Presentation on theme: "J. Robinson1,2, M. Ibraimo2,3, C Pemberton-Pigott1"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Uncontrolled Cooking Test: Measuring Three-Stone Fire Performance in Northern Mozambique J. Robinson1,2, M. Ibraimo2,3, C Pemberton-Pigott11. SeTAR Centre, University of Johannesburg2. Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg3. Department of Physics, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, MozambiqueDUE th April 2011
2 Background Importance of domestic biomass use in Mozambique 80% energy consumed is biomass71% live in rural areasCharacterize energy baseline of rural villages2010 field research programme2008 socio-economic study by M. IbraimoMuculuone village, Nampula Province, northern MozambiqueRural, poor, off-grid, subsistence farmingHeavy reliance (92%) on firewood and three-stone fireAimsMeasure baseline cooking energy patternsProvide data and experience for testing methodology devt.
3 Study SiteNampula ProvinceMuculuone VillageDUE 2011
4 Cooking Technology and Fuel Three-stone fireCooking XimaDUE 2011
5 Measuring Stove Performance Laboratory or FieldTrade-off between variability and relevance (task)Kitchen Performance Test (KPT)Fuel savings averaged over 3-7 days (kg/person/day)Resource intensiveHigh variance (CoV 30-50%)Controlled Cooking Test (CCT)Fuel consumed in cooking a standard meal (kg wood/Kg food)Less intensiveModerate variance (CoV 10-30%), representative?Middle ground?DUE 2011
6 The Uncontrolled Cooking Test (UCT) Measure real world performance of a cooking systemMeal not constrained, measuring as a household cooksWood used, food cooked (MJ wood/kg food)Shorter time per test = more tests or less peopleStronger and more representative data set with a better measure of inherent variability of real world useBut can the test method show less variance than the KPT and in doing so use the same or less resources?i.e. Detect a significant difference between a baseline and ‘improved’ scenario with a smaller sample sizeIf yes, of real use to carbon and development projectsDUE 2011
7 General Results29 UCT’s in 24 households over 4 days, 3 tests rejectedWood Average MCwet 13.1%, LHV (ARAF) 16.7 MJ kg-1General observationsAll households disposed of charAverage 5.0 ± 1.6 people per household77% households cooked using 2 pots sequentially58% cooked indoorsUniform operating method for three stone fireDUE 2010
8 UCT Results (1) Results presented as ‘no char’ and ‘with char’ High variance for time and food mass20% difference in SFC due to charSFC (no char) of 12.1 MJ wood per kg foodSFC CoV 25-30% is less than for KPT
9 UCT Results (2) Specific Fuel Consumption (no char case) R2 = 0.79 shows strong correlationLinear relationshipVariance around best fitDUE 2011
10 Conclusions and Recommendations UCT proved a capable and viable methodCaptured key user behaviourLess variation than typically reported by KPT (one case)Offers potential to detect a statistically significantly difference between baseline and ‘improved’ stove by using less resourcesFuture workVariability, error and sample sizeStatistical treatments (non linear)Correlate laboratory and field performance
11 Acknowledgements Vincent Molapo (UJ SeTAR) and Fabiano Simao (UEM) Village elders and households in MuculuoneNRF/ NRI funded SAMOZ programme - Prof H. Winkler (UJ) and Prof M. Falcão (UEM)UJ Quick Wins Programme, Volkswagen Stiftung Biomodels project through the IER, Uni. of StuttgartGTZ BECCAP/ProBEC for funding of UJ SeTAR centre and loan of vehicle.