Presentation on theme: "Revised Code of Practice Release. Contents Background Why is a Code of Practice important? Overview of Code process Highlights of main revisions Public."— Presentation transcript:
Revised Code of Practice Release
Contents Background Why is a Code of Practice important? Overview of Code process Highlights of main revisions Public Comment Period
Background Codes of Practice Nationally developed guidelines for the care and handling of farm animals Include requirements and recommended best practices History First pig Code Current pig Code – 1993 Reviewed every five years Revised every 10 years
The question is not whether change will occur, but how it will be managed. Why is a Code of Practice important? – Dr. David Fraser, University of British Columbia
Code is developed within the context of: Industry Pressures Responses Why is a Code of Practice important?
Industry Pigs raised indoors Difficult to see pigs being raised –biosecurity, liability, etc. Variety of farm sizes Why is a Code of Practice important?
Pressures Public awareness and concern about farming practices Disconnect between modern farming and what consumers wish it was Activist groups that are well-funded, sophisticated and strategic Why is a Code of Practice important?
Pressures Different welfare priorities Producers, veterinarians –Performance, health, reproductive efficiency, growth Activists –Quality of life, how animal is feeling, ability to express natural behaviours, –Focus on lightning rod issues rather than whole picture General public –Animals are well cared for and respected –Permission to eat meat Why is a Code of Practice important?
Pressures Practices that restrict movement –Sow stalls Practices that result in negative states –Castration –Tail trimming, teeth clipping –Euthanasia Practices that result in abnormal behaviour –Lack of enrichment Why is a Code of Practice important?
Responses Different regions have responded in a variety of ways Legislative Market driven Producer-involved solutions Why is a Code of Practice important?
Responses The Code allows for a producer-involved approach Provides a forum to decide future production practices –With reasoned debate –Scientifically informed Sets national level of expected care standards Why is a Code of Practice important?
Responses Provides rationale for practices –Is a response for customers, not a response to activists Multi-stakeholder Consensus based May serve to avoid or moderate decisions taken by those not involved in industry –Food service –Retail –Government Why is a Code of Practice important?
Overview of Code Process Code Process Pig Code began in 2010 Intensive process Other Codes also being updated/developed DairyBeefEquine Sheep Chicken, turkeys, breeders Egg layers Ranched FoxMink
Two committees Code Development Committee Scientists Committee Overview of Code Process
Code Development Committee Responsible for the content of the Code Good faith effort to understand and reflect the interests of stakeholders Decisions arrived at by consensus for best achievable balance i.e., everyone is reasonably comfortable with decisions Overview of Code Process
Code Development Committee includes: Producers Transporters Veterinarians Animal welfare organizations Animal welfare regulatory enforcement body Retail and food service Processors AAFC and/or CFIA Chair of Scientists Committee Technical expertise (e.g. agricultural engineer) Overview of Code Process
Scientists Committee Review research on priority welfare issues Ensure validity of reports Do not undertake new research Consider evaluation of welfare on: 1.Biological functioning (health, productivity) 2.Affective states (how the animal feels – pain, preferences) 3.Natural living (ability to perform behaviours important to it) Develop report summarizing research on critical issues Peer reviewed Presented to Code Development Committee Overview of Code Process
Scientists Committee includes: Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (2 representatives) Canadian Society of Animal Science (2 representatives) Canadian Chapter of the International Society for Applied Ethologists (2 representatives) Chair of Code Development Committee Overview of Code Process
Both committees collaborated to identify Priority Welfare Issues (PWIs) Controlling pain: a case study in castration Methods of euthanasia Pig space allowance Sow housing Social management of sows Space allowance for sows Overview of Code Process
Scientists Committee Report released September 2012 Usually released with the Code Released in advance of Code to generate broader discussion Overview of Code Process
Consultations During development CPC and member organizations Obtain feedback on critical issues Confidential and without document circulation Pre-consultation National session with CPC and member organizations Provincial activities Public consultation Formal 60-day comment period June 1 – August 3, 2013 Overview of Code Process
Public comment period: June 1 – August 3, 2013 Responses collated by Code secretary –Individual submissions remain anonymous –Organization submissions are on public record CDC reconvenes to review (August 2013) –Examine comments –Revise Code as needed All decisions are made by consensus –Without consensus, Code is not final Revised document submitted to NFACC –Expected by end of 2013 Overview of Code Process
After publication Code is circulated to raise awareness Implementation –Through ACA component of CQA –Consider using new assessment model process under NFACC Code to be reviewed every 5 years and revised as needed Overview of Code Process
Highlights of current revisions Requirement Reflects regulatory requirement OR Reflects an industry-imposed expectation which outlines acceptable and unacceptable practices Recommended Practice Support the Codes Requirements Promotes producer education Encourages continuous improvement in animal welfare outcomes Generally enhance welfare outcomes, but failure to implement does not imply that acceptable standards of care are not met
Highlights of current revisions Gestation Sow Housing Pig Space Allowance Elective Husbandry Procedures –Castration –Tail Docking –Teeth Clipping Enrichment
Gestation Sow Housing – Issue not a new one Because the use of stalls is a contentious welfare issue, we recommend producers give serious consideration to alternatives or modifications to the current dry sow stall system when renovating, expanding or building. Highlights of current revisions Source: 1993 Recommended Code of practice for the care and handling of farm animals: Pigs
Gestation Sow Housing As of July 1, 2024, mated gilts and sows must be housed in groups Individual stalls may be used for up to 28 days after the date of last breeding and an additional 7 days is permitted to manage grouping Highlights of current revisions
Gestation Sow Housing For all holdings newly built or rebuilt or brought into use for the first time after July 1, 2014, mated gilts and sows must be housed in groups Individual stalls may be used for up to 28 days after the date of last breeding and an additional period of up to 7 days is permitted to manage grouping Highlights of current revisions
Gestation Sow Housing After July 1, 2024, all individual stalls must be sized appropriately to allow sows to: Stand up at rest in a stall without simultaneously touching both sides of the stall Lie down without their udders protruding into adjacent stalls Stand up without touching the top bars Stand in a stall without simultaneously touching both ends of the stall Highlights of current revisions
Rationale on sow housing Scientific committee: Possible to achieve equal or better productivity and health in group housing systems compared to individual gestation stalls provided they are well designed and managed Sows housed in stalls show increased stereotypic behaviour and spend less time resting and more time sitting and drinking compared to group-housed sows Other considerations: Group housing provides freedom of movement that cannot be accommodated with stalls Phase-in allows industry time to adjust Limited time permitted in stalls to ensure implantation and body condition recovery Highlights of current revisions
Pig Space Allowance – weaned/grower/finisher Pigs must be housed at a space allowance of k = When a short-term decrease in space allowance is needed toward the end of production: –a decrease of up to 15% for nursery pigs and up to 10% for grower/finisher pigs is allowed –a decrease of up to 20% for nursery pigs and up to 15% for grower/finisher pigs is allowed only if it is demonstrated that the higher densities do not compromise the welfare of the animals as determined by average daily gain, mortality, morbidity and treatment records, as well as the absence of or no increase in vices such as tail biting Highlights of current revisions
Pig Space Allowance – Example only Appendix C: Floor Space Allowances for Weaned/Nursery Pigs Highlights of current revisions
Pig Space Allowance – Example only Appendix D: Floor Space Allowances for Grower/Finisher Pigs Highlights of current revisions
Rationale on Pig Space Allowance Scientific committee: Using the allometric formula A=K x body weight 0.667, the minimum space allowance below which performance of nursery and growing-finishing pigs is negatively affected is equivalent to k = Other considerations: Experience of producers show that for short periods of time (generally at the end of production stages), pigs can have less space More limited research available on nursery pigs Highlights of current revisions
Elective Husbandry Procedures – Castration Castration performed after 14 days of age must be done with anesthetic and analgesic to help control pain As of July 1, 2019, castration performed at any age must be done with analgesics to help control post-procedure pain Highlights of current revisions
Rationale on pain control Scientific committee Post-operative pain is a concern for at least several hours after castration. Only analgesics such as injection with ketoprofen or meloxicam have been shown to be of value in controlling post operative pain. Castration of nursing piglets is painful regardless of age. Pigs castrated at greater than 10 days of age show better weight gains than piglets castrated at 1 or 3 days of age. Other considerations Cost effective options for pain control are available Work is needed to make administration easier
Elective husbandry procedures Tail docking Tail docking of pigs over 7 days of age must be done with pain control Teeth clipping The need to clip piglets teeth must be evaluated Highlights of current revisions
Enrichment Provide all pigs with some type of environmental enrichment (social, occupational, physical, sensory, nutritional) Highlights of current revisions
Rationale on enrichment Enriched environment helps to increase the number and range of normal behaviours Prevent development or reduce frequency or severity of abnormal behaviours –sterotypies, belly nosing, tail biting Increase the ability of the animal to cope Highlights of current revisions
Public Comment Period June 1 – August 3, 2013 Submissions Producers are encouraged to carefully review the proposed Code and submit comments to the National Farm Animal Care Council Comments should clearly indicate specifics of the Code that are workable or not workable and why Specific implications for the farm should be indicated where possible
Public Comment Period June 1 – August 3, 2013 Submissions Both the draft Code and the public comment system are available at All comments to be submitted through this online system Easy-to-follow instructions are provided