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What Is Stress?? Stress A state of general agitation or excitation that results when a stressor tends to alter equilibrium.

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Presentation on theme: "What Is Stress?? Stress A state of general agitation or excitation that results when a stressor tends to alter equilibrium."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Is Stress?? Stress A state of general agitation or excitation that results when a stressor tends to alter equilibrium

2 Why do we need to talk about Stress Management? SleeplessnessDepression Disrupted work efficiency Damaged interpersonal relationships Long-term health issues Challenging Personalities

3 Why talk about Stress Management continued? Medical Findings Blood pressure Cardiac stress Gastrointestinal stress Damage to cognitive function as a result of long term pain Mental Health Findings Overall agitation Anxiety Depression and outlook Negative self-image

4 A Look At Potential Day To Day Effects of Stress

5 Stress Can Lead To Carelessness in the Workplace

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7 Abrasive Management Styles Can Create Stress In The Workplace

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9 Stress Can Have Negative Effects During Your Holiday Shopping at the Mall

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11 Stress can be the result of poor communication.

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13 Stress can even affect the family pet.

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15 Stress CAN Be Managed In this discussion, emphasis will be given to: 1. The importance of early recognition and intervention of stress as part of a comprehensive approach to wellness and a general sense of well- being. 2. Regular attention to the causes and signs of stress and to regular practice of early interventions and management techniques

16 Stress - General Definition  Stress A state of general agitation or excitation that results when a stressor tends to alter equilibrium Eustress – Temporary, Good Stress Eustress – Temporary, Good Stress Distress – Long Term Discomfort, Anxiety, Depression and Potential Medical Issues Distress – Long Term Discomfort, Anxiety, Depression and Potential Medical Issues

17 Eustress  Eustress – A short-term, manageable state of agitation that triggers the release of epinephrine (adrenalin), blood sugars and insulin in preparation for exertion such as ”fight or fight.”  Eustress may also energize the body for occasional events that require heightened energy and intense focus levels. (e.g. competition, a public presentation, a challenging meeting).  When constantly activated, eustress may lose some of its effects in achieving a desired excitation level (e.g. burnout; boredom, overload or staleness).  At this point, Eustress may create Distress

18 Distress  Distress - To cause to worry; subject to great strain; discomforted or to be troubled  Conscious endurance of pain – often a stoic acceptance of painful circumstances.  Distress may be associated with headache, sleeplessness, irritability, and a variety of illnesses  A simple definition that can be used is: Distress occurs when pressure exceeds one’s perceived ability to cope. (Ellis’ Rational Emotive Theory)

19 Stress Clinical Definitions  Note The common themes in stress are the individual’s perception of the stressor resulting in an elevated state of anxiety and agitation.  The level and severity of agitation varies among individuals.  For some individuals, these mental states can be physically and emotionally harmful if endured over extended periods without relief, redirection or management. Thus

20 Why is this important for Athletic Directors  Highly-visible problem solvers  Constant interruptions, requests demands  Deadlines  Upcoming events  Competitors Equate inadequate or ineffective job performance to losing Equate inadequate or ineffective job performance to losing Old injuries Old injuries

21 Individual Perceptions That May Contribute To A.D. Stress  Rigidity (aka “hardening of the attitude”)– “my way or the highway” and/or “we’ve never done it that way”  Competition – while not ALL bad, it can be harmful if one focuses excessively on the REWARDS of competition Impatience “do it now” “get it done” regardless of quality Catastrophize - Everything is a cataclysm which can lead to  Negative Self-Talk – This form of self-denigration can be damaging. Conversely, positive self-talk can provide hope of reducing stress by reversing the negative thoughts and

22 Other Individual Perceptions That May Contribute To Stress 1. Inability to say NO – even when you have a choice. 1. Inability to say NO – even when you have a choice. 2. Inability to Let Go through Forgiveness 2. Inability to Let Go through Forgiveness Make a transgression or wrong doing transgressor’s problem - NOT YOURS!! Resentment causes stress for YOU Resentment causes stress for YOU Resentment does NOT harm the transgressor When a grudge resurfaces, breathe deeply, think of something enjoyable, go to your “Happy Place”. See yourself in control

23 Good News-Bad News  The bad news is that we create up to 75% of the stress that we experience OURSELVES !!!  The good news is WE can takes steps to minimize the effect of distress!!!!!!!!!! we can not promise removal of those factors that cause stress. we can not promise removal of those factors that cause stress. instead, we will discuss different methods for looking at stress (perception) and a range of strategies for responding to it. instead, we will discuss different methods for looking at stress (perception) and a range of strategies for responding to it.

24 Stress Buildup Unmanaged and Managed Stress Loss of Control Loss of Control Unmanaged Stress Buildup Personal awareness and intervention keeps stress level low and controlled Managed Stress Buildup

25 Stress Resilient or Stress Hardy Approach 1. View challenges as opportunities for personal growth and development (new strategies and resolutions) 2. Take personal responsibility for actions 3. Are adaptable 4. Are open to new ideas 5. Are open to new perspectives 6. Take a proactive stance to gain new knowledge and skills and skills 7. Are resourceful 8. Are self-confident 9. Maintain high level attentiveness to the “entire self” and the effect of the environment (Mindfulness) 10. Anticipate stressful circumstances and take active measures to avoid the cause(s) or minimize the effect(s) through disassociation

26 Disassociation Techniques A Common Stress Management Strategy 1. Using ”body scanning” to identify specific sources of internal tension, turmoil, pain and anxiety 2. Focusing on the sources of our stress and finding ways to calm ourselves despite its presence (e.g., quiet, seclusion, reduced light, music, imagery) 3.Using breathing control to achieve a more relaxed state 4.Recognizing the role of our perception in dealing with difficult people (LTC 714) 5.Disassociating from external and internal sources or tension through progressive relaxation techniques 6.Disassociating from external and internal sources or tension through progressive muscle contraction and relaxation techniques

27 And occasionally disassociation requires getting help from others!

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29 Disassociation Methods Self-Analysis Self-Analysis Mindfulness Mindfulness Environment Changes IndividualTechniques Systems Systems 1. Focusing on external external sources of stress sources of stress 2. Use of body 2. Use of body scanning to focus scanning to focus on precise sources on precise sources of stress of stress 3. Recognizing the role of perception role of perception in dealing with in dealing with difficult people difficult people 4. Focus efforts on factors you on factors you can control can control 1. Recreation 2. Crafts 3. Vacations 4. Solitude 5. Diminished light light 6. Music 7. Pet(s) 1. Breathing Control Control 2. Imagery 3. Progressive Relaxation Relaxation 4. Progressive muscle relaxation muscle relaxation 5. Meditation 6. No Negative Self-talk Self-talk 7. Use positive self-talk self-talk 8. Exercise 8. Exercise 9. Quality sleep 9. Quality sleep 1. Perceptual Change Change 2. Mindfulness 3. Yoga 4. Tai Chi 5. Ai Chi 6. Chiropractic 7. Mental Health Counseling 8. Mentoring 9. Spirituality 10. Exercise Regular Regular practice is practice is essential for essential for mastery mastery

30 The Effect of Prolonged Exposure to Stress Without Management or Release  BEHAVIOR  EMOTIONS  SENSATIONS  IMAGERY  PERSONAL BELIEFS  HEALTH CONDITIONS

31 The Physiologic Response The Autonomic Nervous System  Sympathetic System Eustress for Fight/Flight Eustress for Fight/Flight May Lead To Distress and Illness May Lead To Distress and Illness  Parasympathetic System Calming Calming Physiologic balance Physiologic balance

32 Cascade R esponse to A Perceived Stressor Cascade R esponse to A Perceived Stressor  External Stimulus Perceived  External Stimulus Perceived Amygdala interprets activates Hypothalamus  Hypothalamus activates the Pituitary Gland  Hypothalamus activates the Pituitary Gland  Pituitary Gland stimulates the Adrenal Glands  Pituitary Gland stimulates the Adrenal Glands Adrenal Glands release Cortisols and Adrenalin Cortisols cause the liver to release sugars Cortisols cause the liver to release sugars Adrenalin increase breathing and heart rates

33 Stress Sequence - Animation

34 Negative Effect of Unchecked Fight or Flight Responses  Cortisol Triggers Release of Sugar From Liver Long term potential effect Type 2 Diabetes Long term potential effect Type 2 Diabetes  Adrenalin Accelerates the Heart Rate Long term potential for irregular thickening of the heart chambers leading to arrhythmia Long term potential for irregular thickening of the heart chambers leading to arrhythmia Increased potential for release of a plaque mass Increased potential for release of a plaque mass

35 Unmanaged Stress Cycle StressfulEvent Loss of Control Sympathetic Response Loss of Control Sympathetic Response Negative Self Talk Negative Self Talk (I can’t, It’s too hard, (I can’t, It’s too hard, I’m a dummy) I’m a dummy) Distress(Anxiety) (Helplessness) (Helplessness)

36 Managed Stress Stressful Event Energizes Controls Sympathetic Energizes Controls Sympathetic Planning & Controlled Extremes Planning & Controlled Extremes Response Through Controlled Breathing, Self Scan Response Through Controlled Breathing, Self Scan & in Positive Self - Talk (It’s a challenge but I can do it!!) & in Positive Self - Talk (It’s a challenge but I can do it!!) Eustress Eustress

37 Sleeplessness – A Catalyst of Stress Midnight Midnight Sleep and Work Cycles Sleep and Work Cycles 6 PM Impacted By 10 AM Unrelieved Stress Low Efficiency High Efficiency Is Causes More Stress Reduced causing Stress Causes More Stress Reduced causing Stress 2 PM 2 PM Stress Interrupts Deep Sleep Stress Interrupts Light Sleep

38 Sleep Deprivation and Hunger  Sleep deprivation is believed to suppress production of the hormone leptin which is associated with hunger repression  Thus the sleep-deprived individual may experience increased hunger and create a pattern of unhealthy eating habits

39 Medical Documentation of the Value of Stress Management P 14 Hospitals and universities across the nation are opening Mind-Body Hospitals and universities across the nation are opening Mind-Body Connection Clinics, Integrated Medicine or Complementary Medicine Connection Clinics, Integrated Medicine or Complementary Medicine Clinics e.g., Harvard Stanford StanfordMassachusettsKentuckyWisconsinPittsburghUtahDuke Physicians and other health practitioners report that 60%-90% of medical complaints are stress-related.

40 Stress Can Interfere With Normal Body Functioning

41 Stress May Accelerate Aging  University of California-San Francisco demonstrated damage to chromosome components among females exposed to high stress levels for protracted periods. More commonly seen in senior populations as More commonly seen in senior populations as a normal aging function. a normal aging function. Of concern is the potential for loss of other physiologic functions at an earlier age including reduced immunity, balance control, muscular strength and deterioration of mental capabilities Of concern is the potential for loss of other physiologic functions at an earlier age including reduced immunity, balance control, muscular strength and deterioration of mental capabilities

42 Endorphin Production The Human Body’s Natural Stress Relievers  For individuals who have developed successful stress management strategies, endorphins (pain relievers), seratonin (anti- depressant hormone) and melatonin (sleep inducing hormone) are produced at higher levels that combine to induce a more persistent sense of well-being and relaxation  Endorphin production is enhanced by:

43 Endorphin Production Enhancements a. Endurance exercise b. Pleasant music (NOTE according to individual taste) c. Controlled breathing d. Progressive muscle relaxation e. Warm water bathing, hydrotherapy or warm water exercise f. Meditation g. Pleasant recreation h. Planned relaxation periods i. Humor i. Humor j. Certain foods (chocolate and spicy peppers) j. Certain foods (chocolate and spicy peppers) k. Massage and hugs

44 Dopamine and Endorphins Dopamine and Endorphins  Endorphins relieve pain and produce pleasurable feelings  Dopamine creates neurologic stimuli that reinforce the pleasure giving experience and help recall it or associate it with similar circumstances  Thus, the aroma of favorite foods, association with old friends, a good workout or a hobby can elicit anticipation of pleasure and relaxation  This same system can also create cravings and can associate pleasure with harmful activities such as smoking, over eating and drug use

45 Educational Stressors That Demand Stress Management P16  a. diverse public opinion concerning the “best” methods to use in any educational setting  b. ever-increasing expectations for schools and educational programs  c. shortage of funds with which to meet the increased expectations  d. pressure for excellence as measured by academic standards achievement, scholarships, championships, winning records.  e. High levels of activity compacted into 12 week seasons and

46 Educational Stressors That Demand Stress Management  f. Overlapping seasons  g. An expectation that all administrators have “open doors” all the time  h. Interruptions when concentration is required  i. Management tasks requiring focus and accuracy (correspondence, reports records)  j. Personnel evaluations

47 Approaches to minimize stress  Remember, it’s not you, it’s the office you occupy  Make the things you control better, everything else is already perfect  Take a systematic approach to difficult issues.  Compartmentalize and prioritize problems

48  Try not to make assumptions or knee jerk reactions  Take time to get all the facts and see the big picture  Initial perceptions may not give the true picture and can lead to problems such as these.

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51 Anxiety Interventions  Hypnosis  Music  Meditation – Yoga – Tai Chi  Humor therapy University of Maryland Medical School Finding 2005 (22% increase in blood flow during humorous movies) University of Maryland Medical School Finding 2005 (22% increase in blood flow during humorous movies)  Humor – Distortion of Reality and Personal Experience

52 Be Careful of Mixed Messages

53 For Sale – 1977 Used Volkswagen 50 Actual Miles on Odometer Have Only Used First and Reverse Gears

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55 That’s Not My Job Man!!! I Just Paint the Lines

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57 In Texas EVERYTHING is Big

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59 What??? What do you mean my daughter didn’t make the spirit squad?????

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61 Other Holistic Anxiety Interventions  Talk therapy – find a friend  Cognitive restructuring Practicing positive self-talk Practicing positive self-talk Controlled breathing Controlled breathing Progressive relaxation and positive imagery Progressive relaxation and positive imagery Take a mini-vacation Take a mini-vacation  Inspirational Materials

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