Nationalism (n.) – loyalty or devotion to a nation, especially an attitude, feeling, or belief characterized by a sense of national consciousness; an exaltation of one nation above all others, and an emphasis on loyalty to and promotion of national culture and interests as opposed to subordinate areas or other nations. Sectionalism (n.) – devotion to ones region; holding the interests of a region over the interests of the whole nation.
Nationalism was reflected in the post-War period through increased national pride, an emphasis on national issues, an increase in the power and scope of the national govt, and a growing sense of American identity. In what ways was nationalism present after the War of 1812? –Patriotism –Political –Economic –Cultural POST-WAR NATIONALISM
Economic Nationalism –The War of 1812 illustrated problems with roads and transportation in the west –1807-1814 – years of Embargo and blockades had enabled American manufacturing to develop. –1815 – cheap British goods flood the American market –Henry Clay calls for an American System
Samuel Slater –1791 - establishes first textile mill in Rhode Island –Textile factories emerge slowly, but boom from 1807-1814 –After Treaty of Ghent, 150 of 151 mills close in Rhode Island… –Tariff of 1816 implemented to protect textiles. Eli Whitney –1793 patents the Cotton Gin – device for removing seeds from cotton; leads to cotton kingdom in deep south and a renewed commitment to slavery. –1798 – interchangeable parts – contract for gun manufacturing for the US Govt MECHANIZATION
AMERICAN SYSTEM ProposalAction Protective TariffAdopted 1816; 20-25% National BankBUS Rechartered in 1816 Road / Canal BuildingNational Road (aka Cumberland Road) construction begins Bonus Bill (1817) vetoed by Madison; internal improvements seen as unconstitutional States must undertake their own projects: Erie Canal (1817/1825); Ohio & Erie Canal (1832)
ERIE CANAL (1817-1825) 363 miles; connects Lake Erie to the Hudson
Impact of the Erie Canal –Cost of shipping 1 ton of grain from Buffalo to NYC drops $100 to $5; time from 20 days to 6. –Food prices drop as a result; potato prices drop 50% (hurts New England farmers, who move west). –Towns and cities emerge on the canal; transforms the Trans-Allegehny west into a center of commercial agriculture.
IMPROVEMENTS IN TRANSPORTATION (ROADS, CANALS, STEAMSHIPS, AND RAILROADS) LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A: NATIONAL MARKET ECONOMY
Literature –Websters New American Dictionary –North American Review (1815) –Knickerbocker School – group of NY writers who gain recognition Washington Irving – The Sketch Book (1819) –Rip Van Winkle; Legend of Sleepy Hollow James Fenimore Cooper –Writer from frontier NY –The Spy (1821); The Leatherstocking Tales; The Last of the Mohicans –Themes explore the contrast between the natural men of the American wilderness v. the artificial men of the civilized world William Cullen Bryant –First American poet to gain recognition –Thanatopsis (1817) CULTURAL NATIONALISM
Art –Hudson River School American landscape artists Romanticized images of the American West WHY?
Death of the Federalist Party –Era of Good Feelings / One party rule emerges –James Madison elected 1816 / 1820 Makes tour of the nation on 1817 John Marshall & Judicial Nationalism –Decisions increase the power of the federal govt and expand its authority POLITICS
MARSHALLS DECISIONS Fletcher v. PeckStates cannot override contracts Marbury v. MadisonJudicial Review McCulloch v. MarylandNational bank is constitutional. Upholds loose construction Dartmouth v. WoodwardUpholds contracts against state actions Cohens v. VirginiaJudicial review applies to state court decisions as well… Gibbons v. OgdenOnly federal govt can regulate interstate trade