2Why do wars occur? Nations compete over natural resources. Individuals demand greater political and economic freedom.VisitFor 100’s of free powerpoints
3We will study 3 aspects of WWII The war in Europe with Germany and ItalyThe war in Asia with JapanThe home front
4What caused WWII in Europe? Germany wanted back what she lost from WWI, and revengeAppeasement – Great Britain and France gave Hitler land w/o fighting for it.Hitler was racist; he invaded countries simply to kill marginal populations – including Jews living there.The Great Depression affected many countries.
5Treaty of Versailles – end of WWI The main points of the Treaty [BRAT] 1. Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war2. Germany paid Reparations for the damage done during the war.
6Versailles cont. .3. Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men.
7Versailles4. Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe (see map). Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.
8Depression in 1920-30s Europe Economy was bad in EuropeWWI killed a lot of workers and customersAfter years of humiliation and starvation, Germans looked for a strong leader.
9NAZIs elected to power!Nazis promised to build up their army and get revenge for WWI.This is Adolf Hitler in 1933.
11TotalitarianismMussolini (Italy) Hitler (Germany)
12Benito MussoliniDictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown.He established a repressive fascist regime that valued nationalism, militarism (strict censorship and state propaganda)Mussolini became a close ally of German dictator Adolf Hitler.
13Germany late 1930s Germany escaped the Depression by militarizing. This is Berlin 1936
14How did it begin??Germany is in horrible shape after the Treaty of Versailles.The German people are united by a charismatic, military leader that promises change.Using propaganda, he appealed to the economic needs of the lower and middle classes.Hitler claimed nationalism, preached anti-Semitism and anti-communism.With the establishment of a restructured economy, a rearmed military, and a totalitarian and fascist regime, Hitler pursued an aggressive foreign policy with the intention of expanding German Lebensraum ("living space"),Hitler our last hope.
15Appeasement – Hitler wanted land, Britain and France let him have it without war
16So What Was Hitler Asking For? Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum”Austria - Peacefully Annexed in 1938German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939
17LAND AREAS TAKEN:1. Austria is annexed.2. Czechoslovakia taken over.
19September 1st 1939Operation Weiss": German troops invade Poland. German tanks thundered across the Polish border at precisely 0445 hours, supported by Junkers Ju87 dive-bombers. Adolf Hitler was working on the new kind of warfare "Blitzkrieg", Lightning War that involved massive use of tanks, motorized infantry and airforce. Tactics of Blitzkrieg designed new role for tanks, spearheads for quick penetration of enemy territory. At 9.00 am England and France issue an ultimatum to Germany.
21Stalin knew Hitler would come, The Pact gave Stalin time to prepare. HITLER SIGNS NON-AGRESSION PACT WITH STALINHitler gained the time and freedom to attack the Countries on the Western front knowing that his back was covered by a Russian nation desperately trying to build up forces to protect themselves. Even though Stalin signed the pact, he had no trust in Hitler.Stalin knew Hitler would come, The Pact gave Stalin time to prepare.
22THE FALL OF FRANCEThe Maginot Line was ineffective because Germany went around it by going through Belgium.The German offensive trapped 400,000 British and French soldiers on the beaches of Dunkirk. (They had to be rescued)Italy invaded France from the south.Six weeks later on June 22, 1940 the world watched France surrender to Hitler.England was Hitler’s next target.
23Fortress EuropaIn no time, Germany conquered most of Europe with tanks, planes, railroads.
28BATTLE OF BRITAINA. Hitler had 2,000 planes at his disposal. His goal was to gain total control of the English skies.B. On August 15 1,000 German planes bombed London. Then every night for two solid months the Germans bombed London.C. The British developed radar to plot the planes paths even in dark.D. By Sept 15,1940 the RAF shot down over 185 German planes while at the same time England lost only 26 aircraft. Six weeks later Hitler called off the invasion.
29English Channel protected England Britain resisted German air force
30HITLER INVADES RUSSIA1. Unable to defeat the British, Hitler turns on Russia.2. Hitler breaks his non-aggression treaty with Stalin and invades the city of Stalingrad.3. The battle for Stalingrad lasted from June 1941 to January 31, 1943.4. The Germans lost 230,000 while the Russian lost 1,100,000 soldiers.
35INVASION OF NORMANDYA. A force of 3 million British, American and Canadian troops together with tons of equipment and supplies the Allies planned the largest attack on France. This was the largest land-sea-air operation in army history.B. The Allies also set up a Phantom army at Calais 150 miles away from Normandy.C. German retaliation was brutal. The Normandy beaches were divided into 5 sectors: Utah Beach, Omaha Beach, Gold Beach, Juno Beach, and Sword Beach.D. Because of this invasion the Allies were able to invade Europe by land. Within a month they had landed a million troops, 567,000 tons of supplies and 170,000 vehicles in FranceE. By August 25, 1944 American troops liberated the French capital of Paris from four years of German occupation.
38Germany’s endGermany invaded the Soviet Union and lost a million troops due to the cold and Russian bravery.Germany spent too many resources trying to kill Jews and not supporting his troopsGermans fought Russians in the east and Americans and Brits in the West.
42Truman takes over 33rd President Roosevelt dies. VP Truman takes over Truman's presidency included victory over Germany,atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki,surrender of Japan and the end of World War II,the founding of the United Nations,the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe, the Truman Doctrine to contain Communism, the beginning of the Cold War,33rd President
43Hitler commits suicide The generally accepted cause of the death of Adolf Hitler on April 30, 1945 is suicide by gunshot and cyanide poisoning.The dual method and other circumstances surrounding the event encouraged rumors that Adolf Hitler may have survived the end of World War II along with speculation about what happened to his remainsHis soldiers claim that his body was burned in the compound that he was held up in.
45When?US involvement193919411945Sept.1 - Germany invades Poland (official start to the war)Sept. 3 -Britain & France declare war on GermanyDec. 7 – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor; US enters the WarMay - Germans SurrenderSept. - Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japanese Surrender
46US Isolationism Americans wanted to stay out of Europe’s wars. FDR wanted to help Britain anyway
47Why? 4. Isolationism of Major Powers A. Why was the U.S. Isolationist? 1. Great Depression (problems at home)2. Perceptions of WWIa. WWI did not seem to solve muchb. People began to think that we’d got into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy American businessmen!)
48Why? 4. Isolationism of Major Powers B. This led to policies of “Appeasement”1. Appeasement: give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else2. Begins with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and continues with Hitler . . .
54Map of the Japanese Empire at its height in 1942.
55Axis PowersGermany and Italy declared war immediately after Pearl Harbor.Germany, Italy and Japan made a deal to help each other in case one was attacked.
56Allied PowersThe Allies were the USA, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union (USSR). These are called the “big three.”In addition were the colonies and territories of these countries.These include China, Canada, Australia, France, Poland and others.
57Axis and Allied PowersDark Green: Allies before the attack on Pearl HarborLight Green: Allied countries after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.Orange: Axis PowersLilac: Neutral countries during WWII
90Battle for Midway Island If won, Japanese could have bombed Hawaii more from here.Major turning point
91Turning Point in the War- Battle of Midway The battle was a crushing defeat for the Japanese and is widely regarded as the most important naval battle of World War II. The battle permanently weakened the Japanese Navy.Japan intended on occupying midway and being able to control the seas.
99Yes or NO….? Truman struggles with the decision to drop the A-Bomb Should the bomb be dropped and thousands of innocent lives be lost…ENDING the war.“The End justifies the Means”
100Why drop the Atomic Bomb? The Japanese had shown they would fight to the last man, woman and child.The atomic bomb saved as many as 1 million U.S. lives, and possibly many Japanese.Harry Truman said he dropped the bomb to end the war.