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Chapter 19 Section 3 The Cold War Turns Hot.

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1 Chapter 19 Section 3 The Cold War Turns Hot

2 Communist Victory in China
A revolution in 1911 left China a chaotic republic Upset with the republic and inspired by the Bolshevik Revolution, a group of Chinese students began the Chinese Communist Party by the mid 1920’s civil war broke out Chiang Kai-shek led the nationalist party against the Communists {But then when WWII broke out the Nationalists and the Communists worked together to join forces against Japanese attacks} When the war ended the civil war continued. The Communists had kept Japan from taking northwest China and {the Chinese Communist Party leader Mao Zedong} gave that land to Chinese peasants. This won him support and increased army recruits

3 Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong

4 Continued…. The U.S. did not want China to become a communist country
During WWII the U.S. sent troops and supplies to China to unite them under the Nationalists President Truman sent General George C. Marshall to China in 1945 to negotiate a truce between the two parties Neither Chiang nor Mao would compromise By 1949 Mao had gained control of most of China Realizing defeat, Chiang and his troops fled to Taiwan {The Communists prevailed in China; thus, The Peoples Republic of China was established} The U.S. refused to recognize the new government



7 The Korean War Begins At the end of WWII in 1945 the Allies divided Korea into two zones. Soviets occupied the north zone and U.S. troops held the south In 1948, North Korea and South Korea set up separate governments Communist North Korea led by Kim il Sung became known as the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea {South Korea under President Syngman Rhee called itself the Republic of Korea} By 1949 the U.S. and the S.U. had withdrawn troops from Korea, leaving the Korean armies facing each other at the border June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea The U.N. Security Council called for a cease-fire On June 27, Truman pledged his support for South Korea


9 Bitter Fighting {The U.S. troops were sent into action in South Korea under General Douglas MacArthur.} The U.S. and South Korea were at first overwhelmed. After all North Korea had the Soviet Union and Communist China close by to restock supplies and weapons By September, the North Koreans had nearly taken all of South Korea The U.S. and S.K. forced were backed into an area around the city of Pusan On September 15, 1950, MacArthur launched a counterattack in which they were able to push forward and recapture Seoul Other UN armies that remained around Pusan attacked the North Koreans from the south.


11 Continued…. North Koreans were surrendering by the thousands
The UN armies began to advance to the Yalu River (the border between China and North Korea) Then the tables turned when China sent some 300,000 troops across the Yalu This was the first time that China directly intervened in the war Outnumbered the UN forces fell back After much fighting MacArthur was able to establish a defensive line near the 38th parallel. With the involvement of China now being an issue MacArthur called for a major expansion of the war He called for the blockade of China’s coast and the bombing of its interior, then to let loose Chiang’s forces to invade the mainland


13 Conflict Between Truman and MacArthur
MacArthur’s plan received mixed reactions, some believed that an attack on China would bring the S.U. into the conflict and spark another world war. President Truman was among those who opposed the attack on China MacArthur blatantly defied Truman and appealed to Congress and gave the enemy an ultimatum for unconditional surrender This severely upset Truman’s plans for peaceful negotiations so {Truman had MacArthur removed from his post in April 1951. The general public was upset with Truman’s actions.} {They gave MacArthur a hero’s welcome} and began booing the president during his public appearances Over the next several months, the American death toll increased This became a huge issue in the election of 1952

14 The Election of 1952 With the war at a stalemate and peace talks doing little to no good, Truman decided not to run for office again {The Republican's chose WWII hero Dwight D. Eisenhower to run with Richard Nixon as his running mate} The Democratic nominations was Adlai Stephenson Stephenson was no match for Eisenhower’s patriotic appeal. Eisenhower received 55% of the popular vote and won the electoral vote 442 to 89 President Eisenhower kept his promise to end the war. Eisenhower stepped up bombing raids and insinuated to North Korea that he would use nuclear weapons if necessary. On July 27, 1953 they agreed to an ceasefire and kept the country divided at the 38th parallel


16 Fighting Communism Abroad
Eisenhower’s team suggested a policy of brinkmanship, or the threat of all out war in order to confront Communism, including the use of nuclear weapons. Eisenhower instead went with a more covert and diplomatic policy {He used the Central Intelligence Agency to gather strategic information and undergo covert missions} He first tested his policy in Iran where he succeeded in removing Mohammad Mosaddeq But this interference in Iranian affairs provoked anti-American feelings in Iran He then moved on to Guatemala, where he suspected the democratically elected president of being sympathetic to communism because he was giving land to poor people CIA-led forces bombed the capital in June 1954 and installed a new pro-US government Now Latin America had animosity towards the U.S. too.

17 The Story Behind The Story
The CIA involvement in Guatemala was a lot more about fruit than about communism and the Cold War. However, the Cold War ethos was a guise to what was really behind the covert actions of the government which was ultimately seen as the most successful coup in CIA history. The power of the fear of communism turned out to be a helpful aid in the economic plights of Washington. Although the threat of communistic expansion in Latin America was real, the United States Government saw another problem arising in the country of Guatemala where the United States run United Fruit Company, a business that had been introduced into Guatemala in 1904, was having problems with the president Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in the 50s. Arbenz became the leader of Guatemala in His plans were to immediately take control over the country through independent development. He saw the impoverishment of his fellow countrymen as the fat cats of America growing fatter off his land and realized that there must be change. President Arbenz saw the UNFCO as the reason why Guatemala continued to be underdeveloped, and made plans to stop the "stranglehold" that the company had over the country. The company which had strong influence in Washington was not about to let this happen, therefore the CIA organized an intricate plan to overthrow Arbenz; this plan worked.

18 The Suez Crisis Sometimes Eisenhower did use diplomacy rather than aggressive actions to deal In 1955 after the U.S. withdrew an offer to finance a dam in Egypt, Egyptian leader nationalized the Suez Canal As a result, the western oil trade was threatened and Egypt began to refuse to allow ships that were bound for Israel to pas through In October, Israel attacked Egyptian territory near the Suez canal. Britain and France interfered and seized the waterway. The S.U. threatened war if the nations did not leave Egypt Eisenhower swooped in and persuaded a reluctant, Britain, France and Israel to let it go and the conflict eased In order to counter the new relationship between the S.U. and the Arabs, Eisenhower issued the Eisenhower Doctrine, which offered military aid to any Middle Eastern nation seeking help to resist Communist aggression


20 Uprising in Eastern Europe
{After Stalin died in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev took his place.} He accused Stalin of committing ruthless crimes Hoping that this accusation would allow for reform, Polish reformers began calling for more political freedom Inspired by Poland, thousands of Hungarians stormed the streets to demand reform, seized control of the government and called for a Western-style democracy and for succession from the Warsaw Pact. Khrushchev quickly moved troops into Budapest, imposed martial law and imprisoned or executed the rebel leaders Despite pleas, Eisenhower refused to send aid to Hungary for fear of starting a war. He did, however, loosen immigration laws that allowed about 40,000 Hungarians to flee to the U.S.

21 Soviet troops in Budapest
Nikita Khrushchev

22 A Brief Thaw in the Cold War
In the late 1950’s the U.S. and the S.U. made efforts to improve their relationship In 1959, Vice President Richard Nixon visited the Soviet Union Then Premier Khrushchev came to the U.S. He and Eisenhower agreed to meet in Paris the following year to discuss arms reductions Right before that conference was supposed to take place, Khrushchev announced that an American U-2 spy plane had been shot down over the S.U. The U.S. tried to lie and say that is was a weather research plane, but the pilot had been captured and admitted he was on a spying mission Khrushchev refused to go to the Paris meeting unless the U.S. stopped the spy missions and apologized Eisenhower promised the U-2 flights would stop, but refused to apologize Khrushchev refused to ever meet with Eisenhower again These events became known as the U-2 Incident

23 < The U-2 bomber in flight
The wreckage > of the U-2 bomber that was shot down in the Soviet Union

24 American Pilot Gary Powers on trial for espionage


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