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**Biology: The Study of Life**

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**I. Science means ‘to know’ (in Latin)**

A. Science is: A body of knowledge A process to learn about the world B. Biology is: Study of Life Biologists study the diversity of Life

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**1-Living things are made up of cells **

Characteristics of Living Things: 1-Living things are made up of cells 2-Living things reproduce (not essential for survival but essential for continuation of species) species = group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring 3-Living things changegrowth and development

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**Living Organisms possess ALL of the characteristics of life**

4-Living things adjust to their surroundings (stimulus / response interactions) 5-Maintain homeostasis (balance internal condition) 6-Living things adapt and evolve 7-All Living things must get and use energy 8-Have a DNA genome Living Organisms possess ALL of the characteristics of life

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**So, What Is The difference:**

Growth Vs. Development Growth: Refers to an increase in size. Development: Deals with maturation Adapt Vs. Evolve Adapt: Inheritance of traits that make you better suited for the Env. Evolution: The sum of all the Successful adaptations. For example: A person can grow in size but not be physically, mentally, or sexually developed.

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Homeo…. What??? Homeostasis: Process by which organisms maintain constant and stable internal conditions. (temperature, blood glucose levels, hormone levels) Your body works like the furnace and thermostat in your home. The negative feedback loops run until they get to the proper level, like the temperature setting of the thermostat and then stops until they need to be adjusted again.

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The Scientific Method: a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses Observation: Using your senses to gather data. Inference: The process of drawing logical explanations about what something means. Hypothesis: A testable statement and possible explanation of an event based on prior knowledge and observations Prediction: A prediction is a statement or claim that a particular event will occur in the future. Usually written as an If /Then statement.

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**Types of Observations:**

Observation and/or Data Qualitative NOT measured using numbers. IE: Beauty Quantitative IE: Height, weight, etc Can be measured

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**What kinds of observations is he making?**

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Kinds of DATA Quantitative: produces numerical data that can be comparatively analyzed in graphs and tables a. Tables: Title Table, Columns & Rows have titles b. Graphs: -3 main types: line Graphs (measures change/ time) bar (used for comparing groups) circle (pie) (shows %) Qualitative: Descriptive data; written descriptions of observations

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**Observation Vs. Inference Activity**

Mrs. Wade will be absent for the rest of the term. She won the lottery and thus decided to take a cruise around the world with her friends, Mrs. Walton and Mrs. Fernandez. She has left each team a bag personal items. She would like you to make 2 observations and two inferences about the contents (you have 5 minutes for this activity). Non-related example: You observed that the ground was wet. Therefore, you infer that it had just rained.

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**Applying The Scientific Method**

make observations / state problem form hypothesis design controlled experiment collect data analyze results may not support hypothesis may support hypothesis draw conclusion / publish form a new hypothesis

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**The Scientific Method Students (state the problem) Hate (hypothesis)**

Every (experiment) Dumb (data) Class (conclusion)

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**B. Parts of a Controlled Experiment**

Types of Variables Independent variable (on x-axis) (aka Manipulated variable): a factor that is manipulated/determined by experimenter to see what the result will be Dependent variable (on y-axis) (aka Responding variable): a factor that responds to the changes in the independent variable what the experimenter is looking for

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Name those variables!

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**Independent Variables**

In other words… Independent Variables Descriptions Dependent Variables Cause \Effect Before After Input Output What you do IF What happens THEN

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**Dependent Vs. Independent Variables**

Types of Variables Dependent variables (responding ) Is Always graphed on Y-axis (DRY) Independent Variable (manipulated) Is Graphed on the X- Axis MIX

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**Parts of a Controlled Experiment**

Control Group: the group for which the testing conditions are not applied (may receive the Placebo). Experimental groups: the groups where all conditions are held constant EXCEPT the one being tested Controlled variables: (controls) Variables that the experimenters keep the same throughout the experiment.

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An Example Experiment Mrs. Fernandez’s son, Dominick, would like to know what will happen to his gummy bears if he places them in water. So, he obtains three (3) gummy bears (all are of the same brand). He places one in 20 mls of water for 3hrs, the other for 12 hrs, and the last for 24 hrs. He uses a 25ml graduated cylinder each bear. 3 mL 6 mL 0 mL

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Your Turn…. What is the independent variable in Dominick’s experiment? In what axis do graph it? What is the dependent variable in the experiment? In what axis do you graph it? What are the controlled variables in the experiment?

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C. Drawing a Conclusion The conclusion should always have two main parts. Confirm or reject the hypothesis Was the hypothesis correct? Overall statement of what was learned What happened and why did it happen? What’s the main idea?

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D. Publishing Results When a hypothesis has been tested and supported many times, a theory may be developed and published. A Theory is the best explanation science has to offer about a problem after much experimentation and collection of facts. A scientific Law explains a natural phenomena and is consistently observed

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**III. Other things to keep in mind:**

A. Always use metric system! Distance: meters Volume: liters Temperature: oC Mass: grams

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**How many jumps does it take?**

Ladder Method 1 2 3 KILO 1000 Units HECTO 100 Units DEKA 10 Units DECI 0.1 Unit Meters Liters Grams CENTI 0.01 Unit MILLI Unit How do you use the “ladder” method? 1st – Determine your starting point. 2nd – Count the “jumps” to your ending point. 3rd – Move the decimal the same number of jumps in the same direction. 4 km = _________ m Starting Point Ending Point How many jumps does it take? 4. 1 __. 2 __. 3 __. = 4000 m

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**Gummy Bear Lab Read lab directions in lab hand-out and on board**

Conduct the lab. Clean up (everything must be spotless when lab is completed). Graph and answer questions Turn in assignment.

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Let's Review

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**Redi’s Experiment on Spontaneous Generation**

OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat. HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots. PROCEDURE Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time Manipulated Variables: gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat Uncovered jars Covered jars Several days pass Maggots appear No maggots appear Responding Variable: whether maggots appear CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur.

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**Identifying Variables**

Two groups of students were tested to compare their speed working math problems. Each student was given the same problems. One group used calculators and the other group computed without calculators. What is the independent/manipulated variable? What is the dependent/responding variable? What is the controlled variable?

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**Identifying Variables**

A study was done with an electromagnet system made from a battery and wire wrapped around a nail. Different sizes of nails were used and the number of paper clips that the electromagnet could pick up was measured. What is the manipulated variable? What is the responding variable? What are the controlled variables?

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**Identifying Variables**

A study was attempted to find if the length of the string in a string telephone affected its sound clarity. What is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable? What are the controlled variables?

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Your Turn.. Do the next three examples on your own and see how well you understand the concept.

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**Identifying Variables**

An experiment was performed to determine how the amount of coffee grounds could affect the taste of coffee. The same kind of coffee, the same percolator, the same amount and type of water, the same perking time, and the same electrical source were used. What is the manipulated variable? What is the responding variable? What are the controlled variables?

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**Identifying Variables**

Students of different ages were given the same puzzle to assemble. The puzzle assembly time was measured. What is the independent/manipulated variable? What is the dependent/responding variable? What is the controlled variable?

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**Identifying Variables**

A study was done to find if different tire treads affect the braking distance of a car. What is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable? What is the controlled variable?

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What is the Diff? A scientific Law explains a natural phenomena and is consistently observed The law of gravity & Newton's Law’s of Motion A Theory is a well tested and complex explanation based on much experimentation and collection of facts- The theory of evolution & theory of relativity

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But That’s NOT All ALL! How is THEORY used in everyday speech that is scientifically incorrect? Michael might say that he has a theory that Mrs. Wade will yell at the class today… What would be a more ACCURATE word to use? If he had made the same statement but had replaced theory with hypothesis, THEN he would be scientifically correct!

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**Oh no… Here come the metric problems!**

Practice, practice, practice until your good becomes your better and your better becomes your best!

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**Click the image to watch a short video about the meter.**

Metric Units km m cm mm The basic unit of length in the metric system in the meter and is represented by a lowercase m. Standard: The distance traveled by light in absolute vacuum in 1⁄299,792,458 of a second. Metric Units 1 Kilometer (km) = 1000 meters 1 Meter = 100 Centimeters (cm) 1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters (mm) Click the image to watch a short video about the meter. Which is larger? A. 1 meter or 105 centimeters B. 4 kilometers or 4400 meters C. 12 centimeters or 102 millimeters D millimeters or 1 meter

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**Measuring Length How many millimeters are in 1 centimeter?**

1 centimeter = 10 millimeters How many millimeters are in 1 centimeter? What is the length of the line in centimeters? _______cm What is the length of the line in millimeters? _______mm What is the length of the line to the nearest centimeter? ________cm HINT: Round to the nearest centimeter – no decimals. Ruler:

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Metric Units kg g cg mg Kilogram Prototype Mass refers to the amount of matter in an object. The base unit of mass in the metric system in the kilogram and is represented by kg. Standard: 1 kilogram is equal to the mass of the International Prototype Kilogram (IPK), a platinum-iridium cylinder kept by the BIPM at Sèvres, France. Metric Units 1 Kilogram (km) = 1000 Grams (g) 1 Gram (g) = 1000 Milligrams (mg) Click the image to watch a short video about mass. Which is larger? A. 1 kilogram or 1500 grams B milligrams or 1 gram C. 12 milligrams or 12 kilograms D. 4 kilograms or 4500 grams Kilogram Prototype Image -

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Measuring Mass We will be using electronic balances to find the mass of various objects in this course. A weigh boat, paper towel of some container with be placed on the balance first and you will tare it, zero it out. The the objects are placed in the container and on the scale. The digital read-out has two decimal places, which is the mass of the object in grams. Top Image: Bottom Image:

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**Measuring Mass – Electronic Balance**

a- make sure the balance reads 0.00 g b-place weigh boat or container you will use to hold the material that is to be massed on balance and press ON button just long enough for the read-out to once again show 0.00 g (tare weigh boat) c. remove the weigh boat and put the material in it d. carefully place full weigh boat on balance and read to 2 decimal places e- remove items, clean up, & zero out balance

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**Click the image to watch a short video about volume.**

Metric Units kL cL mL L Volume is the amount of space an object takes up. The base unit of volume in the metric system in the liter and is represented by L or l. Standard: 1 liter is equal to one cubic decimeter Metric Units 1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL) 1 milliliter (mL) = 1 cm3 (or cc) = 1 gram* Which is larger? Click the image to watch a short video about volume. A. 1 liter or 1500 milliliters B. 200 milliliters or 1.2 liters C. 12 cm3 or 1.2 milliliters* * When referring to water Liter Image:

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Measuring Volume We will be using graduated cylinders to find the volume of liquids and other objects. Read the measurement based on the bottom of the meniscus or curve. When using a real cylinder, make sure you are eye-level with the level of the water. What is the volume of water in the cylinder? _____mL What causes the meniscus? A concave meniscus occurs when the molecules of the liquid attract those of the container. The glass attracts the water on the sides. Top Image: Bottom Image:

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**Measuring Liquid Volume**

What is the volume of water in each cylinder? Images created at A B C Pay attention to the scales for each cylinder.

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**Measuring Solid Volume**

10 cm 9 cm 8 cm We can measure the volume of regular object using the formula length x width x height. _____ X _____ X _____ = _____ We can measure the volume of irregular object using water displacement. Amount of H2O with object = ______ About of H2O without object = ______ Difference = Volume = ______

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**Remember the Ladder Method**

1 2 3 KILO 1000 Units HECTO 100 Units DEKA 10 Units DECI 0.1 Unit Meters Liters Grams CENTI 0.01 Unit MILLI Unit How do you use the “ladder” method? 1st – Determine your starting point. 2nd – Count the “jumps” to your ending point. 3rd – Move the decimal the same number of jumps in the same direction. 4 km = _________ m Starting Point Ending Point How many jumps does it take? 4. 1 __. 2 __. 3 __. = 4000 m

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**Lets Practice Metric Conversions!!!**

Write the correct abbreviation for each metric unit. 1) Kilogram _____ 4) Milliliter _____ 7) Kilometer _____ 2) Meter _____ 5) Millimeter _____ 8) Centimeter _____ 3) Gram _____ 6) Liter _____ 9) Milligram _____ Try these conversions, using the ladder method. 10) 2000 mg = _______ g 15) 5 L = _______ mL 20) 16 cm = _______ mm 11) 104 km = _______ m 16) 198 g = _______ kg 21) 2500 m = _______ km 12) 480 cm = _____ m 17) 75 mL = _____ L 22) 65 g = _____ mg 13) 5.6 kg = _____ g 18) 50 cm = _____ m 23) 6.3 cm = _____ mm 14) 8 mm = _____ cm 19) 5.6 m = _____ cm 24) 120 mg = _____ g

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Conversion Challenge 1. kg kg 2. m l 3. g m 4. ml cm 5. mm mm 6. L km 7. km mg 8. cm mm 9. mg g 10. 2 g 25. < m 26. > m 27. = g 28. = cm 29. < ml 30. >

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Microscopes Around 1590, two Dutch eye glass makers, Zaccharias Janssen and his father Hans put several lenses in a tube and invented the compound microscope (which is a microscope that uses two or more lenses).

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**________ passes through object**

Differentiate between Compound Light Microscopes and Electron Microscopes Compound Light Electron How is object viewed? ________ passes through object beam of _______ illuminates object What is the magnification? _______ x ______ up to ______x light electrons eyepiece objective much greater magnification 2000

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**More on Microscopes The eyepiece or ocular lens usually**

has a magnification of 10 times (10x) Total magnification is determined by multiplying the eyepiece magnification times the objective lens

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**Label the parts of the microscope:**

a- eyepiece b- stage c- diaphragm d- coarse adjustment e- fine adjustment f- arm g- objective h- base d e f g b c h

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More on Microscopes The two lenses in compound microscopes are eyepiece (ocular) and objective (although there may be more than one) You always carry a microscope with two hands- grasping the arm and the base The specimen is placed on a slide and onto the stage when viewed

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More on Microscopes In the microscope’s the field of view is always a circle ALWAYS label total magnification on your drawings Then label name of specimen and identified structures

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More on Microscopes Measuring the microscope field of view on lowest power- Place a clear plastic ruler with mm markings on top of the stage of your microscope. Using lowest power objective, focus your image. Count how many divisions of the ruler fit across the diameter of the field of view. Multiply the number of divisions by 1000 to obtain the field of view in micrometers (µm). Record this in µm (micrometers) (1mm = 1000 µm)

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**Microscopes What is a light/compound microscope?**

Click on the link below for more microscope facts compound microscope facts

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**Microscopes What is an electron microscope?**

What is the difference between TEM (transmission electron microscope) and a SEM (scanning electron microscope)? Allows scientists to view a universe too small to be seen with a light microscope. They don’t use light waves; they use electrons (negatively charged electrical particles) to magnify objects up to two million times. TEMs allows beams of electrons to go through the specimen while SEMs beams of electrons bounce off of the specimen and result in a 3D image. All images are black and white…why?

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**Electron Microscope game**

Click the link! microscope game

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