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Chapter 19 Section 4 The Cold War At Home.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 Section 4 The Cold War At Home."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19 Section 4 The Cold War At Home

2 Another Red Scare The Cold War had a huge impact on the U.S.
Congress came up with the National Security Council to advise the president on strategic matters Congress replaced the War Department with the Department of Defense, combining all the branches of the military under the Joint Chiefs of Staff It also established the CIA to gather information Although Truman obviously was opposed to communism, some Republicans accused him of allowing Communists in the U.S. government Truman responded by setting up the Loyalty Review Board to investigate all government employees By the end 20,000 were investigated, 2,000 resigned and more than 300 were fired

3 *open source describes a broad general type of software license that makes source code available to the general public with relaxed or non-existent copyright restrictions.

4 Continued…. Leading Congress in the fight against communism in the U.S. was the House Un-American Activities Committee The HUAC investigated and questioned peace organizations, liberal political groups and even Hollywood {A group of directors and writers known as the Hollywood Ten chose jail rather than answer the HUAC questions,} for this they were blacklisted The hysteria created by the HUAC spread quickly Any group or person that spoke out against the HUAC being undemocratic were investigated

5 The Hollywood Ten *For those of you who are paying enough attention to notice there are 12 men in the picture; the two men on either side in the front row are their lawyers

6 The Search for Spies In 1948, {a lawyer named Alger Hiss was accused of being a Communist spy and giving federal documents to the Soviets} When Hess sued his accuser, Whittaker Chambers, for slander, Whittaker produced copies of documents that proved Hess had lied to the HUAC. Hiss was convicted of perjury and sentenced to 5 years in prison {In 1951 a court convicted Julius and Ethel Rosenberg of providing the Soviets with atomic energy secrets during WWII} Despite the testimony that they were innocent victims of the anti-red hysteria and world wide protests, the Rosenbergs were executed in June of 1953

7 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, convicted of passing nuclear weapons secrets to the Soviet Union, were the first American civilians executed for espionage. Ethel's brother, David Greenglass, who was an employee of the Los Alamos atomic bomb project, passed secrets to Julius and Ethel, who then funneled them to the Soviets. At 8:05 pm on June 19, 1953, Julius was executed. Ten minutes later Ethel was also executed, although the first 57-second jolt of electricity failed to kill her. She received two more before being pronounced dead. Controversy about the Rosenberg case persists to this day, especially about the degree of Ethel's actual involvement in the espionage and the appropriateness of death as the penalty for her.

8 McCarthyism Wisconsin Senator, Joseph McCarthy helped to escalade the red scare In 1950 McCarthy claimed to possess a list of Communists who worked for the State Department Although he never produced a list of any kind and had no evidence dozens of people lost their jobs and hundreds of reputations were ruined by McCarthy’s accusations Out of fear of communism and the Soviet Union many supported his crusade One who did challenge him was Maine Senator, Margaret Chase Smith who along with others issued the Declaration of Conscience which condemned those who turned the Senate into “a forum of hate and character assassination”

9 Senator Margaret Chase Smith
Senator Joseph McCarthy Senator Margaret Chase Smith

10 McCarthy’s Downfall The few who did come out to criticize McCarthy did so in the form of the arts Playwright Arthur Miller, compared McCarthyism to the Salem Witch Trials in The Crucible Newscaster Edward R. Murrow questioned McCarthy’s ethics and tactics on the TV program See It Now In 1954, McCarthy stated that there were Communists in the U.S. Army Each day the American public tuned their TV’s in to the Army-McCarthy hearings McCarthy was publicly viewed relentlessly slandering, bullying and ridiculing high ranking war heroes The 35 days of hearings never produced any evidence to back up McCarthy’s claims A few months later the Senate condemned McCarthy for conduct unbecoming a Senator


12 Nuclear Anxiety The increased conflict between the U.S. and the S.U. led to a race to develop more powerful nuclear weapons In 1950 U.S. scientists began the development of the Hydrogen Bomb claiming it would be 1,000 times stronger that the A-bomb {The first test of an H-bomb by the U.S. in 1952, completely decimated an island in the Pacific} (by decimated I mean gone, no longer exists at all.) Nine months later the Soviet Union tested its own H-bomb


14 Religion and Nuclear War
Fear of a nuclear war turned many people to seek comfort in religion Evangelists such as Billy Graham, urged Americans to turn to God. Church memberships grew rapidly Reflecting this religious zeal, Congress added “one nation under God” to the Pledge of Allegiance and “In God we Trust” to coins

15 Nuclear Fallout While the thought of an H-bomb was scary enough, the thought of radioactive fallout- a by-product of nuclear explosions, was worse Out of this, shelter manufacturers came about. For about $1500, you got a concrete and steel igloo that contained flashlights, a first aid kit, a battery radio, portable toilet, 2 weeks worth of food and water. In 1957, Congress held a hearing about the dangers of radioactive fallout. Defense officials claimed that nuclear testing was safe. Scientists disagreed At the hearing experts testified to the effects of nuclear testing on the environment and cancer and other health risks in humans Soon after a campaign against nuclear testing emerged


17 Space Programs As the arms race was progressing, a new race began
In October 1957, {the S.U. launched Sputnik the first artificial satellite} This worried Americans, leading them to think that the S.U. was more technologically advanced Then in November, the S.U. launched Sputnik II which had a dog aboard. The craft orbited Earth for almost 200 days. (its crappy life support system kept the dog alive for only a couple of days) {In January 1958, the U.S. sent up its first satellite Explorer I} starting the space race. Soon, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created {In 1958, Congress approved the National Defense Education Act which gave millions of dollars to improve education in science, math and foreign languages}

18 < Sputnik I V Sputnik II ^ Explorer I




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