Greek Renaissance Return of Maritime Trade Importation of Writing: Phoenician Alphabet – Both have 22 characters – Both semitic languages – Similarity with Hebrew Greek Poets: Homer, Hesiod
Cultural Identity Around 800 BC a growing sense of a single cultural identity The had no political unity, no common aim, and not much in the way of shared life. They had different kings, different landscapes, but they all spoke some variation of Greek. (Bauer)
Olympics First Olympics in 776 BC Every four years in Olympia, not Mt. Olympus In honor of the God Zeus (united by worship of the same gods) Sacred truce, safe travel guaranteed by Zeus Foot races and chariot racing originally
Olympic Events Eventually other events including a race in full armor Only event where clothes were wore Background – racer tripping on loin cloth No women allowed Included a no-hold barred wrestling event – Except for eye gouges, spitting, and biting – Spartans allowed those too
To the victor goes the spoils Olive wreath and lifelong glory Storage jar of olive oil In Athens your received room and board for the rest of your life Nero always won – Loved them and insisted they be held every time he was in Greece – Declared that no one could win chariot race but him – Nero singing (religious festival) – avoidance of people
All god things must come to an end Banned by Theodocius in 394 AD – Pagan festival – Revived in 1896 AD Olympics one of four pan-Hellenic games – Olympic Games - the most important and prestigious of the Games, held every four years near Elis, in honour of Zeus; the prize was a wreath of wild olive – Pythian Games - held every four years, near Delphi, in honour of Apollo; the prize was a wreath of laurel – Nemean Games - held every two years, near Nemea, also in honour of Zeus; the prize was a wreath of wild celery – Isthmian Games - held every two years, near Corinth, in honour of Poseidon; the prize was a wreath of pine One each year Professional athletes Odes written by Pindar to honor winners
The Polis City State Community not the territory Populations #s = Citizens X 6 Citizens
Three Types of Rule Basileus (king) – early kings fairly powerful Oligarchy – Archons (Ten year terms changed to one year terms) Tyrants
Eventual Layers of Athenian Government 9 Ruling Archons – Eponymous Archon - gave his name to the government – Polemarch (military commander) – Archon Basileus (chief justice) – 6 Justices Council of 400/500 (drawn by lot from upper and middle class citizens – 50 from each deme) Council of the Areiopagos (former Archons) – Met on the Hill of Ares Assembly (every citizen)
Dont be an idiot (διώτης) Someone who wasnt willing to participate in public life
Developments in Rule (cont.) Establishment of written code (laws) Draco – Murder punished by death – Adultery punished by death – Stealing a grapefruit punished by death Even petty crimes deserve death, and I cannot find a more serous penalty for the greater crimes.
Solon Known as one of the seven wisest men of antiquity Archon Revoked the laws of Draco Made the Athenians promise that they wouldnt revoke his laws for at least ten years without his approval. Then, he went on a ten year trip around the world. Some laws very unpopular such as forgiveness of debt, land redistribution, etc.
Political Parties Men of the Coast (liked Solons reforms) Men of the Plain (wanted to return power to the rich) Men of the Hills (radical left-wing populists)
Peisistratus Leader of the Men of the Hills 1.In 560 BC faked an attack on himself and used bodyguard to seize control of Athens 2.Attempted a political alliance with Megacles Ridiculous trick 3.Finally used military force to seize power
Ostracism 10 Year Exile 6000 votes on ostraka (pottery shards) Kept property Used when someone became too powerful
Cleisthenes Reforms in 508 BC Given credit for inventing Democracy Dēmos = people kratía=power Power to the people All men able to serve on juries and hold offices. Isonomeia = equality under the law Dont be an διώτης
Culture - Hesiod Some writings similar to Benjamin Franklins Poor Richards Almanac – Celebrates the pleasures of agriculture – Lucky and unlucky days – Practical advice – Advice on sailing & trade
Especially be cordial to your neighbor, for if trouble comes at home your neighbor is there, near at hand, while kinsmen take some time to arm themselves. It is a curse to have a worthless neighbor, equally a good one is a blessing. He who is so blessed possesses something of great worth. No cow of yours will stray away if you have great neighbors.
Shun evil profit, for dishonest gain is just the same as failure.
Give is a lovely girl, but Grab is only bad and she gives only death.
Too much mistrust and too much trust can both be ruinous.
If in your heart you pray for riches, do these things, pile work upon work and still more work.
Dont let a woman wiggling her behind and flattering and coaxing take you in, she wants your barn. A woman is just a cheat.