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CONSOLIDATION OF LATIN AMERICA 1810 – 1930. THEMES Latin America in the 19th century – Shaped by internal divisions – Threats from foreign imperialism.

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Presentation on theme: "CONSOLIDATION OF LATIN AMERICA 1810 – 1930. THEMES Latin America in the 19th century – Shaped by internal divisions – Threats from foreign imperialism."— Presentation transcript:


2 THEMES Latin America in the 19th century – Shaped by internal divisions – Threats from foreign imperialism – Cross border disputes Its political leaders – Tended to begin as liberals, democrats – Ended up often as dictators – Shaped in the era of Enlightenment beliefs – Accepted concepts common in the West Progress Property Rights New nations – Faced problems inherited from their colonial past – Largely dependent on the international economic system

3 COMING OF REVOLUTIONS By the late 18th century – Creole elites prepared to separate – Fear of racial, class conflicts prevented action Revolution – The First Revolution – Haitian Revolution occurred during French Revolution Central issue was slavery and its abolition Leaders espoused ideas of French Enlightenment – Only after the Napoleonic wars did real action occur Disrupted the government of Spain Replaced legitimate Spanish king with Napoleon’s brother Spanish colonies forced to go it alone In 1810s – Spain tried to restore its traditional rule prior to Napoleonic Wars – Latin American leaders not willing to go back to the old ways

4 IMAGINING LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE Mexican Leaders Bolivar meets San Martin

5 CAUSES OF CHANGE Revolutions in Latin America Part of the wider late 18 th, early 19 th c. – Heavily influenced by Enlightenment ideas – Creoles or middle class were the main leaders Often called Atlantic Revolutions – American Revolution 1776 – 1783 – French Revolution 1789 – 1799 Haitian Revolution 1791 – 1802 – French Revolution did not move fast enough to end slavery – Maroons were free blacks, attuned to Enlightenment back immediate freedom – Slaves rose under Toussaint L'Ouverture, turned on white slave holders – Successfully overthrew the colonial government of St. Domingue – Established the independent republic of Haiti – Invaded Santo Domingo, defeated Spanish, French, English armies – Adopted radical aspects of the French revolution; called Black Jacobins – Specter of black rebellion in Haiti frightened Creoles of Latin America. Latin America 1810s – 1822 – Breakdown of the Spanish monarchy during the Napoleonic wars – Creoles set up independent governments – Claimed to rule in the name of the exiled Spanish monarch


7 SPANISH-AMERICAN STRUGGLES Rebellion in Mexico Began in 1810 Under the leadership of Father Miguel de Hidalgo Called on the support of mestizos and Indians Hidalgo's movement failed for lack of Creole support Morelos Rebellion Gives Way to Iturbide Second revolutionary movement Broke out in 1820 with more Creole support Royalist Creole military officer Augustín de Iturbide switches sides Seized Mexico City ; proclaimed Iturbide emperor in 1821 Mexico initially maintained control over Central America Central America separated from Mexico in 1838 Central America broke up into separate republics in the 1840s and 1850s In northern South America Simon Bolívar emerged as the leader of the revolutionary forces Between 1817 and 1822 he defeated Spanish forces in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador Formed the new nation of Gran Colombia After 1830, these nations split into independent states In southern South America The revolutionary leader was José de San Martín. San Martín mobilized resistance in his native Argentina then crossed the Andes to Chile By 1824, San Martín had carried the revolution into the most conservative colony of Peru He defeated the Spanish forces there. All of Spanish South America had won independence by 1825.


9 BRAZILIAN INDEPENDENCE Independence in Brazil Achieved peacefully – different from Spanish Early movements for independence failed White population feared slave uprisings 1807 – 1820 Portuguese royal family fled Portugal in face of French invasion Emigrated to Brazil, set up a government in exile King João VI ruled empire from Rio de Janeiro Brazilian ports opened to international trade King returned to Portugal in 1820 His son proclaimed independence in Brazil in 1822 Brazil became a monarchy under Pedro I


11 PROBLEMS OF THE NEW NATIONS Most of the independent nations – Established representative governments – Rights protecting private property and free trade – Less agreement on position of Roman Catholic Church – Slavery abolished in all except Brazil, Spanish colonies Voting rights – Tended to be restricted by race to favor Creoles – Based on property and wealth – Women remained without voting rights Indian populations and people of mixed origins – Remained outside the egalitarian principles – Marginalized within societies

12 POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION: CENTRAL AMERICA Mexico – Quickly abandoned its experiment with monarchy – Established a republic in 1823 – Government remained unstable until the 1860s Central America – Initial attempts to form a unified government failed – Gave way to individual states in 1838 Caribbean Islands remained within the orbit of Spanish colonialism. Haiti independent : had conquered Santo Domingo

13 POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION Brazil Independent but federal, centralist tensions Consolidation failed in South America – New Granada failed in 1830 – Broke into Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador – Rio de la Plata – Attempts to create a political union failed Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile remained independent Argentina too dominant and feared by others – Peru and Bolivia Temporarily united Formed separate governments in 1839 – Poor transportation, communication – Magnified problems – Fragmented nations, made governing difficult

14 CAUDILLOS, POLITICS, CHURCH Caudillos – Decades of war gave rise to regional military figures – Caudillos dominated local areas – Sometimes seized national governments – Caudillos often operated out of self-interest – Sometimes sought support from regional elites – Marginalized Indians, peasants, or the poor Governmental Philosophies – Degree of centralization new governments should have was issue – Federalists wished regional governments to establish policies – Centrists wanted powerful, central administrations – Liberals tended to support federalist policies – Conservatives wanted centralized governments, corporate institutions, such as Catholic Church. – Liberals attempted to limit the role of the Church in civil affairs – Political parties representing these points of view sprang up in many of the new republics. Leaders – Regardless of political view, leaders in Latin America tended to come from wealthy landowners – Rapid political change was the rule in Latin America in the first half century after independence – Constitutions and leadership came and went swiftly – Many military coups – military and strong army officers at the center of most changes – Brazil, with its monarchy, was perhaps the most stable government in the region

15 GREAT BRITAIN, USA IN REGION Great Britain's Role – Recognized Latin American independence – Forestalled plans to restore Spanish empire The United States – Also supported the independence movement – Gave arms, money and refuge to leaders – Promulgated the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 – Britain used the Doctrine to support its own ideas Britain's support for the new nations – Tied to the opening of trade with Latin America – Britain replaced Spain as the region's largest trading partner – British dominance Hindered the development of Latin American industries Reinforced economic dependence of Latin America in world trade

16 MID-CENTURY STAGNATION From 1820 to 1850 – Economy of Latin America remained stagnant – Abolition of slavery, departure of many Europeans stalled economy After 1850 – In response to European demand for products – Economy quickened through exports of raw materials Enhanced trade – Permitted state development of infrastructure – Roads and railroads built to export from interior – Strongest in Peru, Mexico, Argentina, Chile Peru’s Guano Era Europe needed fertilizer Peru exported bird dung (guano) Used money to diversify economy, build infrastructure, pay off debt, education Pattern was established – Economy strictly dependent on world trade network – Export of primary products into world system – Uneasy alliances between peasants and conservatives – Prevented rapid economic change proposed by urban middle class

17 LIBERALS, ECONOMIC RESURGENCE European economy 1875 – 1900 – European industrialization, urbanization – Produced demand for Latin American products – Economies expanded rapidly – Economic growth created support for liberal policies – Led to liberal governments after 1860 European economic models – Did not fit Latin American economies, often failed – Immigrants from Europe entered Latin America Filled labor vacuum created by abolition of slavery Ignored Native American populations – Wealthy landowners Continued to monopolize the countryside At the expense of small farmers, Indians, poor Blacks

18 MEXICO: CONSTITUTION OF 1824  Constitution of 1824  Estados Unidos Mexicanos  United Mexican States  Federalist structure with strong provincial government  States had enormous influence, independence  Equality under the law was a phrase without reality  No rights for the poor, Indians, mestizo  Political Ideologies  Whether state would be federalist or centralized was always the issue  Liberal v. Central  Liberals  Wanted to expand electorate to include wealthy mestizos  Supported separation of Church, state, public education separated from Church control  Supported strong states, weaker central government  Supported taxation of wealth  Centralists  Supported a strong centralized state based at Mexico City  Opposed expanded electorate, separation of church and state  Preferred weakened state deputations  Federalist v. Conservative  Federalists supported strong states, weak central government  Conservatives preferred traditional structures including state church

19 MEXICO 1835 – 1872 The federalist constitution of 1824 Failed to address the inequitable distribution of land, status of the Indians Abandoned in favor of military leadership – 1835 – 1855 Antonio López de Santa Anna Served as the most important military and political figure in Mexico. Santa Anna enjoyed mixed results in fighting off foreign attempts to intervene in Mexico. Anglo-American settlers in province of Texas rebelled and declared independence Failure to suppress the Texas independence movement led to the US’ annexation of region – US won the Mexican-American War Forced the cession of Texas, California, and much of Mexico north of the Rio Grande River. Called the Treat y of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Mexico's failures in foreign policy Led to the removal of Santa Anna as the chief political figure of the republic Liberal rebellion against the caudillo resulted in Santa Anna's ouster – La Reforma, Jaurez, and The French Intervention Creation of a liberal constitution Conservatives rejected liberal constitution and turned to France as an ally French forces overthrew republic, placed Maximilian of Habsburg on throne as emperor, 1862 French forces were withdrawn, liberals returned to power under Benito Juárez in 1867 Juárez continued to govern until his death in 1872.

20 ARGENTINA Buenos Aires dominated the region of Rio de la Plata – Liberal government established in port – Sought to stimulate the economy The leader's preference for a strong, central government Provoked the opposition of cattlemen in the plains outside the port By 1831 – Conservative government under Juan Manuel de Rosas Replaced the liberals Rosas's federalism favored the ranchers at the expense of Indians. After Rosas's fall in 1852 – Period of political confusion ensued until creation of Argentina in 1862 – Liberal reformers sought to manipulate economic boom after the 1860s. Using profits from increased trade Liberal government established education systems, built roads, railroads – The liberal government carried out final conquest of Indians in Argentina.

21 BRAZIL: FROM EMPIRE TO REPUBLIC In Brazil, a functioning republic existed behind the facade of monarchy – Independence was achieved in 1822 under Dom Pedro I – Pedro I was deposed in 1831, a series of regencies ruled in the name of the young Dom Pedro II Between 1831 and 1840 regional governments opposed centralized rule from Rio de Janeiro After 1840 – Dom Pedro II ruled in his own name as a liberal – Sought to increase economic growth, foreign investments, improved the country's infrastructure Brazilian economy was revolutionized by emergence of coffee as an export crop – As coffee production expanded slavery was intensified as a source of coercive labor Extensive European immigration into Brazil – Broadened the labor force and reduced the need for slavery. – Brazil’s white population surpassed its Black and Mixed Population for the first time – Italians formed a major group of the immigrants Slavery – Abolition movement gained force in 1840s, finally abolished in 1888 – Gradual emancipation and freeing of new born children, youth occurred earlier Empire abolished – Weakened by long participation in unpopular war, by opposition from the Church – Landowners furious at monarchy for support of abolition movement – 1889, a military coup deposed the emperor and established a republic.

22 SOCIETY IN SEARCH OF DEFINITION Tension of Heritages – Tension in Latin American culture between Heritage of Europe Heritage of the Americas (Creole culture) – Indian, Black cultures still marginalized End of Spanish colonial dominance – Opened Latin America to other European influences – French neoclassical tradition was particularly influential – Romanticism Shifted Latin American attentions to Americanisms Symbols such as Indians, gauchos, and slaves. – Historical studies reflected European concepts of positivism, progress By 1870s, liberalism produced more realistic literary efforts It often criticized social and political systems. Popular culture remained unaffected by trends among the elite

23 GENDER, RACE, CLASS Women Active in the independence movements Gained little power during the 19th century Excluded from active participation in politics Remained subject to patriarchal authority in their households But did have broader access to public education, positions as teachers Educated women were in the forefront of the new feminist movement Color and Ethnicity Slavery abolished during independence but equality not gained Legal distinctions were often removed but social, economic remained Old social hierarchy based on color and ethnicity was tacitly retained Indians remained outside the social system of Creoles, mestizos Liberal decades led to increasing control of resources, land by creoles After the 1870s Economic change, immigration fostered creation of greater urban centers But Latin America remained predominantly agrarian Largely dependent on world trade with few of the modern social classes

24 GREAT BOOM A Change Occurs – Latin American export economy Produced a social, political alliance Between large landowners, miners, and export merchants All depended on commerce for prosperity. All of Latin America depended on exports to Europe – Complete dependence Made Latin American economy vulnerable to shifts in markets Changes in demand and prices help, hurt region Exports dramatically increased between 1870 and 1900 – Expanding economy attracted capital from abroad – Money flowed in from Europe (UK), the United States – Foreign capital provided the impetus for expansion – Placed regional industries, transportation in foreign hands

25 ARGENTINA Two forces made Argentina Introduction of modern agricultural techniques and world economy Foreign investment and immigration aided these developments 1859 to 1865 – 1870 War of the Triple Alliance Argentina after independence warred over issues of federalism, centralism While Rosas in some ways represented federalism, Buenos Aires was centrist Paraguay tried to expand territory, fought Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay During War, Buenos Aires rose to prominence as center of trade, war After war, Centrists won issue with Federalists and Argentina became a centralized state After 1870 – Economy boomed through export of primary resources including grain, beef – Growth of domestic industry hindered because of cheap importation of manufactured goods – Argentina's labor force expanded through immigration from Europe European-born workers brought socialism, Socialist Party emerged in Argentina in the 1890s Series of strikes followed by government repression typified the first decades of the 20th century. – The middle-class Radical Party Promised political reform and enlightened labor policies to gain power in When faced with strikes, it, too, reacted repressively. The model of Argentina – Oligarchic rule composed of the traditional landed aristocracy and the middle classes – Could be found in other Latin American states where liberal modernization met resistance

26 MEXICO: THE PORFIRATO  Porfirio Diaz the Politician  Cunning politician; knew very well how to manipulate people to his advantage  "Pan o palo" ("bread or the stick")  One could either accept what was given willingly (often a position of political power)  Or face harsh consequences (often death).  Rising opposition to Díaz’ administration was immediately quelled  A systematic and methodical regime with a staunch military mindset  Paz porfiriana or Porfirian peace  End 45 years of revolution and anarchy  His second goal was “no politics and plenty of administration”  Kept his people in a constant state of uncertainty  Managed to dissolve all local authorities and aspects of federalism  Leaders of Mexico were answering directly to him  Legislature was composed almost entirely of his closest and most loyal friends  Díaz suppressed the media and controlled the court system  Catered to private desires of different groups: played off interest against each other  Mexican Groups  Gave mestizos political positions of power  Did the same with elite Creole society; did not interfere with their wealth, haciendas  He neither assaulted nor protected the Church  The dominant Indian population was almost entirely ignored. Díaz created illusion of democracy and quelled almost all competing forces

27 “LOS CIENTIFICOS”  The Scientists  The technocratic advisors to Diaz  Consisted of industrialists, landowners  Followed 19th century political theory  Based on positivist philosophy of Comte  Advocated a society and political system  Organized in accordance with the laws of nature.  A sort of liberalism  Supported  Republicanism  Secularism  Progress  Order: social and political  Rejected  Liberal jacobinism  Evolution not revolution  Individual rights  Natural law  Constitutionalism  political liberties  Universal suffrage Positivism, Scientific Advisors were developments common to Latin American states

28 DIAZ’S ECONOMY  Díaz had created such an effective centralized government  He was able to concentrate decision-making  Maintained control over the economic instability.  Díaz welcomed foreign investors with open arms.  Encouraged foreign investment because country in serious debt and had minimal savings  Conditions for investors so favorable that local businesses, individual workers greatly suffered.  Growing influence of U.S. businessmen over the Mexican economy was constant dilemma  Díaz largely stuck to familiar liberal principles.  1850s ban on corporate land holding also enacted for Indian villages  Freed land for private exploitation, purchase by his loyal political followers and friends.  New wealth  Money was not used to improve the lives of the people of Mexico.  Profits ended up the hands of a wealthy few or went overseas.  Wage rates remained very low; majority of the Mexican population faced devastating poverty.  Economic progress varied drastically from region to region.  His modernization program was also at odds with the owners of the large plantations  Rich plantation owners wanted to maintain their existing feudal system (peonage)  Were reluctant to transform into the capitalist economy with competition, foreign markets  He allowed the plantation owners to proceed with a slow campaign of encroachment  Used law to seize collectively owned village land and enforced seizure through his rural police

29 MEXICO DEVELOPS: AT WHAT COST?  Economic Statistics  Railroads  1877: a few miles  1910: 14,000 miles  Silver Production  1877: 607,037 kilograms  1900: 1,816,605 kilograms  Copper  : 6,483 tons  1910: 52,116 tons  Heneguen (sisal)  1877: 11,283 tons  1910: 128,849 tons  Social Statistics  Infant Mortality  1893: 323 per 1,000 in Mexico City  London: 115 and Boston 120 per 1,000  Life Expectancy: years  1910 Census classified 50% of Mexican houses as unfit for human habitation  1900 survey in Mexico City: 15,000 families (16% of the population) were homeless Wealth was being created but it certainly wasn't trickling down.


31 THE USA IN LATIN AMERICA After the Civil War – American capitalists invested in Latin America – Invested heavily in Mexico, Central America, Caribbean Spanish-American War between 1895 and 1898 – First US war in region since Mexican-American War – Intended to open door to valuable sugar plantations – As a result of the war Former Spanish colony of Puerto Rico becomes US possession Cuba reduced to dependency of the United States Columbia and Panama – Colombia proved reluctant to support US plans – US backed Panama's independence movement in 1904 – In return, US got extensive rights to build canal in new nation – Canal finished and opened in 1914 Latin American nations – Became increasingly critical of U.S. intervention in the region – Critical of military, cultural, and economic penetration of the region

32 GLOBAL CONNECTIONS  During the 19th century  Former colonies of Latin America constructed new nations  Latin America  Was forced to forge economies from ground up  In a world trade network already dominated by European nations  Latin America cast off European imperialism in the 19th century  New nations carried with them colonial social systems  Were strictly hierarchical  Small Creole elite dominated the economy and politics  Native Americans, former slaves, peasants  Marginalized  Shared little of economic expansion of the second half of the century  Latin America was 1 st region of world to decolonize  Latin America maintained ties to the West  Imitated Western models  Experienced growing influence of the United States  Its dependent economy also kept it connected to the world.






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