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INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Universiteit van Amsterdam Why some Amsterdam Muslims become Radicals Marieke Slootman Jean Tillie.

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Presentation on theme: "INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Universiteit van Amsterdam Why some Amsterdam Muslims become Radicals Marieke Slootman Jean Tillie."— Presentation transcript:

1 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Universiteit van Amsterdam Why some Amsterdam Muslims become Radicals Marieke Slootman Jean Tillie

2 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Focus of research Approves with violence Extremists (potential terrorists) Non-radicals (Dutch) society legitimate Extreme radicals (Dutch) society as illegitimate Spectrum Radicalization process Focus surveyFocus fieldwork Non-radicals (majority)

3 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Delegitimation: decrease in trust in society Radicalization is a process Radicalization is a choice Unpredictable on individual level Exists in each worldview or ideology Radicalization

4 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Religious diversity: Political diversity: Diversity within radical groups: Diversity within Islam and within radical groups  A-political salafi’s  Political salafi’s  Salafi jihadi's  Modern/liberal  Pragmatic  Conservative  Orthodox/fundamentalists  Active within democracy  Turning away (radicals)

5 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Characteristics of Islamic radicalism Islam is being threatened Politicians contribute to this marginalization; resistance against them is justified Religious leaders confirm to this situation and are therefore betrayers The basics of faith should be restored by a literal interpretation of the Koran The own religion is superior and should be politically implemented The true believer should play an active role in this

6 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Additional characteristics of Islamic extremism Realization of the ideal, divine society is the highest goal Each Muslim should strive for this goal, while doing this all means are allowed (including violence) The Muslim and non-Muslim world are incompatible (‘us’ against ‘them’) and non- Muslims are demonized

7 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Sensitivity to radicalization Combination of two dimensions: Political dimension:  Islam as political issue Religious dimension:  Orthodox religious viewpoints

8 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Sensitivity to radicalization Sensitivity for radicalization is determined by combination of political dimension (islam as political issue) and religious dimension (orthodox religion) However, political and religious dimension are not correlated!  Orthodox religious worldviews do not result in seeing the islam as a political issue  Politization of the Islam does not result in orthodox Islamic worldviews

9 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Religious and political dimension Of the Amsterdam Muslims scores: 10% high on the orthodox dimension 21% high on the political dimension 2% high on the religious and political dimension and are therefore sensitive to radicalization

10 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Relation with other theoretical characteristics of radicalization Sensitivity to radicalization is combined with:  Dichotomous worldview (‘us’ against ‘them’)  Utopian worldview (thinking of (realization of) ideal society)

11 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES What explains sensitivity to radicalization? Age: years old Education: middle level Strong identification with ethnic group Strong feelings of discrimination Strong political distrust Subjective social isolation No differences between ethnic groups Integration paradox

12 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES What explains radicalization? Results of fieldwork adds three motivations of radicalization:  Need for clear worldview (criticism of ‘old’ lifestyle)  Need for belonging  Need for justice  Always presence of significant other

13 INSTITUUT VOOR MIGRATIE- EN ETNISCHE STUDIES Universiteit van Amsterdam Why some Amsterdam Muslims become Radicals Marieke Slootman Jean Tillie


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