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Leadership and Management

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Presentation on theme: "Leadership and Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Leadership and Management
What’s in a Word?

2 Confusing Terms Leadership Management Administration Supervision

3 Terms are Different, but Interrelated and Overlapping
Administration Leadership Management Supervision

4 Administration A broader term than the others, but one that may encompass all of the others; Sometimes used interchangeably with the others; Commonly applied to people who ”run things,” e.g., “hospital administrator, “nursing home administrator;” “software system administrator.”

5 Management Derived from “mano” (hand), implying a “hands-on” role;
Definitions often include certain commonly accepted components, e.g., planning, directing, organizing, super-vising, controlling, communicating, evaluating, etc.; Implies doing what it necessary to help the organization function effectively and efficiently; Is about“coping with complexity”(Kotter); Doing the “right things.” (Bennis)

6 Supervision Actually one of the commonly-accepted functions of management; From the Latin: “super” (“over”) and “videre” (“to see”), so the term, “overseer;” Usually applied to persons at the mid-management level of the organization, e.g., nursing super- visor, production supervisor.

7 Leadership Derived from Old English, “laedan” (“to guide” or “cause to go with one,”); Setting a direction and influencing others to follow it; Is about coping with change (Kotter); “Doing the right things” (Bennis).

8 Management and Leadership
The Manager The Leader Administers Is a copy Maintains Focus: systems & structure Relies on control Has short-range view Asks “how” and “when” Eye on the bottom-line Imitates Accepts the “status quo” Is the classic “good soldier” More left-brain thinking And….”does things right” Innovates Is an original Develops Focus: people Inspires trust Has long-range perspective Asks “what” and “why” Eye on the horizon Originates Challenges the “status quo” Is his/her own person More right-brain thinking And…”does the right things”

9 Steven Covey – 7 Habits (Parable of Management vs. Leadership)
There was a crew assigned to clear some jungle in the Amazon. The crew was very well organized. There were machete-wielders on the front-line, machete-sharpeners one step behind, water and food bearers, as well as supervisors to see that all would go well. The crew was making excellent time, clearing even more jungle than they expected, and well above schedule. Then, one curious crew member climbed up a tree and looked out over the jungle.

10 Management vs. Leadership!
Steven Covey – 7 Habits (Parable of Management vs. Leadership) – Cont’d After a few minutes, the curious tree climber looked down on the crew and yelled, “Hey, wrong jungle!” The people below were very unhappy to hear this and yelled back to him, “Who cares….we’re making good time!” Management vs. Leadership!

11 Questions? Which one is more important for the organization?
Do you think organizations need both leaders and managers? Is it possible for one person fulfill both roles? What are the qualities that make each the most effective? (Next)

12 DMH/MIMH Leadership Institute
While both sets of skills are necessary for effective organiza-tions, the focus of this program is primarily on Leadership and the development of Leadership skills; Three skill domains: Conceptual, Human, and Technical.

13 Skills of Effective Administrators/ Leaders/Managers - Katz
Conceptual Skills Human Skills Technical Skills

14 Conceptual Skills - Katz
Ability to see the enterprise as a whole (the “big picture”); Recognizing how various functions of the organization interrelate and how changes in one part affect all the others; Visualizing internal and external relationships; Abstract thinking; Example: Articulating a vision for the organization.

15 Human Skills - Katz Person’s ability to work effectively as a group member and build cooperative efforts among other group members; Primarily concerned about working with people; Interpersonal and communication skills; Influencing others; Example: Dealing effectively with conflict in the workplace.

16 Technical Skills - Katz
Understanding of, and proficiency in, a specific kind of activity; Working with methods, processes, procedures, or techniques; Includes specialized knowledge, analytical ability, use of tools; Example: Computer skills.

17 Relative Importance of Three Skills
Technical Human Conceptual Upper-Managers Low High High Mid-Managers Moderate Moderate - High Moderate Front-Line High Low - Moderate Low


19 8 Leadership Theories Great Man Theories – Leaders are born, not made;
Trait Theories – Certain traits make people better leaders, e.g., assertive-ness, intelligence; Contingency Theories – Particular variables related to the environment determine which leadership style is best; Situational Theories – Leaders choose best course of action (style) based on situational variables;

20 8 Leadership Theories - Continued
5) Behavioral Theories – Great leaders are made, not born. Focuses on actions or behaviors instead of other factors; 6) Participative Theories – Ideal leadership style takes input of others into account; 7) Management Theories – Focus on role of supervision, organization, and systems of rewards and punishments; 8) Relationship Theories – Also called “transform-ational leadership;” Focus on motivating and inspiring followers.

21 Example of a Participative Theory – The Managerial Grid - Blake & Mouton

22 Five Basic Ingredients of Leadership – (Bennis – On Becoming a Leader)
Guiding Vision – The leader has a clear idea of what he/she wants to do/ accomplish; Passion – The leader loves what he/she does and loves doing it; Passion gives hope and inspiration to the people; Integrity – Three essential elements: self-knowledge, candor, and maturity;

23 Five Basic Ingredients of Leadership – (Bennis – continued)
4) Trust – Not so much an ingredient as a product, i.e., “It is the one quality that cannot be acquired, but must be earned;” 5) Curiosity & Daring – “The leader wonders about everything, wants to learn as much as he can, is willing to take risks, experi-ment, try new things.

24 Ingredients of Leadership - Continued
Bennis: “These ingredients are not “traits” that one is born with. As countless deposed kings and hapless heirs to great fortunes can attest, true leaders are not born but made, and usually self-made. Leaders invent themselves.”

25 Leadership Theory is Actually Ancient – Lao Tzu – 600 B.C., Wrote:
“Of the worst leaders, the people despise and defy; The next best are those they fear; Then come those they love and praise; And the greatest leader above them all, the people barely know he exists. To lead people, walk behind them. When the work is done, the people will say, ‘We did it ourselves.’”

26 Mintzberg – The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact
1) Manager is a reflective, systematic planner 2) No regular duties to perform Fact 1) Managers work at a relentless pace – oriented to action 2) Managerial work includes a number of regular duties

27 Mintzberg – The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact – Continued
3) Managers prefer hard, aggregated data (MIS) 4) Management is a science and a profession Fact 3) Managers actually prefer verbal (soft) information 4) Actually may be more intuitive than “scientific”

28 Mintzberg – The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact – Continued
INTERPERSONAL: Figurehead, Leader, Liaison INFORMATIONAL: Monitor, Disseminator, Spokesperson DECISIONAL: Entrepreneur, Disturbance Handler, Resource Allocator, Negotiator

29 Mintzberg – The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact – Continued

30 Developing a Personal Leadership Profile – Desired Qualities/Behaviors
Best Boss Boss from H--- List character List character- istics of “best istics of “worst boss” boss” Make a profile of characteristics you want to develop for yourself

31 Leadership/Management Key #1
“Develop a leadership/management profile that will help you achieve the results you want in your organization.”

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