Presentation on theme: "Hypoperfusion and Shock"— Presentation transcript:
1Hypoperfusion and Shock Welcome. This lesson on hypoperfusion and shock is part of the NAEMT Emergency Pediatric Care Course.
2Hypoperfusion Common problem Extent makes resuscitation difficult Shock due to hypoperfusionStart fluid resuscitation as soon as possibleHypoperfusion is a common problem in the pediatric population. The extent of the shock can make resuscitation difficult. This child is in shock due to hypoperfusion. Fluid resuscitation should be started as soon as possible.
3OverviewDescribe differences between compensated and uncompensated shockReview differences of distributive, non-distributive and obstructive shockExplore pathophysiology for different etiologies of shockDiscuss interventions for early and late shockThis lesson will discuss how children in shock or a hypoperfusion state present differently than an adult. It will also: Describe the differences between compensated and uncompensated shock. Review the differences between various categories of shock including distributive, non-distributive and obstructive. Explore the variable pathophysiology for different etiologies of shock. And discuss interventions for early and late shock.
4Physiology BP = Cardiac Output x Systemic Resistance Cardiac Output = Stroke Volume x Heart RateAfter-load = Resistance to blood being ejectedPre-load = Blood returned to heartStarling’s Law = Amount of cardiac muscle stretchA review of physiology is needed to help understand how children respond to shock. Blood pressure is a measurement of cardiac output times systemic resistance. Cardiac output is determined by multiplying stroke volume – the amount of blood ejected from the heart with each beat – by the heart rate. The amount of blood ejected from the heart during contraction is determined by: the amount of blood returned to the heart – which is called pre-load, the amount of stretch the cardiac muscles have – which is Starling’s law, and the amount of resistance to the blood being ejected from the heart by the vessels it will enter – which is called after-load.LifeARTNHTSA
5Shock Compensation Children vs. Adults Increased heart rateVasoconstrictionProlonged compensationRapid decompensationAdultsIncreased stroke volumeVasoconstrictionTachycardiaSlow, but sustained compensationThe body attempts to keep oxygen perfusion and circulation to its vital areas. Children will compensate differently than adults in an attempt to maintain this perfusion. Children first become tachycardic and then their blood vessels vasoconstrict. This massive vasoconstriction is the predominate compensatory mechanism for children. Due to intact compensatory mechanisms, children will compensate for a longer period of time than adults, but their decompensation will be rapid. By contrast, adults initially increase stroke volume, then vasoconstrict, and finally become tachycardic. Thus adults have a slow but sustained compensation response until decompensation. Adult’s compensatory mechanisms are often impaired by a history of cardiac problems.EPS411.com
6Categories of Shock Non-Distributive HypovolemicHemorrhagicMetabolicCategories of shock include non-distributive shock due to hypovolemia either due to hemorrhage or metabolic losses such as vomiting and diarrhea.
7Categories of Shock Distributive AnaphylaxisSepticNeurogenicDistributive shock includes:Anaphylactic shock – systemic response from an allergic reactionSeptic – profound reaction to sepsis with a systemic vasodilatationNeurogenic – involving a disruption of the sympathetic response of the body resulting in vasodilatation below the injury site
8Categories of Shock Obstructive Pulmonary embolusTension pneumothoraxCardiac tamponadeObstructive shock includes:Pulmonary emboliTension pneumothorax – due to impaired cardiac output, requires needle decompression and chest tube placementCardiac tamponade due to the collection of fluid in the peicardial sac, limiting the stroke volume ejected from the heart, requires cardiocentesis
9Etiologies of Hypoperfusion (Common) Emesis and diarrheaOsmotic diuresis from diabetesInternal or external blood lossPlasma loss from sepsis or anaphylaxisThese are common causes of shock in pediatric patients due to a decrease in circulating blood volume. Hypovolemia will initially require fluid resuscitation to correct losses and restore perfusion.
10Etiologies of Hypoperfusion (Uncommon) Spinal cord injuryCardiac failureSpinal cord injury and cardiac failure are uncommon causes of shock. A good assessment and a high index of suspicion are required to determine that spinal cord injury or cardiogenic shock is the cause of the hypoperfusion. Fluid boluses may be given initially depending upon how the patient presents, but usually these types of shock require presser medications to restore perfusion and oxygenation to the tissue.Medications required to restore perfusion
11Severity of Hypoperfusion Compensated DecompensatedSigns are due to inadequate tissue perfusionVolumeSigns of compensated shock in children are due to inadequate tissue perfusion that initiates the body’s compensatory mechanisms in an attempt to maintain perfusion and blood pressure. If shock is identified in this stage, it is often reversible with aggressive fluid therapy.Compensated shock is reversible with fluidsTime
12Severity of Hypoperfusion Compensated Shock Signs DecompensatedVolumePulseBreathingBloodPressureSigns of compensated shock are due to a sympathetic response. There is an initial increase in respiratory rate to increase oxygenation to the tissues. The heart rate increases and there is a delay in capillary refill – but remember, a cold environment also can cause a delay in capillary refill. Peripheral pulses become weak and the extremities become cool. If a blood pressure is obtained, it will be normal during the compensated stage. One of the first changes noted will be a change in mental status, with an awake patient becoming irritable and/or anxious.AVPUAltered Mental StatusTime
13Severity of Hypoperfusion Compensated Shock Signs DecompensatedDecompensatedWeak or absent peripheral pulses, weak central pulsesVolumeWeak peripheral pulses, strong central pulsesA quick way to determine if the pediatric shock patient is in compensated versus decompensated shock is by assessing pulses. Peripheral pulses and central pulses should be checked at the same time in order to compare strength. Weak peripheral pulses but strong central pulses equals compensated shock. Weak peripheral pulses or absent peripheral pulses and weak central pulses equals decompensated shock.TimeEPS411.com
14Severity of Hypoperfusion Dehydration Testing This is an image of dehydration testing that involves pulling on and releasing a child’s skin. A normovolemic patient’s skin will quickly return to normal after being released. A hypovolemic patient’s skin will “tent” or remain in the folded position after it is released, as shown in image two.Hypovolemic patient’s skin will “tent”
15Severity of Hypoperfusion Decompensated Shock Inadequate tissue perfusion to all organsVolumeDecompensated shock results from the body’s inability to continue to compensate for the continued shock state. The result is inadequate tissue perfusion to all organs including the vital organs – such as the heart, lungs, liver and kidneys – that were initially protected by compensatory mechanisms.Body is unable to continue compensationTime
16Severity of Hypoperfusion Decompensated Shock Signs VolumePulseBreathingBloodPressureSigns of decompensated shock show the changes the body experiences as it progresses toward death. If the shock state is not reversed, death is the end product. The patient’s level of consciousness progresses to lethargy, responsive to verbal stimulus, then pain stimulus, unresponsive, and then to death. Tachycardia increases and then progresses to bradycardia. Tachypnea increases and becomes bradypnea. Pulses become weak or absent both peripherally and centrally. Capillary refill becomes markedly delayed or absent. Extremities become cool, pale or mottled. Finally there is a downward change in blood pressure called hypotension.AVPUVPUAltered Mental StatusWeak or absent peripheral pulses, weak central pulsesTime
17Severity of Hypoperfusion Decompensated Shock Signs This is an image of a decompensated toddler. Some signs of decompensated shock seen in this image include: Decreased level of consciousness and pale, cool or mottled extremities. Health care providers are shown taking aggressive measures to restore perfusion to vital organs.
18AssessmentAssessment begins with a scene survey and forming a general impression of the child using the pediatric assessment triangle.
19Hazards to you, your partner, the patient and bystanders Scene SurveyThe Scene Survey is the first part of every call. Look for hazards to you, your partner, the patient and bystanders.Hazards to you, your partner, the patient and bystanders
20First Impression Pediatric Assessment Triangle Compensated or decompensatedThe first impression using the pediatric assessment triangle is made while approaching the child. Decompensated children will appear ill while compensated children will have more subtle signs and symptoms.EPS411.com
21First Impression General Appearance Observe interactionsNot sick - attentive to environment, focus on familiar people and objects, alert for threatsGood brain function requires adequate oxygenation, ventilation, cerebral perfusionSick - does not care you are present or recognize parentsThe general appearance will tell you whether the child’s physiology is compensated or not. In other words, it tells you if the child is “sick” or “not sick.” Assessing a child’s general appearance mostly involves observing their interactions with the environment. A normal healthy child is attentive to their environment, focusing on familiar people and interesting objects and alert for possible threats. Good brain function requires adequate oxygenation, ventilation, cerebral perfusion and healthy brain tissue. If the child’s interaction with the environment is good, the body is still compensating for the illness or injury well enough to oxygenate, ventilate and perfuse the brain. If the child does not care that you are present or does not recognize its parents, you should be concerned that the child is decompensated.
22First Impression General Appearance Muscle toneSpontaneous movementsSkin colorOther signs of distressGeneral appearance also includes a quick survey of the child’s muscle tone and spontaneous movements, the overall color of their skin and mucus membranes, and other signs of distress such as abnormal positions of comfort. A child who’s limp and not moving, who is pale or has cyanosis, or who is maintaining a tripod or other abnormal position is probably sick.KyleDavidBates.com
23First Impression Work of Breathing The work of breathing side of the triangle looks at and helps the PAT provide specificity because it can tell you if respiratory function is also a problem.
24Skin color, capillary refill, distal vs. central pulses First Impression Circulation to the SkinThe Circulation to the Skin side of the PAT also lends the tool “specificity” because it tells us if one of the main physiologic malfunctions is in the circulatory system. One of the earliest compensatory mechanisms for decreased circulation is peripheral vascular constriction, as reflected by skin color and temperature, capillary refill and distal versus central pulse quality.Skin color, capillary refill, distal vs. central pulses
25First Impression Sick Not Sick Rapid Initial Assessment Significant MOI?Rapid Initial AssessmentYesNoAppropriate InterventionsRelationshipUse the first impression findings to determine “How sick” and “How quick?”Transport PriorityInvolve FamilyTransport MethodDetailed HistoryTransport DestinationFocused Physical Exam
26Initial Assessment Airway Loss of airway may occur in decompensated shockThe purpose of the initial assessment is to identify and immediately treat life threats. Remember that as level of consciousness changes – which is driven by brain perfusion – the ability to protect the airway is diminished. Airway protection may be required for pediatric shock patients.Identify and treat life threats
27Initial Assessment Breathing Assess for chest traumaAbnormal soundsRate effort and volumeTo ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation, breathing needs to be fully assessed during the initial assessment. Look at the child’s breathing rate, effort and tidal volume. Listen for abnormal breath sounds. Remember that chest trauma can cause shock – so assess for a tension pneumothorax and for cardiac tamponade if there is a possible mechanism. Treat hypoxia with high flow oxygen and treat any identified causes of respiratory distress with the tools and training you have.Administer O2 andtreat cause
28Initial Assessment Circulation CompensatedWeak peripheral pulses, strong central pulsesAssessment of circulation includes the comparison of central versus peripheral pulses. The quality of these pulses will indicate whether the child is in compensated or decompensated shock. Weak peripheral pulses but strong central pulses equals compensated shock. Weak peripheral pulses or absent peripheral pulses and weak central pulses equals decompensated shock. Capillary refill is an indicator of tissue perfusion and should be assessed, but it may not be accurate in a cold environment or in specific patient. During a rapid head-to-toe exam, look for signs of internal bleeding and external hemorrhage or bleeding. Immediately apply pressure to severe external bleeding.DecompensatedWeak or absent peripheral pulses, weak central pulsesEPS411.comEPS411.com
29Initial Assessment Circulation Management – Intravenous Fluid bolus if any signs of shockEarly recognition of hypoperfusion and fluid resuscitation are keySelect a large bore catheterLocation close to central circulationTwo IVs may be neededIV access is only indicated if the child presents with any signs of shock. If there are subtle changes in vital signs such as tachycardia and tachypnea and a high index of suspicion of shock, a fluid bolus should be given and the patient should be reassessed for shock. Early recognition of hypoperfusion and fluid resuscitation are the key to preventing compensated shock from progressing to decompensated shock. For an IV, select a large bore catheter and a location close to central circulation. Two IVs may be needed to adequately fluid resuscitate the child.
30Initial Assessment Circulation Management – Intraosseous An IO can be used in any age child – even if they are awake. An IO is easy to use and can rapidly achieve vascular access with a high success rate.Can be used on any age child
31Intraosseous Space Blood Flow The intraosseous space is a specialized area of the vascular system that is often referred to as a non-collapsible vein. Blood flow is steady and generally continues even in shock. Pressure in the IO space – which can be monitored with a pressure transducer – is approximately one-third of systemic pressure. We can withdraw bone marrow from the IO space but generally cannot deposit anything permanently into the marrow because it gets washed out with the blood flow. During IO infusions, we deliver fluid and medication into the vascular system through the intraosseous space, thus the term “IO Vascular Access.”
32Anatomy Neonate Leg Cross Section SkinSubcutaneousFatIntraosseousCatheterTibiaFibulaPosteriorCompartmentAnteriorLateralYou can also see the various compartments that can be compressed or filled should fluid be inadvertently infused in the incorrect area. This leakage – or extravasation – can lead to compartment syndrome.
33Other Issues IO Insertion Depth based on patient size and weightGently insert catheterAdvance catheter slowlyFeel needle drop into medullary spaceFrequently monitor insertion site and extremityNeed hands-on trainingThe decrease in circulation to a distal area secondary to compartment syndrome may cause significant injury. For this reason it is imperative to: Plan placement depth based upon patient size and weight. Gently insert the catheter – do not use excessive force or speed. Advance the catheter slowly – allow the driver to do the work. Feel the needle set tip drop into the medullary space – stop when you feel the pop. Frequently monitor the insertion site and extremity for the signs and symptoms of extravasation or compartment syndrome. Gently and slowly advance the catheter to place the IO needle tip into the medullary space. Use control and precision to avoid serious complications! Do not attempt IO insertion without proper hands-on training from a qualified instructor using appropriate training equipment and simulators.
34IO Insertion Anatomical Landmarks PatellaTibialTuberosityThree important anatomical landmarks for IO insertion are visible in this image: the patella, the flat aspect of the medial tibia, and the tibial tuberosity – if present. Remember that the tibial tuberosity is not prominent in infants and young children.MedialTibia
35IO Insertion Unable to Palpate Tibial Tuberosity Here is something important to remember: The tibial tuberosity is often difficult or impossible to palpate on very young patients! The IO insertion site for small patients – where the tibial tuberosity cannot be palpated – is “two finger widths below the patella and then medial along the flat aspect of the tibia.”Finger WidthFinger WidthOften difficult or impossible to palpate
36IO Insertion Able to Palpate Tibial Tuberoisty The IO insertion site for more mature patients – where the tuberosity can be palpated – is “one finger width distal to the tibial tuberosity along the flat aspect of the medial tibia.”Finger Width
37Anatomy Neonate Leg Cross Section Traditional IO CatheterTibiaFibulaInitiating an IO in a neonate is significantly different than placing one in a school-aged child. Note the small intraosseous space, the thin bone density, and the lack of a tibial tuberosity lateral to the insertion site. Now let’s compare the density of relatively small patient weighing approximately 2 kg to that of a much larger patient weighing approximately 35 kg.Left Leg
38Anatomy 11 y.o. Tibia Cross Section Insertion SiteTibiaFibulaIn the school-aged child, it is easy to appreciate the tibial tuberosity. Also note the larger intraosseous space, the thicker bone density and the tuberosity lateral to the insertion site.Left Leg
39Pain Somatic and Visceral It is important to discuss pain as it relates to IO usage. Preconceived or misinformed viewpoints can lead to inappropriate use and possible complications. There are two types of pain to consider with IO insertion – somatic and visceral. Somatic pain is the pain you feel on the surface of your body while visceral pain is the pain you feel internally.
40Initial Assessment Circulation Management – Crystalloids A fluid bolus is required to increase perfusion in the pediatric shock patient. Crystalloids – like normal saline or lactated ringers – are the fluid of choice, but follow your protocols on which fluid to use. Administer 20ml/kg of fluid rapidly – in less than 20 minutes. After each bolus, reassess circulation – central and peripheral pulses, capillary refill and skin parameters – to evaluate the need for additional boluses. Most pediatric shock protocols will allow up to three fluid boluses to be given prehospitally.20 mL/kg, < 20 minutesReassess patient after each fluid bolus
41Initial Assessment Never Administer D5W D5W never should be used for fluid boluses because every 100 milliliters of D5W contains 5 grams of dextrose. Utilizing D5W can lead to hyperglycemia.D5W can lead to hyperglycemia
42Initial Assessment Circulation Management – Medications SepsisPressers and antibioticsCardiogenic ShockPressers, furosemide, morphine and antiarrhythmicsHypoperfusion in children rarely requires medications for treatment. Nonetheless, the medications that might be administered for several types of shock include: Pressers and antibiotics for sepsis. Pressers, lasix, morphine and antiarrhythmics for cardiogenic shock. Epinephrine, Benadryl and Solu-Medrol for treatment of anaphylaxis.AnaphylaxisEpinephrine, diphenhydramine, Solu-MedrolEPS411.com
43Initial Assessment Circulation Management – Medications If medications are given to treat hypoperfusion, it is after fluid boluses have been given with little result. Either epinephrine or dopamine are given to cause vasoconstriction and to improve stroke volume.Use medications after fluid bolusesEPS411.com
44Rapid transport for pediatric shock patients Transport DecisionThe final step of the initial assessment is making a transport decision. Patients presenting with either compensated or decompensated shock need to be transported rapidly for emergency department evaluation and to continue treatment therapies. Complete further patient assessment and additional therapies en route to the receiving facility.Rapid transport for pediatric shock patients
45Focused History Questions to Determine Type of Shock BleedingVomitingDiarrheaFluid intake / urine outputAs time allows, ask specific focused history questions to help determine the type of shock the patient is experiencing. To determine if the shock is hypovolemic, ask history questions about bleeding, vomiting, diarrhea and if the child is urinating or drinking normally. Check for a fever if you suspect sepsis. Signs of anaphylaxis include bites, stings, hives and swelling, and facial, lip and mouth swelling.FeverAnaphylaxis signsFEMA Photo Library / Andrea Boomer
46Head to Toe Physical Exam Done En Route The head-to-toe physical exam should be done en route to the hospital on all patients showing signs of shock.
47Ongoing Assessment Done Frequently Reassessment should be done frequently and after every fluid bolus.
48Summary Recognition and rapid intervention are keys to treatment Pulse quality and level of consciousness are key indicatorsObtain IV or IO access if shock treatment is neededDeliver crystalloid fluids at 20 mL/kgIn summary, prehospital providers need to have a high index of suspicion of shock due to history and mechanism of injury. Early recognition and rapid interventions are the key in treating shock and preventing the patient from becoming decompensated. Assessment of pulse quality and level of consciousness are key indicators of shock. Only obtain IV or IO access if shock treatment is needed. Deliver crystalloid fluids for fluid resuscitation at a rate of 20 milliliters per kilogram.