Presentation on theme: "World War II. Why do wars occur? Nations compete over natural resources. Individuals demand greater political and economic freedom. Visit www.worldofteaching.comwww.worldofteaching.com."— Presentation transcript:
World War II
Why do wars occur? Nations compete over natural resources. Individuals demand greater political and economic freedom. Visit For 100’s of free powerpoints
We will study 3 aspects of WWII The war in Europe with Germany and Italy The war in Asia with Japan The home front
What caused WWII in Europe? Germany wanted back what she lost from WWI, and revenge Appeasement – Great Britain and France gave Hitler land w/o fighting for it. Hitler was racist; he invaded countries simply to kill marginal populations – including Jews living there. The Great Depression affected many countries.
Treaty of Versailles – end of WWI The main points of the Treaty [BRAT] 1. Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war 2. Germany paid Reparations for the damage done during the war.
Versailles cont.. 3. Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men.
Versailles 4. Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe (see map). Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.
Depression in s Europe Economy was bad in Europe WWI killed a lot of workers and customers After years of humiliation and starvation, Germans looked for a strong leader.
NAZIs elected to power! Nazis promised to build up their army and get revenge for WWI. This is Adolf Hitler in 1933.
Benito Mussolini Dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. He established a repressive fascist regime that valued nationalism, militarism (strict censorship and state propaganda)fascist nationalism militarism censorship propaganda Mussolini became a close ally of German dictator Adolf Hitler.GermanAdolf Hitler
Germany late 1930s Germany escaped the Depression by militarizing. This is Berlin 1936
How did it begin?? Germany is in horrible shape after the Treaty of Versailles. The German people are united by a charismatic, military leader that promises change. Using propaganda, he appealed to the economic needs of the lower and middle classes. Hitler claimed nationalism, preached anti-Semitism and anti-communism. With the establishment of a restructured economy, a rearmed military, and a totalitarian and fascist regime, Hitler pursued an aggressive foreign policy with the intention of expanding German Lebensraum ("living space"), totalitarianfascist Lebensraum Hitler our last hope.
Appeasement – Hitler wanted land, Britain and France let him have it without war
So What Was Hitler Asking For? Return of German Speaking Lands - “Lebensraum” Austria - Peacefully Annexed in 1938 German Troops Parade in Streets of Czechoslovakian Town, ca. 1939
LAND AREAS TAKEN: 1. Austria is annexed. 2. Czechoslovakia taken over.
WWII started when Hitler invaded Poland 1939.
September 1 st 1939 Operation Weiss": German troops invade Poland. German tanks thundered across the Polish border at precisely 0445 hours, supported by Junkers Ju87 dive-bombers. Adolf Hitler was working on the new kind of warfare "Blitzkrieg ", Lightning War that involved massive use of tanks, motorized infantry and airforce. Tactics of Blitzkrieg designed new role for tanks, spearheads for quick penetration of enemy territory. At 9.00 am England and France issue an ultimatum to Germany.
INVASION OF POLAND
HITLER SIGNS NON-AGRESSION PACT WITH STALIN Hitler gained the time and freedom to attack the Countries on the Western front knowing that his back was covered by a Russian nation desperately trying to build up forces to protect themselves. Even though Stalin signed the pact, he had no trust in Hitler. Stalin knew Hitler would come, The Pact gave Stalin time to prepare.
THE FALL OF FRANCE The Maginot Line was ineffective because Germany went around it by going through Belgium. The German offensive trapped 400,000 British and French soldiers on the beaches of Dunkirk. (They had to be rescued) Italy invaded France from the south. Six weeks later on June 22, 1940 the world watched France surrender to Hitler. England was Hitler’s next target.
Fortress Europa In no time, Germany conquered most of Europe with tanks, planes, railroads.
Hitler in Paris
HITLER CONQUERS WESTERN EUROPE
Battle of Britain
BATTLE OF BRITIAN
BATTLE OF BRITAIN A. Hitler had 2,000 planes at his disposal. His goal was to gain total control of the English skies. B. On August 15 1,000 German planes bombed London. Then every night for two solid months the Germans bombed London. C. The British developed radar to plot the planes paths even in dark. D. By Sept 15,1940 the RAF shot down over 185 German planes while at the same time England lost only 26 aircraft. Six weeks later Hitler called off the invasion.
English Channel protected England Britain resisted German air force
HITLER INVADES RUSSIA 1. Unable to defeat the British, Hitler turns on Russia. 2. Hitler breaks his non- aggression treaty with Stalin and invades the city of Stalingrad. 3. The battle for Stalingrad lasted from June 1941 to January 31, The Germans lost 230,000 while the Russian lost 1,100,000 soldiers.
Tough cold winters killed many NAZI troops in USSR. Russian people are tough! 21 million dead, yet no surrender!
Invasion of Normandy, France
INVASION OF NORMANDY A. A force of 3 million British, American and Canadian troops together with tons of equipment and supplies the Allies planned the largest attack on France. This was the largest land-sea-air operation in army history. B. The Allies also set up a Phantom army at Calais 150 miles away from Normandy. C. German retaliation was brutal. The Normandy beaches were divided into 5 sectors: Utah Beach, Omaha Beach, Gold Beach, Juno Beach, and Sword Beach. D. Because of this invasion the Allies were able to invade Europe by land. Within a month they had landed a million troops, 567,000 tons of supplies and 170,000 vehicles in France E. By August 25, 1944 American troops liberated the French capital of Paris from four years of German occupation.
Germany’s end Germany invaded the Soviet Union and lost a million troops due to the cold and Russian bravery. Germany spent too many resources trying to kill Jews and not supporting his troops Germans fought Russians in the east and Americans and Brits in the West.
Germany surrenders May ‘45
Truman takes over Roosevelt dies. VP Truman takes over Truman's presidency included victory over Germany, Germany atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki,atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki surrender of Japan and the end of World War II,JapanWorld War II the founding of the United Nations,United Nations the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe, the Truman Doctrine to contain Communism, the beginning of the Cold War,Marshall Plan EuropeTruman DoctrineCold War 33 rd President
Hitler commits suicide The generally accepted cause of the death of Adolf Hitler on April 30, 1945 is suicide by gunshot and cyanide poisoning.April suicide cyanide The dual method and other circumstances surrounding the event encouraged rumors that Adolf Hitler may have survived the end of World War II along with speculation about what happened to his remainsAdolf HitlerWorld War II His soldiers claim that his body was burned in the compound that he was held up in.
Meanwhile, in the USA...
When? 1939 Sept.1 - Germany invades Poland (official start to the war ) Sept. 3 - Britain & France declare war on Germany Dec. 7 – Japan bombs Pearl Harbor; US enters the War 1941 May - Germans Surrender Sept. - Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japanese Surrender US involvement
US Isolationism Americans wanted to stay out of Europe’s wars. FDR wanted to help Britain anyway
Why? 4. Isolationism of Major Powers A. Why was the U.S. Isolationist? 1. Great Depression (problems at home) 2. Perceptions of WWI a. WWI did not seem to solve much b. People began to think that we’d got into WWI for the wrong reasons (greedy American businessmen!)
Why? 4. Isolationism of Major Powers B. This led to policies of “Appeasement” 1. Appeasement: give dictators what they want and hope that they won’t want anything else 2. Begins with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, and continues with Hitler...
USA had 2 oceans to protect them (sort of).
Lend Lease Act FDR sent war materials to Britain and the USSR. This is a Sherman tank
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. America enters WWII. December 7, 1941
Roosevelt responds to the Attack
Map of the Japanese Empire at its height in 1942.
Axis Powers Germany and Italy declared war immediately after Pearl Harbor. Germany, Italy and Japan made a deal to help each other in case one was attacked.
Allied Powers The Allies were the USA, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union (USSR). These are called the “big three.” In addition were the colonies and territories of these countries. These include China, Canada, Australia, France, Poland and others.
Dark Green: Allies before the attack on Pearl HarborAlliesattack on Pearl Harbor Light Green: Allied countries after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.attack on Pearl Harbor Orange: Axis PowersAxis Powers Lilac: Neutral countries during WWIINeutral countries during WWII Axis and Allied Powers
USA’s contribution was production, not blood.
People rationed goods for war use.
Women in workforce
Women’s efforts during World War II What did women have to do in order for the United States to still be a “large player” in the war?? Why did women have to go and do a “man’s job”?
Rosie the Riveter
Women in Forces
Women in the Forces
The Army was segregated, but African Americans served.
How did USA pay for this war?
Internment of Japanese Americans USA was afraid if Japan were to attack the Pacific coast, Japanese Americans would help them. The Government ordered them to move to camps.
Japanese Internment Reasons: Strong anti-Japanese prejudice on West Coast. False belief that Japanese Americans were aiding the enemy.
Strangely, Japanese Americans served in the Army
Meanwhile, in Asia...
Japan wanted China and the USSR. Japan is an island, and not a big one. They wanted more living space and resources for their “superior” people.
Japan wanted oil reserves Japan wanted more oil to invade China. America embargoed their oil in Indonesia Japan considered this an act of war.
Japan joins Axis Powers Germany was sick of the U.S. helping Britain with its lend lease program. Japan agreed to attack Pearl Harbor and distract the U.S. from Europe war.
ATTACK AT PEARL HARBOR
Battle for Midway Island If won, Japanese could have bombed Hawaii more from here. Major turning point
Turning Point in the War- Battle of Midway The battle was a crushing defeat for the Japanese and is widely regarded as the most important naval battle of World War II. The battle permanently weakened the Japanese Navy.World War II Japan intended on occupying midway and being able to control the seas.
Island Hopping – US fought to gradually reach Japan
Battle for Iwo Jima Island hopping became fact of the war with Japan. Died: 6800 US Japanese. This flag raising was a serious morale boost to soldiers on the island.
Yes or NO….? Truman struggles with the decision to drop the A- Bomb Should the bomb be dropped and thousands of innocent lives be lost…ENDING the war. “The End justifies the Means”
Why drop the Atomic Bomb? The Japanese had shown they would fight to the last man, woman and child. The atomic bomb saved as many as 1 million U.S. lives, and possibly many Japanese. Harry Truman said he dropped the bomb to end the war.
This plane dropped an atom bomb on Hiroshima
Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945
Victims in Hiroshima
Japan surrenders 1945
1945: Japan signs unconditional surrender
World War II deaths USSR22 million China11 million Germany7 million Poland7 million U.S.0.5 million Great Britain 0.3 million Japan1.5 million