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Chapter 10 Section 4 Wilson’s New Freedom.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Section 4 Wilson’s New Freedom."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Section 4 Wilson’s New Freedom

2 Reform on Many Fronts President Woodrow Wilson’s first priority was to lower tariffs Despite initial Senate opposition Congress passed {the Underwood Tariff Act of It reduced tariffs and introduced a graduated income tax} Next on Wilson’s agenda was banking reform at the time no banks had a central fund in which to borrow against. As a result it was common for banks collapsed when many people withdrew their deposits at the same time. Wilson helped draft the {Federal Reserve Act- a reform measure that established a central fund from which banks could borrow}

3 Federal Reserve Bank NYC

4 Continued…. The Federal Reserve Act created a three tier banking system At the top the Federal Reserve Board charge with running the system Second were 12 Federal Reserve banks that served banks rather than individuals At the third level were the private banks which could borrow from the Federal Reserve Banks at interest rates set by the Board

5 More on Reform….. Wilson also focused on business regialtion
He backed the passage of {The Clayton Antitrust Act which established regulations about what businesses could and could not do} For example companies could not sell goods below cost to drive other companies out of business. Nor could they buy competitors stock to create a monopoly {Wilson also backed the creation of the Federal Trade Commission to regulate corporate commerce} The FTC was authorized to investigate corporations and could issue “cease and desist orders” to companies engaged in unfair or fraudulent practices as well as use the courts to enforce its rulings

6 Farm and Labor Acts In 1916 Congress passed the Federal Farm Loan Act which provided low-interest loans to farmers by setting up 12 federal farm-loan banks The Adamson Act was passed that reduced the workday for railroad workers from 10 hours to 8 hours without cuts in pay The Federal Workmen’s Compensation Act was passed to provide benefits for those injured on the job

7 Railroad Workers 1912

8 Child Labor The administration was less successful in its campaign against child labor. {Mary Harris Jones was a labor organizer and opponent of child labor} Rising protests prompted Congress to pass the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act in Backed by Wilson the act outlawed the interstate sale of products produced by child labor In 1918, however, the Supreme Court declared the law unconstitutional because it restricted commerce instead of directly outlawing child labor

9 Mary Harris Jones


11 The Struggle for Women’s Suffrage
{Interests opposed to national women’s suffrage in the United States until 1920 included liquor manufacturers who feared women would vote for prohibition and businesses that worried that women workers would demand better pay} One leading force in the women’s suffrage movement was the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) In 1914 Alice Paul broke away from the NAWSA and formed the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage which later became the National Woman’s Party


13 Continued…. {The National Woman’s Party focused its efforts on a constitutional amendment to win the vote for women} {Alice Paul adopted strategies of British suffragists to demonstrate the importance of women’s right to vote} These attention-getting strategies included round the clock protests, chaining themselves to railings and hunger strikes Energized by the leadership of Carrie Chapman Catt the NAWSA continued to use traditional political strategies to attain voting rights

14 Alice Paul

15 The National Woman’s Party

16 Oh there’s still more….. {early in her career, Carrie Chapman Catt won the right to speak publicly at her school’s literary society debates} she remained a political and social activist until her death in 1947 After the U.S. entered World War I leaders of the movement as well as millions of American women lent strong support to the war effect Their patriotism helped weaken the opposition to women’s suffrage In 1919 Congress proposed the Nineteenth Amendment granting women full voting rights. It was ratified in 1920.

17 Wassily Kandinsky; Improvisation 28 (1912),
{The Armory Show was organized to introduce the American public to modern art} Wassily Kandinsky; Improvisation 28 (1912),

18 Review Question What did the Underwood Tariff Act of 1913 do?
Which Act established regulations about what businesses could and could not do? This woman was a labor organizer and opponent of child labor The National Woman’s Party focused its efforts on a constitutional amendment to attain what for women? Early in her career, Carrie Chapman Catt won the right to do what at her school’s literary society debates

19 The King and Queen Surrounded by Swift Nudes by Marcel Duchamp

20 L'Affiche de Kubelick (Le Violon), by Georges Braque

21 Wisdom and Destiny by Henry G. Keller

22 Constantin Brancusi, The Muse, 1912, marble

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