Presentation on theme: "Best Match Search WinID3 Dental Training Module IV Richard M. Scanlon, D.M.D."— Presentation transcript:
Best Match Search WinID3 Dental Training Module IV Richard M. Scanlon, D.M.D.
A special thanks to Linda Himmelberger for her skills in editing the modules and for reviewing the content for clarity in the presentation of this topic.
Participation Training When viewing this slide presentation, from time to time you will see a small WinID3 Icon with a Stop Sign. This icon represents a reminder that while reviewing this presentation you should stop and open WinID3 to the viewing screen and attempt the procedure or action that is being explained in the PowerPoint module at that time. This will make the training much more beneficial than reading the slides alone. Remember, when you see this icon, stop and open WinID3. You may also print the slides for reference, by right clicking on the screen in PowerPoint viewer and selecting Print.
Objectives of this Module Understand the WinID3 Search Algorithms Understand the WinID3 Search Algorithms Conduct a Best Match Search of an AM dental database using a specific PM record. Conduct a Best Match Search of an AM dental database using a specific PM record. Using the Identifiers, Dental and Graphics Comparison screens to determine positive identifications Using the Identifiers, Dental and Graphics Comparison screens to determine positive identifications Manipulate radiograph images within WinID3 to better conduct comparisons Manipulate radiograph images within WinID3 to better conduct comparisons Document positive comparisons within WinID3 Document positive comparisons within WinID3
Best Match Search The heart of the WinID3 program is the feature known as the “Best Match Search”. This feature allows the operator to select a single antemortem or postmortem record, and compare that record to all the records in the parallel database. Simply stated, a single dental postmortem record is selected as the active record and it is compared against all the dental antemortem records. This comparison will then yield a prioritized list of postmortem records, with the most likely match at the top of the list. It is this feature that makes WinID3 so extremely valuable to the disaster forensic odontologist.
Best Match Search Without computer assistance in searching and prioritizing a database, countless hours of manual comparison would be involved in the comparison process. This ability to rapidly search and compare a record to a database is especially valuable when dealing with fragmented remains, since we are unable to reduce the antemortem database size because not all of the fragments of each decedent may be found. Thus the use of the Best Match feature of WinID3 is of paramount importance for the odontologist when completing dental identifications in a disaster deployment.
Review Previous Modules In this module, we will be asking you to perform various commands and functions that have been explained in the previous training modules. It is assumed that you are now able to perform these functions. If you are unsure how to perform these WinID3 functions, please review the previous modules for assistance.
Search Algorithms Before we discuss the mechanism of a Best Match Search, it is important to discuss how WinID3 searches and prioritizes the databases. When WinID3 searches, it only utilizes the primary codes, which denote the surfaces of the tooth that are restored, the status of the tooth; (either present-virgin, missing, unerupted), or no data. The secondary codes, which denote the type of restorative material, presence of a root canal, or even if a missing tooth is replaced by a denture tooth, are not used as determining factors for a WinID3 search.
Search Algorithms Even if errors in the AM or PM record are entered into WinID3, the errors will not result in the elimination of a record within a Best Match Search, but will only lower the standing of that particular record in the Best Match Search results. In spite of this, accuracy when entering the dental data is critical because the secondary dental descriptors are what the odontologist will often use for the determination of a positive, possible or excluded match during the comparison process.
Best Match Search Postmortem against Antemortem The majority of Best Match searches will be a single postmortem record compared against the antemortem database. In large disasters, the antemortem database may be “filtered” first, or an antemortem record may be compared to the postmortem database. However, for ease of training we will only search a postmortem record against the entire unfiltered antemortem database. More advanced filtered searches will be discussed in a later module.
Conducting a Best Match Search To begin a Best Match Search, first open WinID3 and select the database that you wish to utilize in your search. For this training we will use the “Sample” database that is supplied with WinID3. When the database is opened, the main screen will appear and the postmortem record screen should be selected and on top. Now select the postmortem record # 103. Your screen should look like the next slide.
Best Match Search With the specific postmortem record that you wish to compare to the antemortem database selected, in this case record #103, all that is needed to begin the search is to click on the Best Match Button on the tool bar on the left of the screen. Doing this will open a new window called the “Best Matches to Post Record #103”.
Best Match Search As you see from the previous slide, there are four search lists open in the window. They are : Most Dental Hits Least Dental Mis- Matches Most Identifier Matches Most Restoration Hits
Best Match Search Window There are other areas of this window that are also important to the search and comparison procedures. There is a box for determining the number of records that are to be displayed. This is usually set at 25; however, it may be changed to display a greater number of records. Another window displays if you have employed any filters for your search. Usually, no filters are used, but occasionally with large databases a filter may be required. Use of filters will be discussed in a later training module.
Best Match Search Window Now that you have completed the best match search, and the window is open we can see that in our small database the antemortem record of “Donaldson” is at the top of all of the lists. In this instance we do not have to concern ourselves with which list to use since the three lists we commonly employ have the same first ranked antemortem record. The “Most Identifier Match” is not used as it only compares the physical descriptors, which are often vague in a disaster situation. We will now review our probable match of Donaldson.
Best Match Search Window To compare a probable match of the postmortem record #103 to the Donaldson record, all we have to do is highlight the Donaldson record by left clicking on the name Donaldson in either of the three best match lists. Once we click on the name Donaldson, and it is highlighted, we can now click on the box labeled “Comparison” in the lower right of the WinID3 screen. You may also click on the “Print this Page” box if you wish to print a record of your best match search.
Best Match Search Window When you attempt a comparison such as PM #103 with the “Donaldson record”, you will now see this screen.
Dental Comparison Window The Comparison window opens, and displays the Dental Descriptor comparison of the postmortem record #103 and the antemortem record of Donaldson. When the dental descriptors of a specific tooth are identical (match) the tooth number is highlighted in green. This allows the odontologist to make an immediate assessment of the number of matches present. Other data such as sex age and race are shown to immediately consider the validity of the match
Dental Comparison Window Even more important that what does match, is what does not match. If the AM record would show a missing tooth or a larger or more complicated restoration than the PM record, it is probable that a positive identification is not possible. Most odontologists will give this window a cursory review, checking mainly for the age, sex and race as a indication whether to proceed with the radiographic view.
Radiograph Window Now click on the “Graphics Tab” and the radiographic comparison window will be displayed. This window displays the dental radiographs of the AM and PM record that is being compared. You may print this page for a hard copy
Radiographic Comparison Most odontologists are visually oriented, so the graphic display is the primary means of determining the concordance between an AM and PM record. We all know that two MO restorations are identical in charting, but are completely different when viewed by a radiograph. Therefore his view will be the primary comparison screen.
Radiographic Comparison On the previous screen, the AM record is on top and the PM record below. The size of the radiographic image is determined by the Zoom control above each of the images. To zoom, left click anywhere on the zoom bar. Clicking on the right of the zoom bar will increase the image size one increment, and clicking on the left of the bar will decrease the image size one increment. You may also zoom the image larger by holding down the control key and clicking anywhere on the radiograph with the right or left mouse button.
Radiographic Comparison When you have increased the size of the two graphics suitable for viewing, you may move the graphic images by the sliding bar on the bottom and side of the graphic. An easier method to move the graphic image is to click on the graphic and while holding either the right or left mouse button, move the mouse.
Dental Comparison Window In our comparison of PM record #103 and the AM record of Donaldson, we can see that the radiographs have sufficient concordance to be considered a positive dental identification. To document this you may print this page showing the graphic comparison. A printed record of the dental descriptor com- parison may also be printed.
Dental Comparison Window In many instances, as with this example, either the AM or PM radiographs may be best viewed in the Dexis program. To view with the AM or PM graphic, click the respective Dexis button above the graphic. When this button is clicked, the Dexis program will open and the radiographs will be available for viewing. Unfortunately, the simultaneous comparison of AM and PM is not possible with Dexis, only with WinID3. The next slide shows the Dexis program screen.
Dexis Program Graphic Screen The features of this program will be presented at a later time. To return to WinID3, you just click on the button on the top row of icons.
Dental Comparison Window When comparing AM records to a specific PM record, the AM record is displayed on the top. To view the record that WinID3 considers the next possible match, click the Next Record button. To go back click the Previous Record button. By doing so, you may review all the AM records in your selected list as prioritized by WinID3.
Dental Comparison Window When using the “Next Record Button” as discussed in the previous slide, you will move down the match list that you first choose in the Best Match Screen. Often, but not frequently, you may view 10-20 records and not have a “match”. If all the AM records are available for comparison, you may want to review another best match list. A good second choice is the “Most Dental Hits” list. This list uses not restorations, but the teeth present for the prioritization.
Dental Comparison Window While on that subject let’s look at why we choose one list versus another. When first viewing the Best Match Screen, I will look at all the lists, but prefer the “Most Restoration Hits” and “ Most Dental Hits” lists. They are usually very similar, but there can be differences. When completing the review of one list, I will look at the other list and review the records present on that list that are not present in the first list reviewed. This will often lead to a match. The “Most Restoration Hits” list is used mostly when the PM record has numerous restorations. The “Most Dental Hits” is used for PM records that are fragmented or have few restorations. This is a general rule, as most often it is the experience of the odontologist that determines which one will be used first.
Filters Filters are an advanced function of WinID3 and will be reviewed later. However, it is important to know when they are commonly employed. With fragmented remains, or a single tooth, or to find all the records in either the AM or PM database that have a specific dental characteristic or physical characteristic, filters can be of assistance. As in large databases, we may know that the PM record is that of a caucasian male. We may then filter the database to eliminate all the non-male, non-caucasian records before conducting the “Best Match Search”. This eliminates those records that are obviously not a match and increases the efficiency of the “Best Match Search”.
Filters Filters can also be used to find all records in a PM or AM database with one specific restoration or characteristic. For example, we may have no dental record of a victim, but competent anecdotal information that they have a lower front tooth missing and a full upper denture. With that information, we can use filters to find all the PM records that have #23 - #26 missing (since we don’t know which tooth) and an upper denture. If there are only a few records with this possibility, we may provide a tentative list of probable matches to the coroner to compare with other forensic information that may lead to a positive or possible identification.
Documenting a Match When a positive match has been verified by the Comparison Team Leader, you may document the match within WinID3. To do this, close all the Comparison and Best Match screens and return to the Main Screen of WinID3. If the AM or PM records that match are not active on the main screen, use the GO TO Button to bring the records to the main screen as seen here.
Documenting a Match On either the AM or PM records that match, look at the area listed as disposition. Click on the small inverted triangle on the right of the box. This will open the list of possible Dispositions. Click on the Identified label below Active.
Documenting a Match When you click on the Identified label, a secondary box opens with a listing of all the AM or PM records. In this instance the AM records. Now click on the correct match to PM Record #103, that of Donaldson. This will now link the PM Record #103 to Donaldson, as seen now in the header of the active window. If you make the Donaldson Record active, it will be listed as identified, since documenting one will document it for both.
Home Study Now that you have completed this module, further study to become accomplished in this important task is necessary. Complete all the comparisons of the Postmortem database to the Antemortem database ( the WinID3 Sample database) and document the results in WinID3. Included with this mailing is an additional database with over 200 AM and PM records that we will work with in the future. As always, if you have any questions concerning WinId3 please let me know. Rich Scanlon