.Demonstrates your understanding of the subject matter; 2.Makes the case for the importance of your research study in relation to: practice and programming the field of knowledge stakeholders policy
26 6. Literature Review contd … What is the purpose and value of a literature review? To find out what prior research has already been done on your topic. To situate your work among that which has already been completed. To learn from others successes and mistakes (ie. Best practices vs. Worst Nightmares) To give your work credibility.
27 6. Literature Review Writing the review…. Length? Usually 10 pages (of a 20 page proposal) Keep it logical, succinct, and focused – breadth without exhaustion Focus on findings: -- avoid long descriptions of study methods Review methods or sampling for trends Use combined references Make it persuasive – position yourself!
28 6. Literature Review contd … Writing the review…. What obvious gaps appear in the literature? Connect and focus your rationale on the gaps in the literature. *** For more information register for the CBR 107: How to Conduct a Literature Review workshop.
What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative research methods? Research Methods
30 7. Quantitative Methods (Numbers) Macro-level analysis How many? How often? Where? Trends: is there a change in number, frequency or distribution? What is the significance of the change(s) to my research?
31 7. Quantitative Methods contd … (Numbers) Surveys Useful for obtaining information about respondents knowledge, attitudes or behaviours Provide a snap-shot of whats going on, or implement longitudinally Often used in evaluations Impact of program (e.g. support group) **See sample survey in your handout booklet**
32 7. Qualitative Methods (Experience and Meaning) Views participants as experts of their own experience, situation, behaviour etc. In-depth understanding of behaviour and social reality Gives meaning to otherwise abstract numbers Allows for the unexpected to emerge
33 7. Qualitative Methods (Experience and Meaning) Interviews: structured, semi-structured, or unstructured Focus groups: loosely structured discussions related to some key topic(s), facilitated by researcher Participant observation: direct involvement in and observation of social behaviour
35 Choosing a method EXERCISE… Based on the research questions you identified earlier, list the research method(s) you would use. Provide rationale to support your answer
36 Analysis Using the Analysis Questions page in Participant Workbook 1, briefly jot down answers to the following questions: What are you going to do with all the data you collect? How will you make sense of it? How will you interpret your findings?
37 Analysis Be SPECIFIC GOOD TIP: Check out articles using similar methods - how do they describe their methods and analysis?
38 8. Ethics Review Important Ethical Considerations Safety: do no harm Beneficence Anonymity/Confidentiality Informed Consent Respect & Dignity
39 8. Ethical Review Process Involves submitting an Ethics Protocol to an Ethics Review Board comprised of researchers, ethicists, community members, privacy officers Ensures that you consider ethical issues and problem solve upfront with your research team Forces you to put down on paper how you will handle potential mine-fields Ensures that other objective eyes will review your processes
41 8. Ethical Issues Working in groups discuss the ethical implications involved with the scenario below. You are studying a new program for drug-addicted adults. A member of your research team was one of the founders of the new program but is no longer working there. He offers to lead some of the counseling sessions that are part of the study. 1.For whom are the ethical concerns applicable? 2. What could be done to correct the ethical issues?
42 8. Anticipating Ethical Issues 1.What ethical issues do you anticipate for your study? 2.How might you prevent these issues from occurring and/or deal with them if they come up?
43 8. Ethics Review Important ethical considerations in community- based research Benefits for community members Skill-building opportunities Employment opportunities Increased understanding of personal circumstances/self
44 8. Ethics Review Approval process How do you get an ethics review? *** For more information register for the CBR 102: Ethical Issues in CBR workshop.
45 9. Identifying Resources Human Resources skill sets knowledge of research methods/issues knowledge of community issues facilitation, conflict resolution, team-building community members
Community Involvement Think about your own CBR project and answer the following questions: 1. How was the community involved in determining this idea as a priority? 2. How will they continue to be involved throughout the duration of the research project? 3. What skill-building opportunities are there for community members involved in the research? 4. How is the community of concern benefiting from the research?
What are your experiences with budgeting? Any tips to share? 11. Budget *** For more information register for the CAP 106: An Intro to Financial Management workshop.
Budget (Examples for Supplies & Services Office supplies – pens, paper, tape, copying, toner (60.00/mo. X 9 months) $ Telephone rental/long distance/internet (70.00/mo. X 9 months) $ Community newspaper advertisement (4*$195/ad)$ Colour Promotional Fliers and Posters (250*$1each plus tax) $ Respondent reimbursement (90 x $20.00) $ 1, Workshop/focus group transcription services (9 groups* 2 hours* 8 hrs per hour of tape * $20/hr) $ 2, Translation Services (9 groups * 2 hours * $25/hr) $ Total Supplies and Services $ 7,470.00
Sample TimelineActivity Time Frame Outcomes Indicators of Success Submission of protocol to ethics at all sites. February 2008 to March, 2008 Ethics submission completed at all sites. Ethics approval obtained at all sites. Initiate monthly project team meetings. Create recruitment plan at each partner site. Develop plan to hire youth in various capacities on the project. February, 2008 to April 2008 Monthly meetings of collaborative research team. Plan developed for recruitment. Potential youth are identified who could work with the team. Various roles are identified to engage as many youth as possible. Meetings occur and include all embers, including youth & community members. Plan is feasible & supported by the team. Role descriptions developed. Pilot test standardized assessments at the community partner sites. (N=5) and modify assessment protocol, as necessary. April 2008 Pilot data collected.Protocol modified according to pilot results; ethics up-dated as necessary. Think of one activity for your timeline and record the timeframe, outcomes, and indicators for success on your Timeline Template.
Review Process Waiting period Reviewer comments Funder comments Funded or not Minor revisions Major revisions Re-submissions
REVIEW – Key Components of a CBR Proposal 1.Letter of Intent 2.Abstract 3.Background/Rationale 4.Research Objectives 5.Research Question(s) 6.Literature Review 7.Research Methods 8. Ethical considerations 9. Human resources & team skills 10. Community involvement 11. Budget 12. Timeline
53 Workshop Objectives Having completed this workshop you should now be able to: Differentiate between Community Based Researach (CBR) and Academic research Describe the various components of a CBR proposal, including a letter of intent Describe the basic elements required in the preparation of a Research Proposal and their purpose. Create a research outline that includes: community research priorities, questions, rationale, objectives, methodology and data analysis plan, ethical considerations, timeline and budget, and action outcomes
54 Workshop Evaluation Your feedback is extremely important! Please complete the workshop evaluation…. Thank you!
Wellesley Urban Health Capacity Building Workshop Series CBR 207 Writing Effective Community-Based Research Proposals
CBR 207: Writing Effective Community-Based Research Proposals