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Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–1 Plate Tectonics A geological theory that states that pieces of Earth’s.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–1 Plate Tectonics A geological theory that states that pieces of Earth’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–1 Plate Tectonics A geological theory that states that pieces of Earth’s crust are in constant, slow motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle The plates of the lithosphere float on the top of the asthenosphere Convection currents rise in the asthenosphere and spread out beneath the lithosphere Geologists believe this causes plate movement

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–2 Convection Currents: The movement of a fluid, caused by differences in temperature, that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–3 Plates are a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust As plates move, they collide, pull apart, or grind past each other producing spectacular changes in the earth’s surface.

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–4 Transform Boundary A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions Crust is neither created nor destroyed Fault lines are usually created in which earthquakes happen

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–5 Figure 1-13 Transform Motion

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–6 Geology at a Glance Plate Boundaries (cont'd)

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–7 Convergent Boundaries A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other Collisions can occur between: – oceanic crust and oceanic crust (subduction) deep ocean trenches –oceanic crust and continental crust volcanic eruptions –continental crust and continental crust mountain ranges

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–8 Geology at a Glance Plate Boundaries (cont'd)

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–9 Figure 1-12a Continental Collision

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–10 Figure 1-12b Continental Collision (cont'd)

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–11 Figure 1-11 Plate Subduction

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–12 Divergent Boundaries A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other Most divergent boundaries occur at the mid- ocean ridge Divergent boundaries that occur on land are called rift valleys Ocean Basins are usually the result of this type of movement

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–13 Geology at a Glance Plate Boundaries (cont’d)

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–14 Summary of Boundaries Transform –Plates slip past each other (grind) Convergent –Plates come together (collide) Divergent –Plates move apart (pull apart)

15 Geology at a Glance Plate Boundaries

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–16 Major Plates Six major plates: –Eurasian –African –Indo-Australian –Pacific –North American –South American

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Essentials of Geology, 1b–17


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