Presentation on theme: "Elements of Fiction Plot Theme Setting Characterization Point of View Conflict."— Presentation transcript:
Elements of Fiction Plot Theme Setting Characterization Point of View Conflict
I. Purposes of the Title A. sets the mood (“The Most Dangerous Game”) B. creates interest C. suggests setting D. names the main character (The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn) E. identifies an important object or idea (“The Scarlet Ibis”) F. suggests the type of story (“The Mystery of...”)
II. Parts of A Story A. Setting B. Characterization C. Plot D. Conflict E. Theme F. Point of View
III. Setting A. Consists of 1. time 2. place 3. general environment 4. mood and tone B. Establishes 1. when and where the story takes place 2. the atmosphere of the story
Setting The setting provides us with the time and place the story takes place. Details of the setting also create the mood, or how the story makes the reader feel. In addition, the background in which the story is set provides us with additional plot information. What is significant about the setting?
Setting “During the whole of a dull, dark and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone on horseback, through a singularly dreary tract of country.” “The Fall of the House of Usher” by Edgar Allan Poe
IV. Characters A. Characters are the people and/or animals in a story. B. Traits are the characteristics or qualities of an individual.
Characters continued... C. Types of Characters 1. Protagonist – the main character with a goal to reach or an obstacle to overcome; always involved in the main conflict and its resolution 2. Antagonist – the character who opposes or antagonizes, usually causes the problem in the story; occasionally, the antagonist may be an obstacle in the story rather than a person
Flat Characterization 3. Flat character – has only one trait (or sometimes two) and is often a stereotype; may help move the plot along more quickly because the audience immediately understands the character (examples – a geeky science professor, a bully)
Round Characterization 4. Round character – is complex and has many sides or traits and a fully developed personality; may have unpredictable behavior Example: The Green Goblin in Spiderman (Norman Osborn)
Dynamic Characterization 5. Dynamic character – one who experiences an essential change in personality or attitude, usually for the better. Example: Stitch, from Lilo and Stitch
Static Characterization 6. Static character – one who does not change or develop beyond the way in which she or he is first presented Example: Atticus Finch from To Kill a Mockingbird.
V. Methods of Characterization B. Direct Characterization- the author directly tells the reader something about the characters (Example - “She is a kind person.”) A. Characterization – methods used by the author to make characters real to the readers
Characterization through Direct Statements “Jack had been in basic training in Florida and Dottie was there on vacation with her parents. They’d met on the beach and struck up a conversation. Dottie was the talker, the outgoing one- the extrovert. Jack was too shy around girls to say much at all.” “Furlough-1944” by Harry Mazer
Indirect Characterization C. Indirect Characterization - the reader must make inferences based on the details provided. 1. character’s name 2. character’s appearance 3. what the character says 4. what the character thinks and feels 5. what the character does (actions) 6. what other people think of the character (reactions of other characters) 7. how animals react to the character (ex. – dogs growl)
Indirect Characterization through Description “He was thin and sunburned... with a thick mop of curly brown hair, and he wore his battered trousers and loose, grubby shirt with as much self-assurance as if they were silk and satin.” “Then Jesse gave a great whoop and leapt into the stream, splashing mightily.” “Jesse sang funny old songs in a loud voice and swung like a monkey from the branches of trees, showing off shamelessly for Winnie...” Tuck Everlasting by Natalie Babbitt
VI. Character Analysis A. Background- What is significant about the character’s past? B. Personality and Type – What are some key character traits? How do you know? C. Behavior – What are the character’s actions and decisions? D. Motivation – Why does the character act this way or make these decisions? E. Consequences – What are the results of these actions/decisions? F. Responsibility – In what way or to what degree is the character responsible for what occurs in the story? G. Expectations – What is expected, promised, or anticipated in regards to this character?
VII. Plot A. Simply put, plot is what happens in the story. Some call it the storyline. B. Plot basically consists of the exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution (denouement).
It’s all a part of the plot! 1. Exposition – the beginning situation that introduces the setting and characters 2. Rising Action – the complications, problems, and/or conflicts in the story begin 3. Climax – usually highest moment of action or suspense in the story; sometimes called a turning point 4. Falling Action - the action takes a turn to move toward the resolution 5. Denouement – conclusion of the story; a resolution of the conflict has been reached
VIII. Conflict A. Conflict is the struggle or problem. Without a problem, there is no story.
B. Internal Conflict 1. Character vs. Self 2. The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with her or his conscience, emotions, or reasoning.
C.External Conflict (three main types) character vs. character character vs. society character vs. nature
1. Character vs. Character The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with others, especially the antagonist.
2. Character vs. Society The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with society’s rules or expectations
3. Character vs. Nature The protagonist in the story experiences conflict with the elements of nature.
IX. Point of View (Narration) A. Point of View – the perspective from which the story is told.
1. The narrator tells the story and is a character in the story. 2. Watch for pronouns such as I, me, us, we, our, etc. B. First Person Point of View
First Person “I jerked Everett’s door open and he nearly fell out on top of me. I put his arm over my shoulder and got him to his feet. Angela was standing about ten feet in front of us facing the two men.” fromI, Q By Roland Smith
1. The narrator is not a character in the story but can tell you the thoughts and actions of all characters at all times 2. The narrator has an omniscient, or all- knowing, viewpoint. 3. Watch for pronouns such as he, she, him, her, they, them, etc. C. Third Person Omniscient
D. Third Person Limited POV 1. The narrator is not a character in the story but knows and tells the thoughts and actions of the main character(s) – not all the characters’ thoughts. 2. Watch for the third person pronouns such as those listed above.
Third Person “For a long moment they looked at each other in silence, the boy with his arm still raised to his mouth. Neither of them moved. At last his arm fell to his side. ‘You may as well come out,’ he said, with a frown.” Tuck Everlasting by Natalie Babbitt
X. Theme A. Theme is the moral, message, or universal truth or idea of the story. B. Themes do not provide any plot developments and are general truths that the author is trying to illustrate. C. Themes are universal and can apply to many stories and genres. D. A theme can never be stated in one word; a theme is expressed as a complete thought.
XI. Figurative Language A. Simile – comparison of two unlike things using “like” or “as” Example: Like marshmallows in the sky, the puffy clouds dotted the horizon. B. Metaphor – a direct comparison of two unlike things without using “like” or “as” Example: The morning sky was dotted with puffy white marshmallows awaiting the roasting heat of the Texas sun.
C. Hyperbole – intentional exaggeration and overstatement for emphasis Example: I have told you a million times to pick up your socks! D. Understatement – understating something – to minimize the importance of what is meant or to emphasize Example: This summer has been a little warm, I suppose.
E. Idiom – an expression that means something other than the literal meanings of its individuals words and has become commonly used in speech by a particular group of people, language, or society Example: Steven worked hard on his essay for English class, hoping he could kill two birds with one stone and turn it in for his college application essay as well. F. Personification – giving human qualities (person) to inanimate objects Examples: The earth groaned under the weight of the tanks as they advanced.
XII. Additional Terms A. Imagery - language that appeals to one or more of the five senses and enables the reader to visualize or imagine what is being described
B. Allusion 1. a brief reference to a person, event, or place (real or fictitious), or to a work of art 2. often refers to a famous historical or literary figure or event 3. may be drawn (taken) from history, geography, literature, or religion.
C. Irony 1. usually the opposite of what is expected 2. may be situational, verbal, or dramatic
D. Symbolism 1. represents an idea, quality or concept 2. For example, a journey can symbolize life, or a lion can symbolize courage.
E. Foreshadowing -A hint about what will happen next (clues or hints to future events)
F. Flashback Flashback - when the story moves back in time to relate past events.
G. Motif 1. A recurring element that helps to unify and develop the theme 2. An idea, image, object, situation, etc., repeated throughout a piece of literature – or in multiple literary works Examples: money, forests, journeys, oceans, castles, swords, light and dark
H. Tone Tone - the author’s attitude or feelings toward his or her subject. I. Mood Mood - the feelings or emotions of the reader
J. Style – the way an author writes (which may also reveal the author’s personality, voice, perspective); style includes structure, syntax, diction, use of figurative language, etc. K. Structure – the arrangement and organization of the text; the relationship of the parts to the whole or one part to another in a literary work
L. Syntax – the structure of a sentence; the way the words are arranged or organized within a sentence M. Diction – word choice – 1. Why are particular/specific words chosen? 2. Why are they significant or meaningful? 3. How do they affect the passage?