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1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show, or simply press F5 on the top row of your keyboard. To advance to the next slide click the left mouse button once. From the Chapter screen you can click on any section to go directly to that sections presentation. Blank or missing areas of a slide will remain hidden until the left mouse button is clicked. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. How to Use This Presentation

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation Transparencies Image and Math Focus Bank Bellringers Standardized Test Prep CNN Videos Visual Concepts Resources

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Table of Contents Section 1 Characteristics of Living Things Section 2 The Necessities of Life Chapter 2 Its Alive!! Or Is It?

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Characteristics of Living Things Bellringer What are four living and nonliving things that you interact with every day? How do you know whether each is living or nonliving? Do you know what the word inanimate means? If so, write out a definition. Does nonliving mean the same thing as dead? Explain your answer. Write your answers in your science journal. Chapter 2

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Characteristics of Living Things Objectives Describe the six characteristics of of living things. Describe how organisms maintain stable internal conditions. Explain how asexual reproduction differs from sexual reproduction. Chapter 2

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Characteristics of Living Things Living Things Have Cells All living things are composed of one or more cells. A cell is a membrane-covered structure that contains all of the materials necessary for life. Some organisms are made up of only one cell and some are made up of trillions of cells. In an organism with many cells, different kinds of cells perform specialized functions. Chapter 2

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Characteristics of Living Things Living Things Sense and Respond to Change A stimulus is anything that causes a reaction or change in an organism or any part of an organism. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment. Responding to External Change Organisms must respond to change in the external environment in order to maintain their homeostasis. Chapter 2

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Characteristics of Living Things Living Things Reproduce Organisms make other organisms similar to themselves. In sexual reproduction, two parents produce offspring that will share characteristics of both parents. In asexual reproduction, a single parent produces offspring that are identical to the parent. Chapter 2

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Characteristics of Living Things Chapter 2 Living Things Have DNA The cells of all living things contain the molecule deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. DNA controls the structure and function of cells. The passing of traits through DNA is called heredity.

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Characteristics of Living Things Living Things Use Energy Chapter 2 Organisms use energy to carry out the activities of life. An organisms metabolism is the total of all of the chemical activities that the organism performs.

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Characteristics of Living Things Living Things Grow and Develop All living things, whether they are made of one cell or many cells, grow during periods of their lives. Living things may develop and change as they grow. Chapter 2

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Bellringer What do you think your mass would be if there were no water in your body? What else besides water is your body composed of? Where do you think you get the minerals that make up your body mass? Record your answers in your science journal. Chapter 2

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Objectives Explain why organisms need food, water, air, and living space. Describe the chemical building blocks of cells. Chapter 2

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Water Your cells and the cells of almost all living organisms are approximately 70% water. Most of the chemical reactions involved in metabolism require water. Chapter 2 Air Air is a mixture of several different gases, including oxygen and carbon dioxide. Most living things use oxygen in the chemical process that releases energy from food.

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life A Place to Live All organisms need a place to live that contains all of the things they need to survive. Space on Earth is limited, so organisms are often in competition with each other. Chapter 2 Food All living things need food. Food gives organism energy and the raw material needed to carry on life processes.

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Chapter 2 Food, continued Making Food Some organisms, such as plants, are called producers. Producers can make their own food by using energy from their surroundings. Taking Food Other organisms are called consumers because they must eat (consume) other organisms to get food. Decomposers are consumers that get their food by breaking down the nutrients in dead organisms or animal wastes.

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Comparing Consumers and Producers Chapter 2 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key. Visual Concept

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Putting It All Together All organisms need to break down that food in order to use the nutrients in it. Nutrients are made up of molecules. Molecules found in living things are usually made up of six elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Chapter 2

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Proteins Proteins are large molecules made up of amino acids. Making Proteins Organisms break down the proteins in food to supply their cells with amino acids that are then linked together to form new proteins. Proteins in Action Some proteins form structures that are easy to see. Other proteins help cells do their jobs. Proteins called enzymes start or speed up chemical reactions in cells. Chapter 2

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Carbohydrates Molecules made of sugars are called carbohydrates. Simple Carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates are made up of one sugar molecule or a few sugar molecules linked together. Complex Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates are made of hundreds of sugar molecules linked together. Organisms store extra sugar as complex carbohydrates. Chapter 2

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Lipids Lipids are compounds that cannot mix with water. Phospholipids are the molecules that form much of the cell membrane. Fats and Oils Fats and oils are lipids that store energy. When an organism has used up most of its carbohydrates, it can get energy from these lipids. Chapter 2

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Chapter 2

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life ATP Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the major energy- carrying molecule in cells. The energy in carbohydrates and lipids must first be transferred to ATP, which then provides fuel for cellular activities. Chapter 2

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Chapter 2 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are large molecules made up of subunits called nucleotides. Nucleic acids are sometimes called the blueprints of life because they have all the information needed for a cell to make proteins. DNA is a nucleic acid.

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 The Necessities of Life Nucleic Acid Chapter 2 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key. Visual Concept

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Its Alive!! Or Is It? Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. Chapter 2 DNA sugars energy enzymes living cells proteins starches carbohydrates

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Concept Map Chapter 2

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Concept Map Chapter 2

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu End of Chapter 2 Show

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Read each of the passages. Then, answer the questions that follow each passage. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 1 Organisms make other organisms similar to themselves. They do so in one of two ways: by sexual reproduction or by asexual reproduction. In sexual reproduction, two parents produce offspring that will share characteristics of both parents. Most animals and plants reproduce in this way. In asexual reproduction, a single parent produces offspring that are identical to the parent. Most single-celled organisms reproduce in this way. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does the term asexual reproduction mean? A A single parent produces offspring. B Two parents make identical offspring. C Plants make offspring. D Animals make offspring. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does the term asexual reproduction mean? A A single parent produces offspring. B Two parents make identical offspring. C Plants make offspring. D Animals make offspring. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. What is characteristic of offspring produced by sexual reproduction? F They are identical to both parents. G They share the traits of both parents. H They are identical to one parent. I They are identical to each other. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. What is characteristic of offspring produced by sexual reproduction? F They are identical to both parents. G They share the traits of both parents. H They are identical to one parent. I They are identical to each other. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. What is characteristic of offspring produced by asexual reproduction? A They are identical to both parents. B They share the traits of both parents. C They are identical to one parent. D They are usually plants. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. What is characteristic of offspring produced by asexual reproduction? A They are identical to both parents. B They share the traits of both parents. C They are identical to one parent. D They are usually plants. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction? F the number of offspring produced G the number of parents needed to produce offspring H the number of traits produced I the number of offspring that survive Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction? F the number of offspring produced G the number of parents needed to produce offspring H the number of traits produced I the number of offspring that survive Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2 In 1996, a group of researchers led by NASA scientists studied a 3.8-billion-year-old meteorite named ALH These scientists agree that ALH84001 is a potato-sized piece of the planet Mars. They also agree that it fell to Earth about 13,000 years ago. It was discovered in Antarctica in According to the NASA team, ALH84001 brought with it evidence that life once existed on Mars. Continued on the next slide Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2, continued Scientists found certain kinds of organic molecules (molecules containing carbon) on the surface of ALH These molecules are similar to those left behind when living things break down substances for food. When these scientists examined the interior of the meteorite, they found the same organic molecules throughout. Because these molecules were spread throughout the meteorite, scientists concluded that the molecules were not contamination from Earth. The NASA team believes that these organic compounds are strong evidence that tiny organisms similar to bacteria lived, ate, and died on Mars millions of years ago. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. How old is the meteorite named ALH84001? A 13,000 years old B millions of years old C 3.8 billion years old D 3.8 trillion years old Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. How old is the meteorite named ALH84001? A 13,000 years old B millions of years old C 3.8 billion years old D 3.8 trillion years old Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Which of the following would best support a claim that life might have existed on Mars? F remains of organisms G water H meteorite temperatures similar to Earth temperatures I oxygen Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Which of the following would best support a claim that life might have existed on Mars? F remains of organisms G water H meteorite temperatures similar to Earth temperatures I oxygen Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics The graph below shows an ill persons body temperature. Use the graph below to answer the questions that follow. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. A fever is a spike in temperature. On which day does this person have a fever? A Sunday B Monday C Wednesday D Saturday Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. A fever is a spike in temperature. On which day does this person have a fever? A Sunday B Monday C Wednesday D Saturday Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. A body with a fever is often fighting an infection. Fevers help eliminate the pathogens that cause the infection. According to the chart, when does this person probably have the highest fever? F Sunday G Monday H Wednesday I Saturday Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. A body with a fever is often fighting an infection. Fevers help eliminate the pathogens that cause the infection. According to the chart, when does this person probably have the highest fever? F Sunday G Monday H Wednesday I Saturday Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. What is the highest temperature that this fever reaches? A 37°C B 38°C C 39°C D 40°C Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. What is the highest temperature that this fever reaches? A 37°C B 38°C C 39°C D 40°C Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. What is probably this persons normal body temperature? F 37°C G 38°C H 39°C I 40°C Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. What is probably this persons normal body temperature? F 37°C G 38°C H 39°C I 40°C Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Math Read each question, and choose the best answer. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. An aquarium is a place where fish can live. What is the volume of the aquarium shown below? A 0.25 m B 0.25 m 2 C 0.25 m 3 D 0.52 m 3 Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. An aquarium is a place where fish can live. What is the volume of the aquarium shown below? A 0.25 m B 0.25 m 2 C 0.25 m 3 D 0.52 m 3 Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. The cost of admission to a natural history museum is $7 per adult. What is the total cost of admission for a group of five adults? F $25 G $35 H $45 I $55 Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. The cost of admission to a natural history museum is $7 per adult. What is the total cost of admission for a group of five adults? F $25 G $35 H $45 I $55 Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Lee biked 25.3 km on Monday, 20.7 km on Tuesday, and 15.6 km on Wednesday. How many kilometers did Lee bike during those three days? A 66.1 km B 61.6 km C 51.6 km D 16.6 km Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Lee biked 25.3 km on Monday, 20.7 km on Tuesday, and 15.6 km on Wednesday. How many kilometers did Lee bike during those three days? A 66.1 km B 61.6 km C 51.6 km D 16.6 km Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. Laura collected 24 leaves. One-third of the leaves were oak leaves. How many oak leaves did Laura collect? F 6 G 8 H 12 I 24 Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. Laura collected 24 leaves. One-third of the leaves were oak leaves. How many oak leaves did Laura collect? F 6 G 8 H 12 I 24 Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Characteristics of Living Things Chapter 2

65 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation


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