2 Background information Relevant sections of three international conventions: Their images of childhood and implications Young workers in New Zealand/Britian This study Interviews with nine parents (2009) Discussion & Conclusion
4 An ILO core convention Member states are required to prohibit the employment of school-aged children (those under 15 years, or the minimum school-leaving age, whichever is higher). They may nominate permissible light work for specified numbers of hours for children aged 13 years and over in relatively affluent countries, or 12 years and over in poorer countries (Bourdillon, White, & Myers, 2009). [ ILO MAC ]ILO MAC
6 Article 3 requires that the best interests of the child be a primary consideration. Article 12 provides children with participation rights. Article 32 (1) protects children from exploitation and hazardous work and (2) requires state parties to set a minimum age or ages for entry into employment. (Note NZ reservation) [ UN CRC ]UN CRC
Multi-ethnic population: Mäori (indigenous), Pacific, Asian, Päkehä/European High levels of socio-economic inequality (Wilkinson & Pickett, 2009) New Zealanders can legally enter into employment contracts at any age (Roth, 2010). People under 15 are prohibited from working in dangerous workplaces. People under 16 can not work during school hours, or between 10pm and 6am. 8
New Zealand Half of 13 year olds work for pay ¾ work for pay by age 16 (ONeill, 2010) Britain The majority of students work for pay before leaving school. About 90% of young employees had not obtained the required work permit (Lavalette et al., 1995, cited in White, 1996, p. 832) 9
11 Why are students from European/Päkehä families and high decile schools more likely to be employed than students from: Minority ethnic groups? Low decile schools? How is family culture/beliefs related to children s work? What do families identify as the advantages/ disadvantages of paid work?
13 Seven encouraged their children into and within employment. Helped them find jobs Transported them to and from work Supervised work They are responsible … there are times when they are unwell or pushed for time with school commitments or other commitments that we will pitch in and help, but for the most part we dont. Scaffolded independence The remaining two were more concerned about protecting their children
14 Parents who discouraged work were worried it would be detrimental to schooling Six of the severn parents who encouraged work did not think it was detrimental to schooling The remaining parent was concerned that her son liked employment but disliked school. One childs school grades had improved since he had begun his paper delivery job.
20 Three of the nine parents gave half-hearted support to the idea of a minimum age for employment, suggesting 13 or 14 years. Oh I would say about fourteen, like, I mean I dont know whether its law here, or whether its an unwritten rule, but nobody around here employs kids really under fourteen, you know shops and things, yeah. Most were opposed to government regulation, including the two who were not in favour of children work. Im just not a great fan of giving the Government the right to dictate.
21 Two different views of childhood and parenthood: 1.Young people being encouraged and supported to make their own choices and act to further their own ends. Parents aimed to scaffold independence. 2.Young people being viewed as best protected from the economic world and from independent access to money until they mature. However children negotiated to do some work, so were treated as agents.
Raises the issue of the ability of young people to control their own lives in the face of adult power. Forced labour is one source of oppression. Being prevented from working can be another. 22
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