2I. Science means ‘to know’ (in Latin) A. Science is:A body of knowledgeA process to learn aboutthe worldB. Biology is:Study of LifeBiologists study the diversity of Life
31-Living things are made up of cells Characteristics of Living Things:1-Living things are made up of cells2-Living things reproduce (not essential for survival but essential for continuation of species)species = group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring3-Living things changegrowth and development
4Living Organisms possess ALL of the characteristics of life 4-Living things adjust to their surroundings (stimulus / response interactions)5-Maintain homeostasis (balance internal condition)6-Living things adapt and evolve7-All Living things must get and use energy8-Have a DNA genomeLiving Organisms possess ALL of the characteristics of life
5So, What Is The difference: Growth Vs. DevelopmentGrowth: Refers to an increase in size.Development: Deals with maturationAdapt Vs. EvolveAdapt: Inheritance of traits that make you better suited for the Env.Evolution: The sum of all the Successful adaptations.For example: A person can grow in size but not be physically, mentally, or sexually developed.
6Homeo…. What???Homeostasis: Process by which organisms maintain constant and stable internal conditions. (temperature, blood glucose levels, hormone levels)Your body works like the furnace and thermostat in your home. The negative feedback loops run until they get to the proper level, like the temperature setting of the thermostat and then stops until they need to be adjusted again.
7The Scientific Method: a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypothesesObservation: Using your senses to gather data.Inference: The process of drawing logical explanations about what something means.Hypothesis: A testable statement and possible explanation of an event based on prior knowledge and observationsPrediction: A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular event will occur in the future. Usually written as an If /Then statement.
8Types of Observations: Observation and/or DataQualitativeNOT measured using numbers.IE: BeautyQuantitativeIE: Height, weight, etcCan be measured
10Kinds of DATAQuantitative: produces numerical data that can be comparatively analyzed in graphs and tablesa. Tables: Title Table, Columns & Rows have titlesb. Graphs: -3 main types:line Graphs (measures change/ time)bar (used for comparing groups)circle (pie) (shows %)Qualitative: Descriptive data; written descriptions of observations
11Observation Vs. Inference Activity Mrs. Wade will be absent for the rest of the term. She won the lottery and thus decided to take a cruise around the world with her friends, Mrs. Walton and Mrs. Fernandez. She has left each team a bag personal items. She would like you to make 2 observations and two inferences about the contents (you have 5 minutes for this activity).Non-related example: You observed that the ground was wet. Therefore, you infer that it had just rained.
12Applying The Scientific Method make observations /state problemform hypothesisdesign controlledexperimentcollect dataanalyze resultsmay not supporthypothesismay supporthypothesisdraw conclusion /publishform a newhypothesis
13The Scientific Method Students (state the problem) Hate (hypothesis) Every (experiment)Dumb (data)Class (conclusion)
14B. Parts of a Controlled Experiment Types of VariablesIndependent variable (on x-axis)(aka Manipulated variable):a factor that is manipulated/determined by experimenter to see what the result will beDependent variable (on y-axis)(aka Responding variable):a factor that responds to the changes in the independent variable what the experimenter is looking for
16Independent Variables In other words…Independent VariablesDescriptionsDependent VariablesCause\EffectBeforeAfterInputOutputWhat you doIFWhat happensTHEN
17Dependent Vs. Independent Variables Types of VariablesDependent variables (responding )Is Always graphed on Y-axis (DRY)Independent Variable (manipulated)Is Graphed on the X- AxisMIX
18Parts of a Controlled Experiment Control Group: the group for which the testing conditions are not applied (may receive the Placebo). Experimental groups: the groups where all conditions are held constant EXCEPT the one being tested Controlled variables: (controls) Variables that the experimenters keep the same throughout the experiment.
19An Example ExperimentMrs. Fernandez’s son, Dominick, would like to know what will happen to his gummy bears if he places them in water. So, he obtains three (3) gummy bears (all are of the same brand). He places one in 20 mls of water for 3hrs, the other for 12 hrs, and the last for 24 hrs. He uses a 25ml graduated cylinder each bear.3 mL6 mL0 mL
20Your Turn….What is the independent variable in Dominick’s experiment? In what axis do graph it?What is the dependent variable in the experiment? In what axis do you graph it?What are the controlled variables in the experiment?
21C. Drawing a ConclusionThe conclusion should always have two main parts.Confirm or reject the hypothesisWas the hypothesis correct?Overall statement of what was learnedWhat happened and why did it happen?What’s the main idea?
22D. Publishing ResultsWhen a hypothesis has been tested and supported many times, a theory may be developed and published.A Theory is the best explanation science has to offer about a problem after much experimentation and collection of facts.A scientific Law explains a natural phenomena and is consistently observed
23III. Other things to keep in mind: A. Always use metric system!Distance: metersVolume: litersTemperature: oCMass: grams
24How many jumps does it take? Ladder Method123KILO 1000 UnitsHECTO 100 UnitsDEKA 10 UnitsDECI 0.1 UnitMeters Liters GramsCENTI 0.01 UnitMILLI UnitHow do you use the “ladder” method?1st – Determine your starting point.2nd – Count the “jumps” to your ending point.3rd – Move the decimal the same number of jumps in the same direction.4 km = _________ mStarting PointEnding PointHow many jumps does it take?4.1__.2__.3__.= 4000 m
25Gummy Bear Lab Read lab directions in lab hand-out and on board Conduct the lab.Clean up (everything must be spotless when lab is completed).Graph and answer questionsTurn in assignment.
27Redi’s Experiment on Spontaneous Generation OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat.HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots.PROCEDUREControlled Variables:jars, type of meat,location, temperature,timeManipulated Variables:gauze covering thatkeeps flies away frommeatUncovered jarsCovered jarsSeveraldays passMaggots appearNo maggots appearResponding Variable:whether maggotsappearCONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur.
28Identifying Variables Two groups of students were tested to compare their speed working math problems. Each student was given the same problems. One group used calculators and the other group computed without calculators.What is the independent/manipulated variable?What is the dependent/responding variable?What is the controlled variable?
29Identifying Variables A study was done with an electromagnet system made from a battery and wire wrapped around a nail. Different sizes of nails were used and the number of paper clips that the electromagnet could pick up was measured.What is the manipulated variable?What is the responding variable?What are the controlled variables?
30Identifying Variables A study was attempted to find if the length of the string in a string telephone affected its sound clarity.What is the independent variable?What is the dependent variable?What are the controlled variables?
31Your Turn..Do the next three examples on your own and see how well you understand the concept.
32Identifying Variables An experiment was performed to determine how the amount of coffee grounds could affect the taste of coffee. The same kind of coffee, the same percolator, the same amount and type of water, the same perking time, and the same electrical source were used.What is the manipulated variable?What is the responding variable?What are the controlled variables?
33Identifying Variables Students of different ages were given the same puzzle to assemble. The puzzle assembly time was measured.What is the independent/manipulated variable?What is the dependent/responding variable?What is the controlled variable?
34Identifying Variables A study was done to find if different tire treads affect the braking distance of a car.What is the independent variable?What is the dependent variable?What is the controlled variable?
35What is the Diff?A scientific Law explains a natural phenomena and is consistently observedThe law of gravity & Newton's Law’s of MotionA Theory is a well tested and complex explanation based on much experimentation and collection of facts-The theory of evolution & theory of relativity
36But That’s NOT All ALL!How is THEORY used in everyday speech that is scientifically incorrect?Michael might say that he has a theory that Mrs. Wade will yell at the class today…What would be a more ACCURATE word to use?If he had made the same statement but had replaced theory with hypothesis, THEN he would be scientifically correct!
37Oh no… Here come the metric problems! Practice, practice, practice until your good becomes your better and your better becomes your best!
38Click the image to watch a short video about the meter. Metric UnitskmmcmmmThe basic unit of length in the metric system in the meter and is represented by a lowercase m.Standard: The distance traveled by light in absolute vacuum in 1⁄299,792,458 of a second.Metric Units1 Kilometer (km) = 1000 meters1 Meter = 100 Centimeters (cm)1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters (mm)Click the image to watch a short video about the meter.Which is larger?A. 1 meter or 105 centimetersB. 4 kilometers or 4400 metersC. 12 centimeters or 102 millimetersD millimeters or 1 meter
39Measuring Length How many millimeters are in 1 centimeter? 1 centimeter = 10 millimetersHow many millimeters are in 1 centimeter?What is the length of the line in centimeters? _______cmWhat is the length of the line in millimeters? _______mmWhat is the length of the line to the nearest centimeter? ________cmHINT: Round to the nearest centimeter – no decimals.Ruler:
40Metric UnitskggcgmgKilogram PrototypeMass refers to the amount of matter in an object.The base unit of mass in the metric system in the kilogram and is represented by kg.Standard: 1 kilogram is equal to the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram (IPK), a platinum-iridium cylinder kept by the BIPM at Sèvres, France.Metric Units1 Kilogram (km) = 1000 Grams (g)1 Gram (g) = 1000 Milligrams (mg)Click the image to watch a short video about mass.Which is larger?A. 1 kilogram or 1500 gramsB milligrams or 1 gramC. 12 milligrams or 12 kilogramsD. 4 kilograms or 4500 gramsKilogram Prototype Image -
41Measuring MassWe will be using electronic balances to find the mass of various objects in this course.A weigh boat, paper towel of some container with be placed on the balance first and you will tare it, zero it out. The the objects are placed in the container and on the scale. The digital read-out has two decimal places, which is the mass of the object in grams.Top Image: Bottom Image:
42Measuring Mass – Electronic Balance a- make sure the balance reads 0.00 gb-place weigh boat or container you will use to hold the material that is to be massed on balance and press ON button just long enough for the read-out to once again show 0.00 g (tare weigh boat)c. remove the weigh boat and put the material in itd. carefully place full weigh boat on balance and read to 2 decimal placese- remove items, clean up, & zero out balance
43Click the image to watch a short video about volume. Metric UnitskLcLmLLVolume is the amount of space an object takes up.The base unit of volume in the metric system in the liter and is represented by L or l.Standard: 1 liter is equal to one cubic decimeterMetric Units1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL)1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cm3 (or cc) = 1 gram*Which is larger?Click the image to watch a short video about volume.A. 1 liter or 1500 millilitersB. 200 milliliters or 1.2 litersC. 12 cm3 or 1.2 milliliters** When referring to water Liter Image:
44Measuring VolumeWe will be using graduated cylinders to find the volume of liquids and other objects.Read the measurement based on the bottom of the meniscus or curve. When using a real cylinder, make sure you are eye-level with the level of the water.What is the volume of water in the cylinder? _____mLWhat causes the meniscus?A concave meniscus occurs when the molecules of the liquid attract those of the container. The glass attracts the water on the sides.Top Image: Bottom Image:
45Measuring Liquid Volume What is the volume of water in each cylinder?Images created atABCPay attention to the scales for each cylinder.
46Measuring Solid Volume 10 cm9 cm8 cmWe can measure the volume of regular object using the formula length x width x height._____ X _____ X _____ = _____We can measure the volume of irregular object using water displacement.Amount of H2O with object = ______ About of H2O without object = ______ Difference = Volume = ______
47Remember the Ladder Method 123KILO 1000 UnitsHECTO 100 UnitsDEKA 10 UnitsDECI 0.1 UnitMeters Liters GramsCENTI 0.01 UnitMILLI UnitHow do you use the “ladder” method?1st – Determine your starting point.2nd – Count the “jumps” to your ending point.3rd – Move the decimal the same number of jumps in the same direction.4 km = _________ mStarting PointEnding PointHow many jumps does it take?4.1__.2__.3__.= 4000 m
48Lets Practice Metric Conversions!!! Write the correct abbreviation for each metric unit.1) Kilogram _____ 4) Milliliter _____ 7) Kilometer _____2) Meter _____ 5) Millimeter _____ 8) Centimeter _____3) Gram _____ 6) Liter _____ 9) Milligram _____Try these conversions, using the ladder method.10) 2000 mg = _______ g 15) 5 L = _______ mL 20) 16 cm = _______ mm11) 104 km = _______ m 16) 198 g = _______ kg 21) 2500 m = _______ km12) 480 cm = _____ m 17) 75 mL = _____ L 22) 65 g = _____ mg13) 5.6 kg = _____ g 18) 50 cm = _____ m 23) 6.3 cm = _____ mm14) 8 mm = _____ cm 19) 5.6 m = _____ cm 24) 120 mg = _____ g
50MicroscopesAround 1590, two Dutch eye glass makers, Zaccharias Janssen and his father Hans put several lenses in a tube and invented the compound microscope (which is a microscope that uses two or more lenses).
51________ passes through object Differentiate between Compound Light Microscopes and Electron MicroscopesCompound LightElectronHow is object viewed?________ passes through objectbeam of _______ illuminates objectWhat is the magnification?_______ x ______up to ______xlightelectronseyepiece objectivemuch greater magnification2000
52More on Microscopes The eyepiece or ocular lens usually has a magnification of 10 times (10x)Total magnification is determinedby multiplying the eyepiece magnification times theobjective lens
53Label the parts of the microscope: a- eyepieceb- stagec- diaphragmd- coarse adjustmente- fine adjustmentf- armg- objectiveh- basedefgbch
54More on MicroscopesThe two lenses in compound microscopes are eyepiece (ocular) and objective (although there may be more than one)You always carry a microscope with two hands- grasping the arm and the baseThe specimen is placed on a slide and onto the stage when viewed
55More on MicroscopesIn the microscope’s the field of view is always a circleALWAYS label total magnification on your drawingsThen label nameof specimen andidentified structures
56More on MicroscopesMeasuring the microscope field of view on lowest power-Place a clear plastic ruler with mm markings on top of the stage of your microscope. Using lowest power objective, focus your image. Count how many divisions of the ruler fit across the diameter of the field of view. Multiply the number of divisions by 1000 to obtain the field of view in micrometers (µm). Record this in µm (micrometers) (1mm = 1000 µm)
57Microscopes What is a light/compound microscope? Click on the link below for more microscope factscompound microscope facts
58Microscopes What is an electron microscope? What is the difference between TEM (transmission electron microscope) and a SEM (scanning electron microscope)?Allows scientists to view a universe too small tobe seen with a light microscope. They don’t uselight waves; they use electrons (negatively chargedelectrical particles) to magnify objects up to twomillion times.TEMs allows beams of electrons to go through thespecimen while SEMs beams of electrons bounceoff of the specimen and result in a 3D image.All images are black and white…why?
59Electron Microscope game Click the link!microscope game