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1Hello and welcome to our presentation Hello and welcome to our presentation! Today we will be discussing strategies for using good nutrition to ease the symptoms of COPD. COPD stands for Chronic Pulmonary Obstructive Disease, which is usually a combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis. It makes it much harder for your body to take in oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide.Did you know that what you eat can have a significant effect on your breathing? Well, it can, and we’re going to show you how.Eat right, breathe easy
2COPD, Macronutrients, and You Today’s AgendaCOPD, Macronutrients, and YouFoods to AvoidFoods to ChooseHealthful HabitsWhew, that looks like a pretty packed agenda! Don’t worry -- it’s not as intense as it seems. We’ll begin by discussing the proper balance of macronutrients in your diet, which is basically a guide to protein, carbs, and fat. From there, we’ll move on to foods that can make COPD worse, then look at foods that can help improve your health. After that, we’ll discuss a few healthful habits that can also help reduce COPD symptoms -- things like resting before eating and having smaller, more frequent meals. Are you ready for this?
3COPD, Macronutrients, and You Balancing calories in order to improve healthWe’ll begin with a discussion of macronutrients. There are three different types of macronutrients: carbohydrates, protein, and fats. Each type often has different subtypes, like simple vs. complex carbohydrates, etc. Before we take a look at each in a bit more detail, let’s explore why maintaining a calorie balance is so important for people with COPD.
4Proper Nutrition People with COPD Often need more calories than other people doBecause their bodies need more energy simply to breatheFinding a calorie balance is crucial to living with COPD.Balancing these macronutrients is key because your nutrient needs become even more important when you’re facing down COPD. Often you actually need more calories than people without COPD because your body requires more energy than normal in order to breathe. However, if you find that COPD completely prevents you from being active, you may need to reduce your calorie intake.Finding a balance is crucial to living with COPD. Proper nutrition can stave off disease and health risks, which makes it a key factor to protect people with COPD from complications like pneumonia.
5Healthy DietYour muscles may use 10X the calories as compared to someone without COPDHealthy diet fights infectionBut balance calories for healthy weight, tooMonitor your weight daily and contact your doctor if it fluctuates more than 2-5 pounds per week.
6Protein Protein keeps your muscles strong. It can even stave off the muscle loss that accompanies COPD.Get at least 3 servings of lean protein foods each day.Let’s take a look at protein, our first macronutrient. Protein is vital for keeping your muscles strong. Why would you want to do that, you ask? Well, it becomes harder to be active as COPD sets in. If you decrease your physical activity, your muscles get weaker and may even begin to waste away. Consuming an adequate amount of protein can help support your muscles and stave off this wasting. MyPlate recommends that most adults get between 5 and 6.5 ounces of protein each day. For a personalized recommendation, visit choosemyplate.gov.
7Protein Foods to Choose Lean meatFishLean poultryEggsLow-fat or nonfat milk and cheeseBeansLentilsNuts and seedsNut buttersLow-fat or nonfat yogurtSo, where can you find this important macronutrient? We’ve compiled a list of healthful protein foods right here on this slide. According to MyPlate, “Most Americans […] need to make leaner and more varied selections of these foods.”The protein foods we recommend include…Lean meatFishLean poultry (white meat, no skin)EggsLow-fat or nonfat milk and cheeseBeansLentilsNuts and seeds (eat these in moderation, since they are high in fat)Nut butters (ditto)Low-fat or nonfat yogurt (choose options that are also light in sugar)Source:
8CarbohydratesCarbohydrates often provide the fuel that your body needs for physical activity.However, you should eat carbs sparingly, since digesting carbohydrates produces extra carbon dioxide.Make your carbs count!The CDC explains, “Your body uses carbohydrates to make glucose, which is the fuel that gives you energy […]. Your body can use glucose immediately or store it in your liver and muscles for when it is needed.”While having energy is all well and good, the process of digesting these carbohydrates -- aka carbs -- produces carbon dioxide, which is very hard to process when you have COPD. Therefore, you should be very mindful of the carbs that you are eating and make sure not to consume them in excess.Source:
9Simple Carbohydrates Simple carbs digest quickly. They don’t offer nearly as many nutrients or as much fiber as complex carbohydrates.Steer clear of simple carbohydrates when possible.Simple carbs are easy to digest. You metabolize them quickly, which provides a fast energy boost, but this boost is often followed by a crash. Steer clear of simple carbs -- they aren’t nearly as good for you as complex carbs.
10Complex Carbohydrates Complex carbs take longer to digest than simple carbs.They often have more nutrients and fiber than simple carbohydrates.What are complex carbs, you ask? Why, they are carbohydrates with more nutrients and fiber than simple carbs. They often take longer to digest, providing a steadier energy source than simple carbohydrates.
11Choosing Carbohydrates Carbs to avoid…Processed grain foodsSugary drinksCakes, cookies, and other sweet baked goodsCandy and syrupsCarbs to choose…Whole grain foodsFresh fruit and vegetablesBrown riceUnsweetened cerealsAll right, so which carbs should you choose? Well, the first column is full of simple carbs to avoid. Steer clear of processed grain foods like white bread, traditional pasta, white rice, etc. You should also avoid sugary drinks, cakes, cookies, and other sugary baked goods (more processed grain foods), candy, and syrups.So, what can you eat? Just take a look at the second column. When you eat carbohydrates, focus on whole grain foods like whole wheat bread, pasta, etc. Fresh fruits and veggies are also a must, as are unsweetened cereals and brown rice. These complex carbs are all packed with nutrients and fiber.
12FatFat provides fuel for your body, with less carbon dioxide than carbs produce.Some fats are better for you than others.There’s a lot of misinformation out there about fat. We’re here to se the record straight. When metabolized, fat produces way less carbon dioxide than carbohydrates do. It should play a role in your diet -- more so if you need to gain weight, less so if you need to lose weight.According to the CDC, “While fats are essential for normal body function, some fats are better for you than others.” So, which fats are which? Let’s take a look at the next slide to find out!Source:
13Bad FatsSaturated fats are usually solid at room temperature and are EXTREMELY bad for your health, especially your heart.Trans fats usually hide out in processed foods and also endanger your health.Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature and are EXTREMELY bad for your health, especially your heart. They prompt increases in your “bad” cholesterol levels and can have a negative impact on everything from blood pressure to kidney function.Trans fats usually hide out in processed foods and also endanger your health.
14Steer Clear of Bad Fats Saturated fats are found in… Animal products Fatty cuts of meatProcessed meatButter, cheese, cream, milk, yogurtTropical oilsCoconut & palm oilsCocoa butterTrans fats are found in many…Processed foodsCrackers and chipsCookies and most other store-bought baked goodsFried foodsStick margarineAvoid these bad fats -- they are terrible for your health. We’ve listed common sources of saturated and trans fats so that you can see which kinds of foods you should shun.Saturated fats are found in…Animal products like fatty cuts of meat, butter, cheese, cream, milk, yogurt, etc. You can also encounter saturated fats in tropical oils like coconut and palm oils, as well as cocoa butter.Trans fats are usually found in processed foods like crackers, chips, cookies, store-bought baked goods, etc. They’re also present in many fried foods, so give those a wide berth.
15Good FatsMonounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats are good for you, in moderation.Choose these instead of saturated or trans fats.So, which fats SHOULD you eat? Stick to mono- or polyunsaturated fats. These fats actually promote good health and provide vital nutrients.
16Choosing Good Fats Nuts Vegetable oils Fatty fish Avocados Olive oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, etcFatty fishSalmon, herring, trout, etcAvocadosThese are naturally occurring in vegetables, nuts and fishHere’s a list of foods that provide “good” fats. Which will you choose?Food sources of “good” fats include…Nuts, especially walnuts. You can also choose a variety of vegetable oils, like olive oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, etc. Incorporate some fatty fish in your diet too -- options include salmon, herring, trout, etc. And, of course, don’t miss avocados!The only plant food that is an exception is coconut – we just reviewed that in the previous slide.
17Macronutrient QuizWhich macronutrient produces the most carbon dioxide when digested?A) Protein C) FatsB) Carbohydrates D) FiberTrue or false? Plant products are usually great sources of healthy fats.Now it’s time for a quick quiz to test your knowledge of these macronutrients. Are you ready? Here we go!Which macronutrient produces the most carbon dioxide when digested?A) Protein C) FatsB) Carbohydrates D) FiberTrue or false? Plant products are usually great sources of healthy fats.
18Macronutrient QuizWhich macronutrient produces the most carbon dioxide when digested?A) Protein C) FatsB) Carbohydrates D) FiberTrue or false? Plant products are usually great sources of healthy fats.All right, the answers are B) Carbohydrates, and True!Carbohydrates produce the most carbon dioxide when metabolized, which means that people with COPD should consume these only in moderation, since their bodies have such a hard time processing carbon dioxide.Plant products are usually great sources of healthy fats. The only major exception is tropical oils, which contain artery-clogging saturated fat. Choose olive or canola oils instead.
19Foods to AvoidAll right, I know we’ve discussed which types of protein, carbohydrate, and fat to avoid, but there are other foods that can endanger your health and aggravate COPD. In this section, we will review which other foods to avoid and why.
20Steer Clear of SodiumSodium makes your body retain fluid, which can make it harder for people with COPD to breathe.Cut down on high-sodium foods.Use herbs and spices to add flavor to food instead of using the salt shaker.For our first food to avoid, let’s take a look at sodium. Sodium is present in many foods on its own and is also a key component of table salt. Sodium makes your body retain fluid, which makes it harder for people with COPD to breathe.So, what should you do? Cut down on high sodium foods. Use herbs and spices to add flavor to food instead of using the salt shaker. If you’re considering using a salt substitute, talk with your doctor first, since these substitutes can pose health problems or complications of their own.
21Steer Clear of Sodium Avoid these high-sodium foods… * Boxed meals * Fast foods* Canned foods * Frozen foods* Cheeses * Lunch meats* Condiments * Pickled foodsThere is way too much sodium in the foods listed on this slide. This means that you should avoid most boxed meals, canned foods, cheeses, condiments, fast foods, frozen foods, lunch meats, and pickled foods. Who can give me a few examples of types of these foods? Now who can remind me what some healthful replacements are?(Replacements should include fresh, not frozen or canned foods, seasoning with herbs and spices instead of condiments and pickled foods, etc).
22Sodium HidesDid you know that 75% of all sodium consumed is “second hand sodium”?It is often found in prepared foods in the grocery store and restaurantsIt is in frozen, canned and boxed foodsChoose whole unprepared foods like brown rice, oatmeal, fresh fruits, fresh veggies (frozen without salt is great, too) and fresh meats. Read the label to find items that have 5% or less of the daily value for sodium.
23Avoid Gas Avoid foods that make you gassy or bloated. These symptoms can make it harder for your diaphragm to fully extend, which in turn makes it harder for people with COPD to breathe.Avoid foods that make you gassy or bloated.These symptoms can make it harder for your diaphragm to fully extend, which in turn makes it harder for people with COPD to breathe.So, which foods often produce gas or bloating? Let’s take a look at the next slide to find out.
24Avoid Gas Avoid these gas and bloat bombs… * Apples * Corn * Beans * Onions* Broccoli * Peppers* Brussels sprouts * Turnips* Cabbage* CauliflowerThe foods listed on this slide are all known to cause gas and bloating. Avoid eating excessive amounts of raw apples, along with beans, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, corn, onions, peppers, or turnips.
25Sometimes SweetsPeople with COPD often take some kind of steroid to combat their symptoms.Steroids can raise blood glucose levels, so it’s important to cut down on sweets when taking a steroid.People with COPD often take some kind of steroid to combat the symptoms of the condition. Steroids can raise blood glucose levels, so it’s important to cut down on sweets when taking a steroid.
26Sometimes Sweets Make these sweets a rare treat… * Cake * Pie * Candy * Soda* Cookies * Sugars* Donuts * Sugary cereals* Jams or jellies * Sugary drinks* Pastries * SyrupsIf you have COPD and are taking a steroid, make the foods on this slide only a very occasional treat. That means that most times you should abstain from having cake, candy, cookies, donuts, jams or jellies, pastries, pie, soda, sugars, sugary cereals, sugary drinks, and syrups like maple syrup or corn syrup. When you do indulge, use portion control and moderation. Sugar-free Jellos and hard candies are great substitutes.
27Bad Foods Quiz! People with COPD should avoid foods that _____. A) Are high in sugar C) Are high in sodiumB) Make them bloated D) All of the aboveTrue or false? Fresh meats are high in sodium.Now it’s time to test your knowledge of foods that people with COPD should avoid. So, for the first question, fill in the blank. People with COPD should avoid foods that _____.A) Are high in sugar C) Are high in sodiumB) Make you bloated D) All of the aboveNow it’s time to choose: true or false? Fresh meats are high in sodium.
28Bad Foods Quiz! People with COPD should avoid foods that _____. A) Are high in sugar C) Are high in sodiumB) Make them bloated D) All of the aboveTrue or false? Fresh meats are high in sodium.Okay, the answers are D) All of the above, and False.People with COPD should avoid sugary foods if they are taking a steroid. They should also steer clear of foods that are high in sodium or cause gas/bloating.Fresh meats are not high in sodium and lean, fresh meats actually make a great replacement for deli meats, which are very high in sodium.
29People with COPD should increase their consumption of these foods Foods to ChoosePeople with COPD should increase their consumption of these foodsNow that we’ve covered all the bad foods that can aggravate COPD, it’s time to discuss foods that can ease symptoms and promote health. Remember, according to MyPlate, whole grains, lean protein, low-fat/nonfat dairy, and fruits and veggies are all key elements of a balanced diet, so when in doubt, eat those. A few mono- or polyunsaturated fats are a good idea too, especially in combination with grains, fruits, and vegetables.All right, now that we’ve reviewed a few basic key foods, let’s explore a few more specifics.
30PotassiumSome of the medicines that combat COPD cause the body to lose potassium.Therefore, people with COPD should eat extra potassium.We’ll begin with potassium. Some of the medicines that combat COPD cause the body to lose potassium. (These medicines are usually diuretics). Since people with COPD may be losing potassium, it’s important that they eat a little extra. Potassium is also considered a nutrient of concern by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which means that most people don’t eat as much potassium as they should.So, where can you find food sources of potassium? That’s what the next slide is for!
31Sources of Potassium Try these tasty sources of potassium… * Apricots (dried) * Oranges* Avocados * Peanuts* Bananas * Potatoes* Dates * Raisins* Greens * Squash* Mushrooms (fresh) * YamsTry these tasty sources of potassium… Dried apricots, avocados, bananas, dates, greens, fresh mushrooms, oranges, peanuts, potatoes, raisins, squash, and yams.
32FluidsDrinking water keeps mucus thin, which in turn makes it harder for mucus to build up and inhibit breathing.Drink plenty of fluids.Drinking water keeps mucus thin, which in turn makes it harder for that mucus to build up and inhibit breathing. What does that mean for people with COPD? Drink plenty of fluids!However, which fluids you choose is important. Caffeine can make your body actually lose water, so skip caffeinated drinks. MyPlate also advises people to avoid sugary drinks like soda, sport drinks, and fruit-flavored drinks. Instead, choose water.
33Fluid ScheduleDrink 8-10 glasses of water per day.Spread your drink consumption out evenly -- don’t drink too much at once.Only drink a little bit with meals.People with COPD should drink 8-10 glasses of water per day, and during hot days. However, it’s important not to drink all this at once. Instead, spread out beverage consumption over the course of the day.It’s also vital that people with COPD don’t drink too much during meal times.
34Remember MyPlateTo maintain good health, eat a balanced diet that consists of…Whole grains and other complex carbsLean protein and fatty fishFresh fruits and vegetables (minus gassy ones)Mono- and polyunsaturated fatsLow-fat or nonfat dairyTo maintain good health, eat a balanced diet that consists of whole grains and other complex carbs, lean protein and fatty fish, fresh fruits and vegetables, mono- and polyunsaturated fats, and low-fat or nonfat dairy.Follow the portions and proportions advocated by MyPlate, but choose a bit more fat and a bit less carb in order to avoid aggravating the symptoms of COPD.
35Healthful Foods QuizWhich of the following is not a good source of potassium?A) Avocados C) BlueberriesB) Bananas D) OrangesTrue or false? Drinking water makes mucus thick, which can then inhibit breathing.All right, here’s our second-to-last quiz of the show. Are you ready to answer the following questions?Which of the following is not a good source of potassium?A) Avocados C) BlueberriesB) Bananas D) OrangesTrue or false? Drinking water makes mucus thick, which can then inhibit breathing.
36Healthful Foods QuizWhich of the following is not a good source of potassium?A) Avocados C) BlueberriesB) Bananas D) OrangesTrue or false? Drinking water makes mucus thick, which can then inhibit breathing.The answers are C) Brown rice and False.Though blueberries are a great source of antioxidants and some nutrients, they only contain a tiny bit of potassium.Drinking water makes mucus thin, not thick, so it actually helps make breathing easier.
37Make smart choices in order to ease the symptoms of COPD Healthful HabitsMake smart choices in order to ease the symptoms of COPDWell, we’ve come to the final section of this presentation. With COPD, sometimes your eating habits matter almost as much as the food you eat, so let’s review a few tips and trick to make life easier when you have COPD.
38Time Meals CarefullyHave several small meals instead of one or two large ones each day.This will keep the stomach from distending and pressing up against the diaphragm, which makes it harder to breathe.Have several small meals instead of one or two large ones each day. This will keep the stomach from distending and pressing up against the diaphragm, which makes it harder to breathe.
39Time Meals CarefullyRest before each meal to avoid becoming overtired.Eat slowly and chew your food thoroughly.Rest before each meal to avoid becoming overtired.Eat slowly and chew your food thoroughly. When you eat too fast, you can swallow a ton of air, which actually makes it harder to breathe.Take breaks when you need to.
40Avoid Painful Behaviors Steer clear of carbonated drinks like beer or soda.Skip using a straw.Don’t bother with chewing gum.Steer clear of carbonated drinks like beer or soda. The gas can make it difficult to breathe by -- once again -- distending your stomach.Skip using a straw. It requires you to suck in too much air.Don’t bother with chewing gum. Too much effort, too few calories.
41Keep It Simple Choose recipes that are simple to make. When you eat, sit up straight. This will allow your lungs and diaphragm to keep working properly.Ask for help if you need it.Prepare meals that come together quickly. You don’t want to use up all your energy in preparing food, then have none left to actually eat it.When you eat, sit up straight. This will allow your lungs and diaphragm to keep working properly.If you are feeling overtired, ask for help. See if a friend or family member can pitch in and go to the grocery store or prep the components of a meal.
42Healthy Habits Quiz Avoid painful behaviors, like _____. A) Using a straw C) Sitting upB) Chewing food well D) Eating slowlyTrue or false? Eating several small meals per day will keep the stomach from distending and inhibiting breathing.All right, last quiz! Here we go…Fill in the blank: Avoid painful behaviors, like _____.A) Using a straw C) Sitting upB) Chewing food well D) Eating slowlyTrue or false? Eating several small meals per day will keep the stomach from distending and inhibiting breathing.
43Healthy Habits Quiz Avoid painful behaviors, like _____. A) Using a straw C) Sitting upB) Chewing food well D) Eating slowlyTrue or false? Eating several small meals per day will keep the stomach from distending and inhibiting breathing.The answers are A) Using a straw, and True.Using a straw is the only painful behavior on the list. The others are actually all things that people with COPD SHOULD do.Eating several small meals per day will in fact keep the stomach from distending and inhibiting breathing.
44COPD, Macronutrients, and You Let’s Review!COPD, Macronutrients, and YouFoods to AvoidFoods to ChooseHealthful HabitsToday we covered a lot of information about how good food and healthful habits can affect the symptoms of COPD. We discussed the roles of macronutrients, foods to avoid, foods to choose, and healthful dining habits. Do you have any questions about anything we revealed today?
45Thanks for Listening!That’s all for today! Thank you for coming to our show.