2THEMES Latin America in the 19th century Its political leaders Shaped by internal divisionsThreats from foreign imperialismCross border disputesIts political leadersTended to begin as liberals, democratsEnded up often as dictatorsShaped in the era of Enlightenment beliefsAccepted concepts common in the WestProgressProperty RightsNew nationsFaced problems inherited from their colonial pastLargely dependent on the international economic system
3COMING OF REVOLUTIONS By the late 18th century Creole elites prepared to separateFear of racial, class conflicts prevented actionRevolutionThe First RevolutionHaitian Revolution occurred during French RevolutionCentral issue was slavery and its abolitionLeaders espoused ideas of French EnlightenmentOnly after the Napoleonic wars did real action occurDisrupted the government of SpainReplaced legitimate Spanish king with Napoleon’s brotherSpanish colonies forced to go it aloneIn 1810sSpain tried to restore its traditional rule prior to Napoleonic WarsLatin American leaders not willing to go back to the old ways
4IMAGINING LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE Mexican LeadersBolivar meetsSan Martin
5CAUSES OF CHANGE Revolutions in Latin America Part of the wider late 18th, early 19th c.Heavily influenced by Enlightenment ideasCreoles or middle class were the main leadersOften called Atlantic RevolutionsAmerican Revolution 1776 – 1783French Revolution 1789 – 1799Haitian Revolution – 1802French Revolution did not move fast enough to end slaveryMaroons were free blacks, attuned to Enlightenment back immediate freedomSlaves rose under Toussaint L'Ouverture, turned on white slave holdersSuccessfully overthrew the colonial government of St. DomingueEstablished the independent republic of HaitiInvaded Santo Domingo, defeated Spanish, French, English armiesAdopted radical aspects of the French revolution; called Black JacobinsSpecter of black rebellion in Haiti frightened Creoles of Latin America.Latin America 1810s – 1822Breakdown of the Spanish monarchy during the Napoleonic warsCreoles set up independent governmentsClaimed to rule in the name of the exiled Spanish monarch
7SPANISH-AMERICAN STRUGGLES Rebellion in MexicoBegan in 1810Under the leadership of Father Miguel de HidalgoCalled on the support of mestizos and IndiansHidalgo's movement failed for lack of Creole supportMorelos Rebellion Gives Way to IturbideSecond revolutionary movementBroke out in 1820 with more Creole supportRoyalist Creole military officer Augustín de Iturbide switches sidesSeized Mexico City ; proclaimed Iturbide emperor in 1821Mexico initially maintained control over Central AmericaCentral America separated from Mexico in 1838Central America broke up into separate republics in the 1840s and 1850sIn northern South AmericaSimon Bolívar emerged as the leader of the revolutionary forcesBetween 1817 and 1822 he defeated Spanish forces in Venezuela, Colombia, and EcuadorFormed the new nation of Gran ColombiaAfter 1830, these nations split into independent statesIn southern South AmericaThe revolutionary leader was José de San Martín.San Martín mobilized resistance in his native Argentina then crossed the Andes to ChileBy 1824, San Martín had carried the revolution into the most conservative colony of PeruHe defeated the Spanish forces there.All of Spanish South America had won independence by 1825.
9BRAZILIAN INDEPENDENCE Independence in BrazilAchieved peacefully – different from SpanishEarly movements for independence failedWhite population feared slave uprisings1807 – 1820Portuguese royal family fled Portugal in face of French invasionEmigrated to Brazil, set up a government in exileKing João VI ruled empire from Rio de JaneiroBrazilian ports opened to international tradeKing returned to Portugal in 1820His son proclaimed independence in Brazil in 1822Brazil became a monarchy under Pedro I
11PROBLEMS OF THE NEW NATIONS Most of the independent nationsEstablished representative governmentsRights protecting private property and free tradeLess agreement on position of Roman Catholic ChurchSlavery abolished in all except Brazil, Spanish coloniesVoting rightsTended to be restricted by race to favor CreolesBased on property and wealthWomen remained without voting rightsIndian populations and people of mixed originsRemained outside the egalitarian principlesMarginalized within societies
12POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION: CENTRAL AMERICA MexicoQuickly abandoned its experiment with monarchyEstablished a republic in 1823Government remained unstable until the 1860sCentral AmericaInitial attempts to form a unified government failedGave way to individual states in 1838Caribbean Islands remained within the orbit of Spanish colonialism.Haiti independent : had conquered Santo Domingo
13POLITICAL FRAGMENTATION BrazilIndependent but federal, centralist tensionsConsolidation failed in South AmericaNew Granada failed in 1830Broke into Colombia, Venezuela, EcuadorRio de la PlataAttempts to create a political union failedParaguay, Uruguay, Chile remained independentArgentina too dominant and feared by othersPeru and BoliviaTemporarily unitedFormed separate governments in 1839Poor transportation, communicationMagnified problemsFragmented nations, made governing difficult
14CAUDILLOS, POLITICS, CHURCH Decades of war gave rise to regional military figuresCaudillos dominated local areasSometimes seized national governmentsCaudillos often operated out of self-interestSometimes sought support from regional elitesMarginalized Indians, peasants, or the poorGovernmental PhilosophiesDegree of centralization new governments should have was issueFederalists wished regional governments to establish policiesCentrists wanted powerful, central administrationsLiberals tended to support federalist policiesConservatives wanted centralized governments, corporate institutions, such as Catholic Church.Liberals attempted to limit the role of the Church in civil affairsPolitical parties representing these points of view sprang up in many of the new republics.LeadersRegardless of political view, leaders in Latin America tended to come from wealthy landownersRapid political change was the rule in Latin America in the first half century after independenceConstitutions and leadership came and went swiftlyMany military coups – military and strong army officers at the center of most changesBrazil, with its monarchy, was perhaps the most stable government in the region
15GREAT BRITAIN, USA IN REGION Great Britain's RoleRecognized Latin American independenceForestalled plans to restore Spanish empireThe United StatesAlso supported the independence movementGave arms, money and refuge to leadersPromulgated the Monroe Doctrine of 1823Britain used the Doctrine to support its own ideasBritain's support for the new nationsTied to the opening of trade with Latin AmericaBritain replaced Spain as the region's largest trading partnerBritish dominanceHindered the development of Latin American industriesReinforced economic dependence of Latin America in world trade
16MID-CENTURY STAGNATION From 1820 to 1850Economy of Latin America remained stagnantAbolition of slavery, departure of many Europeans stalled economyAfter 1850In response to European demand for productsEconomy quickened through exports of raw materialsEnhanced tradePermitted state development of infrastructureRoads and railroads built to export from interiorStrongest in Peru, Mexico, Argentina, ChilePeru’s Guano EraEurope needed fertilizerPeru exported bird dung (guano)Used money to diversify economy, build infrastructure, pay off debt, educationPattern was establishedEconomy strictly dependent on world trade networkExport of primary products into world systemUneasy alliances between peasants and conservativesPrevented rapid economic change proposed by urban middle class
17LIBERALS, ECONOMIC RESURGENCE European economy 1875 – 1900European industrialization, urbanizationProduced demand for Latin American productsEconomies expanded rapidlyEconomic growth created support for liberal policiesLed to liberal governments after 1860European economic modelsDid not fit Latin American economies, often failedImmigrants from Europe entered Latin AmericaFilled labor vacuum created by abolition of slaveryIgnored Native American populationsWealthy landownersContinued to monopolize the countrysideAt the expense of small farmers, Indians, poor Blacks
18Mexico: Constitution of 1824 Estados Unidos MexicanosUnited Mexican StatesFederalist structure with strong provincial governmentStates had enormous influence, independenceEquality under the law was a phrase without realityNo rights for the poor, Indians, mestizoPolitical IdeologiesWhether state would be federalist or centralized was always the issueLiberal v. CentralLiberalsWanted to expand electorate to include wealthy mestizosSupported separation of Church, state, public education separated from Church controlSupported strong states, weaker central governmentSupported taxation of wealthCentralistsSupported a strong centralized state based at Mexico CityOpposed expanded electorate, separation of church and statePreferred weakened state deputationsFederalist v. ConservativeFederalists supported strong states, weak central governmentConservatives preferred traditional structures including state church
19MEXICO 1835 – 1872 The federalist constitution of 1824 1835 – 1855 Failed to address the inequitable distribution of land, status of the IndiansAbandoned in favor of military leadership1835 – 1855Antonio López de Santa AnnaServed as the most important military and political figure in Mexico.Santa Anna enjoyed mixed results in fighting off foreign attempts to intervene in Mexico.Anglo-American settlers in province of Texas rebelled and declared independenceFailure to suppress the Texas independence movement led to the US’ annexation of regionUS won the Mexican-American WarForced the cession of Texas, California, and much of Mexico north of the Rio Grande River.Called the Treat y of Guadalupe HidalgoMexico's failures in foreign policyLed to the removal of Santa Anna as the chief political figure of the republicLiberal rebellion against the caudillo resulted in Santa Anna's ousterLa Reforma, Jaurez, and The French InterventionCreation of a liberal constitutionConservatives rejected liberal constitution and turned to France as an allyFrench forces overthrew republic, placed Maximilian of Habsburg on throne as emperor, 1862French forces were withdrawn, liberals returned to power under Benito Juárez in 1867Juárez continued to govern until his death in 1872.
20ARGENTINA Buenos Aires dominated the region of Rio de la Plata By 1831 Liberal government established in portSought to stimulate the economyThe leader's preference for a strong, central governmentProvoked the opposition of cattlemen in the plains outside the portBy 1831Conservative government under Juan Manuel de RosasReplaced the liberalsRosas's federalism favored the ranchers at the expense of Indians.After Rosas's fall in 1852Period of political confusion ensued until creation of Argentina in 1862Liberal reformers sought to manipulate economic boom after the 1860s.Using profits from increased tradeLiberal government established education systems, built roads, railroadsThe liberal government carried out final conquest of Indians in Argentina.
21BRAZIL: FROM EMPIRE TO REPUBLIC In Brazil, a functioning republic existed behind the facade of monarchyIndependence was achieved in 1822 under Dom Pedro IPedro I was deposed in 1831, a series of regencies ruled in the name of the young Dom Pedro IIBetween 1831 and 1840 regional governments opposed centralized rule from Rio de JaneiroAfter 1840Dom Pedro II ruled in his own name as a liberalSought to increase economic growth, foreign investments, improved the country's infrastructureBrazilian economy was revolutionized by emergence of coffee as an export cropAs coffee production expanded slavery was intensified as a source of coercive laborExtensive European immigration into BrazilBroadened the labor force and reduced the need for slavery.Brazil’s white population surpassed its Black and Mixed Population for the first timeItalians formed a major group of the immigrantsSlaveryAbolition movement gained force in 1840s, finally abolished in 1888Gradual emancipation and freeing of new born children, youth occurred earlierEmpire abolishedWeakened by long participation in unpopular war, by opposition from the ChurchLandowners furious at monarchy for support of abolition movement1889, a military coup deposed the emperor and established a republic.
22SOCIETY IN SEARCH OF DEFINITION Tension of HeritagesTension in Latin American culture betweenHeritage of EuropeHeritage of the Americas (Creole culture)Indian, Black cultures still marginalizedEnd of Spanish colonial dominanceOpened Latin America to other European influencesFrench neoclassical tradition was particularly influentialRomanticismShifted Latin American attentions to AmericanismsSymbols such as Indians, gauchos, and slaves.Historical studies reflected European concepts of positivism, progressBy 1870s, liberalism produced more realistic literary effortsIt often criticized social and political systems.Popular culture remained unaffected by trends among the elite
23GENDER, RACE, CLASS Women Color and Ethnicity After the 1870s Active in the independence movementsGained little power during the 19th centuryExcluded from active participation in politicsRemained subject to patriarchal authority in their householdsBut did have broader access to public education, positions as teachersEducated women were in the forefront of the new feminist movementColor and EthnicitySlavery abolished during independence but equality not gainedLegal distinctions were often removed but social, economic remainedOld social hierarchy based on color and ethnicity was tacitly retainedIndians remained outside the social system of Creoles, mestizosLiberal decades led to increasing control of resources, land by creolesAfter the 1870sEconomic change, immigration fostered creation of greater urban centersBut Latin America remained predominantly agrarianLargely dependent on world trade with few of the modern social classes
24GREAT BOOM A Change Occurs Latin American export economy Produced a social, political allianceBetween large landowners, miners, and export merchantsAll depended on commerce for prosperity.All of Latin America depended on exports to EuropeComplete dependenceMade Latin American economy vulnerable to shifts in marketsChanges in demand and prices help, hurt regionExports dramatically increased between 1870 and 1900Expanding economy attracted capital from abroadMoney flowed in from Europe (UK), the United StatesForeign capital provided the impetus for expansionPlaced regional industries, transportation in foreign hands
25ARGENTINA Two forces made Argentina Introduction of modern agricultural techniques and world economyForeign investment and immigration aided these developments1859 to 1865 – 1870 War of the Triple AllianceArgentina after independence warred over issues of federalism, centralismWhile Rosas in some ways represented federalism, Buenos Aires was centristParaguay tried to expand territory, fought Argentina, Brazil, and UruguayDuring War, Buenos Aires rose to prominence as center of trade, warAfter war, Centrists won issue with Federalists and Argentina became a centralized stateAfter 1870Economy boomed through export of primary resources including grain, beefGrowth of domestic industry hindered because of cheap importation of manufactured goodsArgentina's labor force expanded through immigration from EuropeEuropean-born workers brought socialism, Socialist Party emerged in Argentina in the 1890sSeries of strikes followed by government repression typified the first decades of the 20th century.The middle-class Radical PartyPromised political reform and enlightened labor policies to gain power in 1916.When faced with strikes, it, too, reacted repressively.The model of ArgentinaOligarchic rule composed of the traditional landed aristocracy and the middle classesCould be found in other Latin American states where liberal modernization met resistance
26MEXICO: The Porfirato Porfirio Diaz the Politician Cunning politician; knew very well how to manipulate people to his advantage"Pan o palo" ("bread or the stick")One could either accept what was given willingly (often a position of political power)Or face harsh consequences (often death).Rising opposition to Díaz’ administration was immediately quelledA systematic and methodical regime with a staunch military mindsetPaz porfiriana or Porfirian peaceEnd 45 years of revolution and anarchyHis second goal was “no politics and plenty of administration”Kept his people in a constant state of uncertaintyManaged to dissolve all local authorities and aspects of federalismLeaders of Mexico were answering directly to himLegislature was composed almost entirely of his closest and most loyal friendsDíaz suppressed the media and controlled the court systemCatered to private desires of different groups: played off interest against each otherMexican GroupsGave mestizos political positions of powerDid the same with elite Creole society; did not interfere with their wealth, haciendasHe neither assaulted nor protected the ChurchThe dominant Indian population was almost entirely ignored.Díaz created illusion of democracy and quelled almost all competing forces
27“Los Cientificos” The Scientists The technocratic advisors to DiazConsisted of industrialists, landownersFollowed 19th century political theoryBased on positivist philosophy of ComteAdvocated a society and political systemOrganized in accordance with the laws of nature.A sort of liberalismSupportedRepublicanismSecularismProgressOrder: social and politicalRejectedLiberal jacobinismEvolution not revolutionIndividual rightsNatural lawConstitutionalismpolitical libertiesUniversal suffragePositivism, Scientific Advisors were developments common to Latin American states
28Diaz’s EconomyDíaz had created such an effective centralized governmentHe was able to concentrate decision-makingMaintained control over the economic instability.Díaz welcomed foreign investors with open arms.Encouraged foreign investment because country in serious debt and had minimal savingsConditions for investors so favorable that local businesses, individual workers greatly suffered.Growing influence of U.S. businessmen over the Mexican economy was constant dilemmaDíaz largely stuck to familiar liberal principles.1850s ban on corporate land holding also enacted for Indian villagesFreed land for private exploitation, purchase by his loyal political followers and friends.New wealthMoney was not used to improve the lives of the people of Mexico.Profits ended up the hands of a wealthy few or went overseas.Wage rates remained very low; majority of the Mexican population faced devastating poverty.Economic progress varied drastically from region to region.His modernization program was also at odds with the owners of the large plantationsRich plantation owners wanted to maintain their existing feudal system (peonage)Were reluctant to transform into the capitalist economy with competition, foreign marketsHe allowed the plantation owners to proceed with a slow campaign of encroachmentUsed law to seize collectively owned village land and enforced seizure through his rural police
29Mexico Develops: At What Cost? Economic StatisticsRailroads1877: a few miles1910: 14,000 milesSilver Production1877: 607,037 kilograms1900: 1,816,605 kilogramsCopper1891-2: 6,483 tons1910: 52,116 tonsHeneguen (sisal)1877: 11,283 tons1910: 128,849 tonsSocial StatisticsInfant Mortality1893: 323 per 1,000 in Mexico CityLondon: 115 and Boston 120 per 1,000Life Expectancy: years1910 Census classified 50% of Mexican houses as unfit for human habitation1900 survey in Mexico City: 15,000 families (16% of the population) were homelessWealth was being created but it certainly wasn't trickling down.
31THE USA IN LATIN AMERICA After the Civil WarAmerican capitalists invested in Latin AmericaInvested heavily in Mexico, Central America, CaribbeanSpanish-American War between 1895 and 1898First US war in region since Mexican-American WarIntended to open door to valuable sugar plantationsAs a result of the warFormer Spanish colony of Puerto Rico becomes US possessionCuba reduced to dependency of the United StatesColumbia and PanamaColombia proved reluctant to support US plansUS backed Panama's independence movement in 1904In return, US got extensive rights to build canal in new nationCanal finished and opened in 1914Latin American nationsBecame increasingly critical of U.S. intervention in the regionCritical of military, cultural, and economic penetration of the region
32GLOBAL CONNECTIONS During the 19th century Former colonies of Latin America constructed new nationsLatin AmericaWas forced to forge economies from ground upIn a world trade network already dominated by European nationsLatin America cast off European imperialism in the 19th centuryNew nations carried with them colonial social systemsWere strictly hierarchicalSmall Creole elite dominated the economy and politicsNative Americans, former slaves, peasantsMarginalizedShared little of economic expansion of the second half of the centuryLatin America was 1st region of world to decolonizeLatin America maintained ties to the WestImitated Western modelsExperienced growing influence of the United StatesIts dependent economy also kept it connected to the world.
36WHO ARE THEY? DOMINGO SARMIENTO CREOLES (CRIOLLOS) TOUSSAINT L’OVERTUREFR. HIDALGOITURBIDESIMON BOLIVERJOSE DE SAN MARTINJOAO IVPEDRO IJOSE LOPEZ DE SANTA ANNABENITO JUAREZMAXIMILIANDOMINGO SARMIENTO
37WHAT ARE THEY? FAZENDAS ST. DOMINIQUE GREAT BOOM HAITI CIENTIFICOS 1898PANAMA CANALST. DOMINIQUEHAITIGRAN COLOMBIACAUDILLOSCENTRALISTSFEDERALISTSMONROE DOCTRINEGUANOPOSITIVISMMANIFEST DESTINYTREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO1846 – 1848LA REFORMA