Perioperative Fluid Strategy In many cases, fluids are administered without adequate monitoring to guide volume This may result in adverse outcomes relating to either inadequate or excess fluid administration
Volume « optimization » will depend: Type of surgery Importance of the surgical insult Patient’s clinical conditions Cardiorespiratory reserve Medical treatment Preoperative volume status Preoperative preparation
Volume «Optimization » in Surgical Patients Avoidance of dehydration Maintenance of an « effective » circulating blood volume Prevention of « inadequate » tissue perfusion
Fluid Administration Strategies The « recipe » book approach From Grocott MPW et al. Anesth Analg 100:1093-106, 2005.
Peroperative Fluid Management: « The cook book approach »
Fluid Administration Strategies The « recipe » book approach Intravascular pressure measurements From Grocott MPW et al. Anesth Analg 100:1093-106, 2005.
Fluid Administration Strategies The « recipe » book approach Intravascular pressure measurement Systolic and pulse pressure variation From Grocott MPW et al. Anesth Analg 100:1093-106, 2005.
Systolic and Pulse Pressure Variations Observation of systolic and pulse pressure variation in relation to variations of intrathoracic pressure resulting from mechanical ventilation
From Preisman S et al. Br J Anaesth 95:746-55, 2005.
Fluid Administration Strategies The « recipe » book approach Intravascular pressure measurement Systolic and pulse pressure variation « Fluid » challenge Intravascular pressure measurement Blood flow measurement From Grocott MPW et al. Anesth Analg 100:1093-106, 2005.
Fluid Challenge and Intravascular Pressure Measurement Observation of the cardiac filling pressures (CVP and/or PAOP) response to a « fluid challenge » (fixed volume of colloid infused over 10 to 15 min)
Intraoperative Intravascular Volume Optimisation in Orthopedic Surgery Prospective RCT Elderly patients undergoing repair of proximal femoral fracture - Control: conventional intraop fluid management (N=29) - Protocol 1: colloid (4% MF gelatin) fluid challenge guided by CVP (N=31) - Protocol 2: colloid (4% MF gelatin) fluid challenge guided by Doppler (N=30) Fit for discharge 0 5 10 15 20 Days ControlProtocol 1Protocol 2 From Venn R et al. Br J Anaesth 88:65-71, 2002. * * p<0.05 vs Control * Fewer patients in the protocol groups experienced severe intraoperative hypotension
Fluid Challenge and Measurement of Blood Flow Observation of the blood flow (cardiac output or stroke volume) response to a « fluid challenge » (fixed volume of colloid infused over 10 to 15 min)
Perioperative Fluid Administration: The Goal-Directed Approach Medline search from 1996 to 2006 Nine studies Hospital stay (7 studies) Postoperative complications (4 studies) PONV and ileus (3 studies) Only oesophageal Doppler has been tested adequately From Bundgaard-Nielsen M et al. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 51:331-340, 2007.
Perioperative Fluid Administration: The Goal-Directed Approach From Bundgaard-Nielsen M et al. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 51:331-340, 2007.
Peroperative Fluid Management: « The Goal-Directed Therapy »
Preoperative Goal-Directed Fluid Optimization Observational study (N=12) Preoperative maximization of stroke volume using oesophageal doppler (OD) Comparison of the findings with: Modelflow determined stroke volume Oesophageal doppler estimated corrected flow time (FTc) Central venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) Muscle and brain oxygenation (NIRS) From Bundgaard-Nielsen M et al; Br J Anaesth 98:38-44, 2007.
From Bundgaard-Nielsen M et al; Br J Anaesth 98:38-44, 2007.
Preoperative Goal-Directed Fluid Optimization From Bundgaard-Nielsen M et al; Br J Anaesth 98:38-44, 2007.
Preoperative Goal-Directed Fluid Optimization Based on OD assessment, optimization of stroke volume was achieved after the administration of 400- 800 ml of colloid. The hypothetical volumes administered for optimization based upon Modelflow and SvO2 differed from OD in 10 and 11 patients respectively Changes in FTc and NIRS were inconsistent with OD guided optimization From Bundgaard-Nielsen M et al; Br J Anaesth 98:38-44, 2007.
The Wet vs Dry Philosophy « Most of the dry-supporting studies used fixed amounts of volume instead of a fluid concept adapted to the patient need (« goal-directed ») » From Boldt J. Eur J Anaesthesiol 23:631-640, 2006.
Critical Appraisal of Meta-Analyses Possible selection bias of included trials Results of analysis may be similar......but interpretation can be quite different Specific objections to meta-analyses on volume therapy: Mixing of patients with different diseases Different kinds of infused fluids Old studies (more than 15 years) included Mortality used as the endpoint in the meta-analyses...... but not in most of the volume replacement studies From Boldt J. Can J Anesth 51:500-513, 2004.
Volume «Optimization » in Surgical Patients Choice between the different solutions Physiological compartment that needs to be restored (intravascular, interstitial, intracellular) Characteristics of the solutions Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties Side effects Costs
Perioperative Fluid Strategy Conclusions (1) Preoperative fluid deficit must be compensated Replace water losses by crystalloids and plasma losses by synthetic colloids Hartmann or Plasmalyte instead of NaCl 0.9% Neurosurgery: avoid hypotonic solutions Fluid strategy must be goal-oriented and adapted: To the patient To the surgical procedure
Type of fluids does not influence outcome Type of fluids does not influence outcome