3Terms are Different, but Interrelated and Overlapping AdministrationLeadershipManagementSupervision
4AdministrationA broader term than the others, but one that may encompass all of the others;Sometimes used interchangeably with the others;Commonly applied to people who ”run things,” e.g., “hospital administrator, “nursing home administrator;” “software system administrator.”
5Management Derived from “mano” (hand), implying a “hands-on” role; Definitions often include certain commonly accepted components, e.g., planning, directing, organizing, super-vising, controlling, communicating, evaluating, etc.;Implies doing what it necessary to help the organization function effectively and efficiently;Is about“coping with complexity”(Kotter);Doing the “right things.” (Bennis)
6SupervisionActually one of the commonly-accepted functions of management;From the Latin: “super” (“over”) and “videre” (“to see”), so the term, “overseer;”Usually applied to persons at the mid-management level of the organization, e.g., nursing super- visor, production supervisor.
7LeadershipDerived from Old English, “laedan” (“to guide” or “cause to go with one,”);Setting a direction and influencing others to follow it;Is about coping with change (Kotter);“Doing the right things” (Bennis).
8Management and Leadership The Manager The LeaderAdministersIs a copyMaintainsFocus: systems & structureRelies on controlHas short-range viewAsks “how” and “when”Eye on the bottom-lineImitatesAccepts the “status quo”Is the classic “good soldier”More left-brain thinkingAnd….”does things right”InnovatesIs an originalDevelopsFocus: peopleInspires trustHas long-range perspectiveAsks “what” and “why”Eye on the horizonOriginatesChallenges the “status quo”Is his/her own personMore right-brain thinkingAnd…”does the right things”
9Steven Covey – 7 Habits (Parable of Management vs. Leadership) There was a crew assigned to clear some jungle in the Amazon. The crew was very well organized. There were machete-wielders on the front-line, machete-sharpeners one step behind, water and food bearers, as well as supervisors to see that all would go well.The crew was making excellent time, clearing even more jungle than they expected, and well above schedule.Then, one curious crew member climbed up a tree and looked out over the jungle.
10Management vs. Leadership! Steven Covey – 7 Habits (Parable of Management vs. Leadership) – Cont’dAfter a few minutes, the curious tree climber looked down on the crew and yelled, “Hey, wrong jungle!”The people below were very unhappy to hear this and yelled back to him, “Who cares….we’re making good time!”Management vs. Leadership!
11Questions? Which one is more important for the organization? Do you think organizations need both leaders and managers?Is it possible for one person fulfill both roles?What are the qualities that make each the most effective? (Next)
12DMH/MIMH Leadership Institute While both sets of skills are necessary for effective organiza-tions, the focus of this program is primarily on Leadership and the development of Leadership skills;Three skill domains: Conceptual, Human, and Technical.
14Conceptual Skills - Katz Ability to see the enterprise as a whole(the “big picture”);Recognizing how various functions of the organization interrelate and how changes in one part affect all the others;Visualizing internal and external relationships;Abstract thinking;Example: Articulating a vision for the organization.
15Human Skills - KatzPerson’s ability to work effectively as a group member and build cooperative efforts among other group members;Primarily concerned about working with people;Interpersonal and communication skills;Influencing others;Example: Dealing effectively with conflict in the workplace.
16Technical Skills - Katz Understanding of, and proficiency in, a specific kind of activity;Working with methods, processes, procedures, or techniques;Includes specialized knowledge, analytical ability, use of tools;Example: Computer skills.
17Relative Importance of Three Skills TechnicalHumanConceptualUpper-ManagersLowHighHighMid-ManagersModerateModerate - HighModerateFront-LineHighLow - ModerateLow
198 Leadership Theories Great Man Theories – Leaders are born, not made; Trait Theories – Certain traits make people better leaders, e.g., assertive-ness, intelligence;Contingency Theories – Particular variables related to the environment determine which leadership style is best;Situational Theories – Leaders choose best course of action (style) based on situational variables;
208 Leadership Theories - Continued 5) Behavioral Theories – Great leaders are made, not born. Focuses on actions or behaviors instead of other factors;6) Participative Theories – Ideal leadership style takes input of others into account;7) Management Theories – Focus on role of supervision, organization, and systems of rewards and punishments;8) Relationship Theories – Also called “transform-ational leadership;” Focus on motivating and inspiring followers.
21Example of a Participative Theory – The Managerial Grid - Blake & Mouton
22Five Basic Ingredients of Leadership – (Bennis – On Becoming a Leader) Guiding Vision – The leader has a clear idea of what he/she wants to do/ accomplish;Passion – The leader loves what he/she does and loves doing it; Passion gives hope and inspiration to the people;Integrity – Three essential elements: self-knowledge, candor, and maturity;
23Five Basic Ingredients of Leadership – (Bennis – continued) 4) Trust – Not so much an ingredient as a product, i.e., “It is the one quality that cannot be acquired, but must be earned;”5) Curiosity & Daring – “The leader wonders about everything, wants to learn as much as he can, is willing to take risks, experi-ment, try new things.
24Ingredients of Leadership - Continued Bennis: “These ingredients are not “traits” that one is born with. As countless deposed kings and hapless heirs to great fortunes can attest, true leaders are not born but made, and usually self-made. Leaders invent themselves.”
25Leadership Theory is Actually Ancient – Lao Tzu – 600 B.C., Wrote: “Of the worst leaders, the people despise and defy;The next best are those they fear;Then come those they love and praise;And the greatest leader above them all, the people barely know he exists. To lead people, walk behind them. When the work is done, the people will say, ‘We did it ourselves.’”
26Mintzberg – The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact 1) Manager is a reflective, systematicplanner2) No regular duties to performFact1) Managers work at a relentless pace – oriented to action2) Managerial work includes a number of regular duties
27Mintzberg – The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact – Continued 3) Managers prefer hard, aggregated data (MIS)4) Management is a science and a professionFact3) Managers actually prefer verbal (soft) information4) Actually may be more intuitive than “scientific”
28Mintzberg – The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact – Continued INTERPERSONAL: Figurehead, Leader, LiaisonINFORMATIONAL: Monitor, Disseminator, SpokespersonDECISIONAL: Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator, Negotiator
29Mintzberg – The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact – Continued
30Developing a Personal Leadership Profile – Desired Qualities/Behaviors Best Boss Boss from H---List character List character-istics of “best istics of “worstboss” boss”Make a profile of characteristics you want to develop for yourself
31Leadership/Management Key #1 “Develop a leadership/management profile that will help you achieve the results you want in your organization.”