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The War in Vietnam Chapter 24 section 1 and 2.

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Presentation on theme: "The War in Vietnam Chapter 24 section 1 and 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 The War in Vietnam Chapter 24 section 1 and 2

2 Background to Conflict
Vietnam lost its independence during the surge of European Imperialism in the 1800’s They lost their Independence to the French in 1833 Most Vietnamese stayed loyal to a free Vietnam Foremost of the Vietnamese nationalists was Ho Chi Minh

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4 Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh was a Vietnamese nationalist living in China and the Soviet Union working for Independence During this time he became committed to the Ideals of Communism When the Germans Invaded France during the second World War Japan took control of Indo China (Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos) This is when Ho Chi Minh saw his chance He returned to Vietnam in 1941 and organized a resistance movement

5 France and the Vietminh go to war
The Vietminh were Ho Chi Minh’s group that declared independence when Japan surrendered to the US In order to gain the US support he echoed the declaration of independence in his speech However the French wanted their former territory back and were sending in troops by 1946 The US supported France because they were seen as an ally in the fight against communism

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7 Continued He was also unwilling to back Ho Chi Minh because of his communist party connections This was further complicated by Mao Zedong’s communist party taking over China and The US helping South Korea fight against a Communist North Korea This led to the Domino Theory that stated if Vietnam fell to Communism then the rest of Southeast Asia would follow This theory led to the backing of the French and the eventual involvement in a losing war The French surrendered May 7, 1954

8 The Geneva Conference One day after the surrender there was a conference to determine what to be done with Indochina. China had been helping the Vietminh and hoped to limit US influence in the region And the US did not want Vietnam to become communist There was an agreement to divide Vietnam at the 17th parallel The French regained control in the South

9 17th parallel

10 New South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem was an anticommunist who had spent several years in the US He had the backing of powerful backers who were determined to get him elected In 1955 Ngo Dinh Diem became president of the new Republic of Vietnam The election was rigged in Diem’s favor receiving 150,000 more votes than there were registered voters in Saigon. Then a year later when there were supposed to be another election Diem refused to hold it

11 Ngo Dinh Diem

12 Ngo Dinh Diem Diem was a roman Catholic which was unpopular with the in the large Buddhist population his reign of terror against his political enemies torturing those who he thought to want to overthrow his presidency The Vietminh created the National Liberation Front or NLF its members called the Vietcong Eventually the Buddhist became oppressed when they started to outwardly oppose Diem. In protest the set themselves on fire. The next picture is gruesome if you want to close your eyes

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14 Diem’s Overthrow The US supported the over throw of Diem and in 1963 they murdered Diem and his brother President Johnson then needed to have Congress backing to get more involvement in Vietnam The Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave the president the authority to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attacks against US forces This gave the President the authority to expand the war

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16 US Forces in Vietnam Johnson soon called for a buildup of troops in Vietnam He ordered the selective service to call up more men for the armed forces with the draft During the war more than 2 million American men served in Vietnam including those that were drafted one out of four draftees were excused for health reasons and 30% more received deferments (or postponed service) The deferments that were received were due to college educations leaving the poorer classes who could not afford college to fight for them

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18 Continued As a result poor Americans were drafted in record numbers
Minorities went into combat in high numbers In the early years of the war African Americans accounted for 24% of battle deaths even though they made up only 11% of the armed forces 10,000 women experienced the horrors of the war mostly as nurses on the ground in Vietnam Another 20,000 to 45,000 worked for the war in civilian organizations like the red cross

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20 The war in the air President Johnson hoped to gain a quick victory and launched Operation Rolling Thunder This was a bombing campaign that was to weaken the enemies will to fight A key target was the Ho Chi Minh trail. A network of jungle paths for supplies and weapons When this didn’t work they started dropping more bombs along with chemicals that helped kill the vegetation in order to expose the Vietcong and kill their natural food supply

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24 The Ground War The constant bombing that eventually started even in the south led some south Vietnamese to join the Vietcong The US tripled the number of ground troops but it did not seem to effect the Vietcong who appeared to be everywhere The US started Search and Destroy missions to find the Vietcong and then bomb their location They would then move on to find the next location that needed to be bombed

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26 continued Snipers and booby traps made these missions very dangerous and frustrating The US then started to move whole villages and burn them to the ground Instead of using land taken as a way to mark progress they instead used a body count The body count was usually wrong cause they said if its dead and Vietnamese, its Vietcong This was not always true and the morale in winning Vietnam dropped

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28 The Media and the war This war like never before was seen by the world
American television showed images of frightened Vietnamese and dead or injured soldiers As a result Americans saw images that seemed to contradict the government reports The administration found itself criticized by both Doves and Hawks Doves- were people opposed to the war Hawks- supported the wars goal’s

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30 The Anti-War movement The large fatality rate and images that were on the television spurred the anti-war movement Students, professionals, homemakers and the retired people started to come together in protests against the war They called for an immediate end to the war Despite their high visibility they made up a small percent of the US population Some extreme groups believed it was one’s patriotic duty to fight for their country The other extremists burned the flag in protest

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34 Assignment Those on the left side of the room must write a paragraph defending the War from the perspective of an American of the time Those on the right must write a paragraph protesting the war from the perspective of an American of the time


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