Terms are Different, but Interrelated and Overlapping Supervision Leadership Management Administration
A broader term than the others, but one that may encompass all of the others; Sometimes used interchangeably with the others; Commonly applied to people who run things, e.g., hospital administrator, nursing home administrator; software system administrator.
Management Derived from mano (hand), implying a hands-on role; Definitions often include certain commonly accepted components, e.g., planning, directing, organizing, super- vising, controlling, communicating, evaluating, etc.; Implies doing what it necessary to help the organization function effectively and efficiently; Is aboutcoping with complexity(Kotter); Doing the right things. (Bennis)
Supervision Actually one of the commonly- accepted functions of management; From the Latin: super (over) and videre (to see), so the term, overseer; Usually applied to persons at the mid-management level of the organization, e.g., nursing super- visor, production supervisor.
Leadership Derived from Old English, laedan (to guide or cause to go with one,); Setting a direction and influencing others to follow it; Is about coping with change (Kotter); Doing the right things (Bennis).
Management and Leadership Administers Is a copy Maintains Focus: systems & structure Relies on control Has short-range view Asks how and when Eye on the bottom-line Imitates Accepts the status quo Is the classic good soldier More left-brain thinking And….does things right Innovates Is an original Develops Focus: people Inspires trust Has long-range perspective Asks what and why Eye on the horizon Originates Challenges the status quo Is his/her own person More right-brain thinking And…does the right things The Manager The Leader
Steven Covey – 7 Habits (Parable of Management vs. Leadership) There was a crew assigned to clear some jungle in the Amazon. The crew was very well organized. There were machete- wielders on the front-line, machete- sharpeners one step behind, water and food bearers, as well as supervisors to see that all would go well. The crew was making excellent time, clearing even more jungle than they expected, and well above schedule. Then, one curious crew member climbed up a tree and looked out over the jungle.
Steven Covey – 7 Habits (Parable of Management vs. Leadership) – Contd After a few minutes, the curious tree climber looked down on the crew and yelled, Hey, wrong jungle! The people below were very unhappy to hear this and yelled back to him, Who cares….were making good time! Management vs. Leadership!
Questions? Which one is more important for the organization? Do you think organizations need both leaders and managers? Is it possible for one person fulfill both roles? What are the qualities that make each the most effective? (Next)
DMH/MIMH Leadership Institute While both sets of skills are necessary for effective organiza- tions, the focus of this program is primarily on Leadership and the development of Leadership skills; Three skill domains: Conceptual, Human, and Technical.
Skills of Effective Administrators/ Leaders/Managers - Katz Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual Skills
Conceptual Skills - Katz Ability to see the enterprise as a whole (the big picture); Recognizing how various functions of the organization interrelate and how changes in one part affect all the others; Visualizing internal and external relationships; Abstract thinking; Example: Articulating a vision for the organization.
Human Skills - Katz Persons ability to work effectively as a group member and build cooperative efforts among other group members; Primarily concerned about working with people; Interpersonal and communication skills; Influencing others; Example: Dealing effectively with conflict in the workplace.
Technical Skills - Katz Understanding of, and proficiency in, a specific kind of activity; Working with methods, processes, procedures, or techniques; Includes specialized knowledge, analytical ability, use of tools; Example: Computer skills.
Relative Importance of Three Skills TechnicalHumanConceptual Front-Line Mid-Managers Upper-Managers High LowHigh ModerateModerate - HighModerate HighLow - ModerateLow
8 Leadership Theories 1) Great Man Theories – Leaders are born, not made; 2) Trait Theories – Certain traits make people better leaders, e.g., assertive- ness, intelligence; 3) Contingency Theories – Particular variables related to the environment determine which leadership style is best; 4) Situational Theories – Leaders choose best course of action (style) based on situational variables;
8 Leadership Theories - Continued 5) Behavioral Theories – Great leaders are made, not born. Focuses on actions or behaviors instead of other factors; 6) Participative Theories – Ideal leadership style takes input of others into account; 7) Management Theories – Focus on role of supervision, organization, and systems of rewards and punishments; 8) Relationship Theories – Also called transform- ational leadership; Focus on motivating and inspiring followers.
Example of a Participative Theory – The Managerial Grid - Blake & Mouton
Five Basic Ingredients of Leadership – (Bennis – On Becoming a Leader) 1) Guiding Vision – The leader has a clear idea of what he/she wants to do/ accomplish; 2) Passion – The leader loves what he/she does and loves doing it; Passion gives hope and inspiration to the people; 3) Integrity – Three essential elements: self-knowledge, candor, and maturity;
Five Basic Ingredients of Leadership – (Bennis – continued) 4) Trust – Not so much an ingredient as a product, i.e., It is the one quality that cannot be acquired, but must be earned; 5) Curiosity & Daring – The leader wonders about everything, wants to learn as much as he can, is willing to take risks, experi- ment, try new things.
Ingredients of Leadership - Continued Bennis: These ingredients are not traits that one is born with. As countless deposed kings and hapless heirs to great fortunes can attest, true leaders are not born but made, and usually self-made. Leaders invent themselves.
Leadership Theory is Actually Ancient – Lao Tzu – 600 B.C., Wrote: Of the worst leaders, the people despise and defy; The next best are those they fear; Then come those they love and praise; And the greatest leader above them all, the people barely know he exists. To lead people, walk behind them. When the work is done, the people will say, We did it ourselves.
Mintzberg – The Managers Job: Folklore and Fact Folklore 1) Manager is a reflective, systematic planner 2) No regular duties to perform Fact 1) Managers work at a relentless pace – oriented to action 2) Managerial work includes a number of regular duties
Mintzberg – The Managers Job: Folklore and Fact – Continued Folklore 3) Managers prefer hard, aggregated data (MIS) 4) Management is a science and a profession Fact 3) Managers actually prefer verbal (soft) information 4) Actually may be more intuitive than scientific
Mintzberg – The Managers Job: Folklore and Fact – Continued INTERPERSONAL: Figurehead, Leader, Liaison INFORMATIONAL: Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson DECISIONAL: Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator, Negotiator
Mintzberg – The Managers Job: Folklore and Fact – Continued
Developing a Personal Leadership Profile – Desired Qualities/Behaviors Best Boss Boss from H--- List character- istics of best istics of worst boss Make a profile of characteristics you want to develop for yourself
Leadership/Management Key #1 Develop a leadership/management profile that will help you achieve the results you want in your organization.