Presentation on theme: "Elements of Fiction Conflict Plot Point of View Characterization Theme"— Presentation transcript:
1Elements of Fiction Conflict Plot Point of View Characterization Theme Setting
2I. Purposes of the Title sets the mood (“The Most Dangerous Game”) creates interestsuggests settingnames the main character (The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn)identifies an important object or idea (“The Scarlet Ibis”)suggests the type of story (“The Mystery of . . .”)
3II. Parts of A Story Setting Characterization Plot Conflict Theme Point of View
4III. Setting Consists of 1. time B. Establishes 2. place 3. general environment4. mood and toneB. Establishes1. when and where the storytakes place2. the atmosphere of the story
5SettingThe setting provides us with the time and place the story takes place. Details of the setting also create the mood, or how the story makes the reader feel.In addition, the background in which the story is set provides us with additional plot information. What is significant about the setting?
6“During the whole of a dull, dark and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone on horseback, through a singularly dreary tract of country.”“The Fall of the House of Usher”by Edgar Allan PoeSetting
7IV. Characters A. Characters are the people and/or animals in a story. B. Traits are thecharacteristicsor qualities ofan individual.
8Characters continued . . . Types of Characters 1. Protagonist – the maincharacter with a goal to reachor an obstacle to overcome;always involved in the mainconflict and its resolution2. Antagonist – the characterwho opposes or antagonizes,usually causes the problem inthe story; occasionally, theantagonist may be an obstaclein the story rather than aperson
9Flat Characterization 3. Flat character – has only one trait (orsometimes two) and is often a stereotype;may help move the plot along more quicklybecause the audience immediatelyunderstands the character (examples – ageeky science professor, a bully)
10Round Characterization 4. Round character – is complex and hasmany sides or traits and a fullydeveloped personality; may haveunpredictable behaviorExample: The Green Goblinin Spiderman (Norman Osborn)
11Dynamic Characterization 5. Dynamic character – one who experiences anessential change in personality or attitude,usually for the better.Example: Stitch, from Lilo and Stitch
12Static Characterization 6. Static character – one whodoes not change or developbeyond the way in whichshe or he is firstpresentedExample: Atticus Finch from To Kill a Mockingbird.
13V. Methods of Characterization A. Characterization –methods used bythe author tomake charactersreal to the readersB. Direct Characterization-the author directly tells the reader something about the characters (Example - “She is a kind person.”)
14Characterization through Direct Statements “Jack had been in basic training in Florida and Dottie was there on vacation with her parents. They’d met on the beach and struck up a conversation. Dottie was the talker, the outgoing one- the extrovert. Jack was too shy around girls to say much at all.”“Furlough-1944”by Harry Mazer
15Indirect Characterization C. Indirect Characterization - the reader must make inferences based on the details provided.1. character’s name2. character’s appearance3. what the character says4. what the character thinks and feels5. what the character does (actions)6. what other people think of the character(reactions of other characters)7. how animals react to the character (ex. – dogs growl)
16Indirect Characterization through Description “He was thin and sunburned with a thick mop of curly brown hair, and he wore his battered trousers and loose, grubby shirt with as much self-assurance as if they were silk and satin.”“Then Jesse gave a great whoop and leapt into the stream, splashing mightily.”“Jesse sang funny old songs in a loud voice and swung like a monkey from the branches of trees, showing off shamelessly for Winnie . . .”Tuck Everlastingby Natalie Babbitt
17VI. Character AnalysisBackground- What is significant about the character’s past?Personality and Type – What are some key character traits? How do you know?Behavior – What are the character’s actions and decisions?Motivation – Why does the character act this way or make these decisions?Consequences – What are the results of these actions/decisions?Responsibility – In what way or to what degree is the character responsible for what occurs in the story?Expectations – What is expected, promised, or anticipated in regards to this character?
18VII. Plot A. Simply put, plot is what happens in the story. Some call it thestoryline.B. Plot basically consists of theexposition, rising action, climax,falling action, and resolution (denouement).
19It’s all a part of the plot! 1. Exposition – the beginning situation thatintroduces the setting and charactersRising Action – the complications, problems, and/or conflicts in the story beginClimax – usually highest moment of action or suspense in the story; sometimes called a turning pointFalling Action - the action takes a turn to move toward the resolutionDenouement – conclusion of the story; a resolution of the conflict has been reached
20VIII. Conflict A. Conflict is the struggle or problem. Without a problem, there is nostory.
21B. Internal Conflict Character vs. Self The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with her or his conscience, emotions, or reasoning.
22External Conflict (three main types) character vs. charactercharacter vs. societycharacter vs. nature
231. Character vs. Character The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with others, especially the antagonist.
242. Character vs. SocietyThe protagonist in the story experiences conflict with society’s rules or expectations
253. Character vs. NatureThe protagonist in the story experiences conflict with the elements of nature.
26IX. Point of View (Narration) A. Point of View – the perspectivefrom which the story is told.
27B. First Person Point of View 1. The narratortells the story andis a character inthe story.2. Watch for pronounssuch as I, me, us,we, our, etc.
28First Person“I jerked Everett’s door open and he nearly fell out on top of me. I put his arm over my shoulder and got him to his feet. Angela was standing about ten feet in front of us facing the two men.”from I, QBy Roland Smith
29C. Third Person Omniscient 1. The narrator is not a character in thestory but can tell you the thoughts andactions of all characters at all timesThe narrator has an omniscient, or all-knowing, viewpoint.3. Watch for pronouns such as he, she,him, her, they, them, etc.
30D. Third Person Limited POV 1. The narrator is not a character in thestory but knows and tells the thoughts and actions of the main character(s) – not all the characters’ thoughts.Watch for the third person pronouns such as those listed above.
31Third Person“For a long moment they looked at each other in silence, the boy with his arm still raised to his mouth. Neither of them moved. At last his arm fell to his side. ‘You may as well come out,’ he said, with a frown.”Tuck Everlastingby Natalie Babbitt
32X. ThemeTheme is the moral, message, or universal truth or idea of the story.Themes do not provide any plot developments and are general truths that the author is trying to illustrate.Themes are universal and can apply to many stories and genres.A theme can never be stated in one word; a theme is expressed as a complete thought.
33XI. Figurative Language A. Simile – comparison of two unlike things using “like” or “as”Example: Like marshmallows in the sky, the puffy clouds dotted the horizon.B. Metaphor – a direct comparison of two unlike things without using “like” or “as”Example: The morning sky was dotted with puffy white marshmallows awaiting the roasting heat of the Texas sun.
34Hyperbole – intentional exaggeration and overstatement for emphasis Example: I have told you amillion times to pick up your socks!D. Understatement – understating something – to minimize the importance of what is meant or to emphasizeExample: This summer has been a little warm, I suppose.
35Idiom – an expression that means something other than the literal meanings of its individuals words and has become commonly used in speech by a particular group of people, language, or societyExample: Steven worked hard on his essay for English class, hoping he could kill two birds with one stone and turn it in for his college application essay as well.Personification – giving human qualities (person) to inanimate objectsExamples: The earth groaned under the weight of the tanks as they advanced.
36XII. Additional Terms A. Imagery - language that appeals to one or more of the five senses and enables the reader to visualize or imagine what is being described
37B. Allusion1. a brief reference to a person, event, or place (real or fictitious), or to a work of art2. often refers to a famous historical or literary figure or event3. may be drawn (taken) from history, geography, literature, or religion.
38C. Irony usually the opposite of what is expected may be situational, verbal, or dramatic
39D. Symbolism 1. represents an idea, quality or concept 2. For example, a journey can symbolize life, or a lion can symbolize courage.
40E. Foreshadowing -A hint about what will happen next (clues or hints to future events)
41F. FlashbackFlashback - when the story moves back in time to relate past events.
42G. Motif A recurring element that helps to unify and develop the theme An idea, image, object, situation, etc.,repeated throughout a piece of literature –or in multiple literary worksExamples: money, forests, journeys, oceans, castles, swords, light and dark
43H. ToneTone - the author’s attitude or feelings toward his or her subject.I. MoodMood - the feelingsor emotions of thereader
44J. Style – the way an author writes (which may also reveal the author’s personality, voice,perspective); style includes structure, syntax,diction, use of figurative language, etc.K. Structure – the arrangement andorganization of the text; the relationship ofthe parts to the whole or one part to another ina literary work
45Syntax – the structure of a sentence; the way the words are arranged or organized within asentenceM. Diction – word choice –1. Why are particular/specificwords chosen?2. Why are they significant ormeaningful?3. How do they affect thepassage?