Presentation on theme: "ROLE OF MEDICAL WOMEN ASSOCIATION OF NIGERIA IN NON- COMMUNICABLE DISEASES BY PROF. G.C. ONYEMELUKWE (MON) CHAIRMAN, NATIONAL EXPERT COMMITTEE ON NON-COMMUNICABLE."— Presentation transcript:
ROLE OF MEDICAL WOMEN ASSOCIATION OF NIGERIA IN NON- COMMUNICABLE DISEASES BY PROF. G.C. ONYEMELUKWE (MON) CHAIRMAN, NATIONAL EXPERT COMMITTEE ON NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AREWA HOUSE KADUNA 23 RD NOVEMBER 2004
3 LIST OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES 1.Hypertension 2.Diabetes Mellitus 3.Sickle Cell Disease 4.Mental ILL Health & drug abuse 5.Asthma 6.Violence (Road traffic accident, domestic, conflict 7.Blindness 8.Oral Health 9.Rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease 10.Coronary heart disease 11.Cerebrovascular disease (stroke) 12Heart Disease a. Cardiomyopathies b. Endomyocardial fibrosis c. Peripartum Cardiac failure (PPCF) 13.Cancers a. Hepatoma b. Prostate c. Cervix d. Breast
4 MORTALITY STATISTICS ( ) ABUTH, ZARIA (Source: Community Medicine) 1.Road traffic Accidents14.25% 2.Infections and Septicaemia10.80% 3.Hypertension9.32% 4.Protein calorie malnutrition8.53% 5.Tuberculosis5.09% 6.HIV/AIDS4.75% 7.Cancers4.07% 8.Mellitus3.29% 9.Cerebrovascular Accidents (Stroke) 2.35% *44% of deaths are due to NCDs
5 *2003 SURVEILLANCE DATA LAGOS (SW ZONE) BP systolic =>140mmHg BP diastolic =>90mmHg Female : 22.6% Male : 22.1% Female: 29.5% Male : 30% Rural (all) : 13.7% Urban (all): 28.7% Rural : 20.6% Urban : 36.9% * Risk of CVS damage doubles for every 10 point increase in diastolic and 20 point systolic increase. * ¼ to 1/3 of women in rural and urban areas are hypertensive.
6 NATIONAL MENTAL HEALTH SURVEY DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS HIGH (Female>male) ANXIETY SYMPTOMS HIGH NB: Severe depression can lead to violence and suicide
7 BURDEN OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASE (DALYs) %DISTRIBUTION IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA
8 WHAT IS RISK FACTOR? A risk factor is a condition that places an individual at risk of developing a health related problem. A risk factor can be genetic or acquired. It may be identified as a single measurement (e.g. a physical feature such as weight), a disease (e.g. Hypertension) or a lifestyle characteristics (e.g. smoking)
9 WHAT IS RISK FACTOR? Cont. In order to be considered a risk factor for a disease, the condition must be associated with that disease in a manner which is beyond chance alone. A casual link is therefore implied A risk factor will however not necessarily lead to the development of the disease Risk factors/habits begin in youth/in womb.
10 RISK FACTORS IN NCDs I Risk FactorsHypertension Diabetes Mellitus StrokesCancerCAD Mental Illness Violence Heart Disease/ PPCF Physical inactivity Alcohol Excess Drug Abuse/Use Tobacco Use/Smoking Salt Excess X X X Unhealthy Diets Obesity Abnormal Blood Lipids X Psychological Stress Low Economic Status Unsafe SexXX Age Family History/Heredity Gender XX
11 RISK FACTORS IN NCDs II Risk FactorsAsthma/COPDSickle Cell Disease BlindnessOral Health Osteoporosis/ Nutrition Physical inactivityXXX Alcohol ExcessXX Drug Abuse/UseX Tobacco Use/Smoking X Salt ExcessXXXXX Unhealthy DietsX ObesityXXX Abnormal Blood Lipids XXXXX Psychological StressX Low Economic Status X Unsafe SexXXXX AgeXX Family History/Heredity GenderXXXX
12 REASONS FOR EXPLOSION OF NCDs 1. Western Lifestyle Leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE 2. ROLE OF INFECTIONS Cancer Liver HBV, HBC (25-40% CARRIERS) Cervix – Papilloma/Herpes genitalis Bladder – Schistosomiasis Coronary artey disease – Chlamydia Rheumatic heart disease – streptococci Blindness – filaria/chlamydia.
13 3. CULTURAL Large body image pot belly/ cash madam Cultural pre-matual fattening Kunu Kanwa heating postpartum heart failure Mai – Shanu consumption lipidemia Traditional African cooking vitamins antioxidants destroyed 4. INTRAUTERINE LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (BAKERS HYPOTHESIS – Stress, infection, under-nutrition, smoking. 5. NUTRITIONAL TRANSITION CHILD STUNTING; REFEEDING – SHORT OBESE ADULT REASONS FOR EXPLOSION OF NCDs Cont.
14 GENES HIGH RISK BEHAVIOUR LACK OF EXERCISE DRUG ABUSE 1.PHYSICO-CHEMICAL-MICROBIAL ENVIRONMENT 2.PSYCHOSOCIAL ENVIRONMENT 3.INTRAUTERINE ENVIRONMENT SMOKING ALCOHOL CHILDHOOD UNDER NUTRITION FETAL UNDER NUTRITION UNSAFE SEX HIGH SALT HIGH FAT HIGH STRESS OBESITY, HYPERTENSION, DIABETES, ASTHMA, CANCERS, MENTAL ILL-HEALTH, CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE OSTEOPOROSIS ETC ENVIRONMENT VS
15 TEN COMMAND CIVIC DUTIES OF ALL NIGERIANS S/NDUTIESBENEFITS 1.Exercise daily (including walks)Prevention of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, mental ILL health, cancers etc. 2.Know blood pressure from age 30 and above (annually/six monthly) Detect hypertension early (blood pressure increases with age) 3.Know blood sugar from age 40 yearsDetect diabetes mellitus (blood sugar increases with age) 4.Know sickle cell genotype of all familyFor counseling of family 5.Monthly breast self examination by females from age 17To detect lumps and early breast cancer 6.Know presence of hepatitis B surface antigen in blood of family members Prevent liver cancer and other diseases. 7.Know prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood level (men 50 years) To detect prostate cancer 8.Women screen cervical smear (PAP Smear) every 2 – 3 years To prevent, detect early cervical cancer. 9.Know blood cholesterol by obese or overweight people from age 40 years Prevent coronary heart disease 10.Know body mass index (BMI) (weight in kg Height x height (mtrs) To watch nutritional excess or deficiency Issued by NCD Expert Committee on Non-Communicable Disease Note: BMI >30kg/mtr 2 is Obesity BMI >25kg/mtr 2 is overweight BMI <18.5kg/mtr 2 shows under-nutrition
16 POLITICAL WILL – Lack IN STATES of NCDs, SILENT KILLERS CARING/COMPASSIONATE SOCIETY FIRM VOICE; FIRM AGENDA BY (WOMEN) STRATEGIC GATES OF WOMEN AND CONSEQUENCES 1. Gate to stomach 2. Gate into world (womb – intrauterine) 3. Gate to Child/Family Destiny – Children risk factors 4. Gate to Domestic Finance
17 CONCLUSION ROLES: 1.INFORMATION, EDUCATION, COMMUNICATION – RADIO TALKS 2.SCREENING 3.LIFESTYLE RISK FACTOR MODIFICATION (MULTIFACTOR APPROACH) 4.RESEARCH IN WOMEN HEALTH – BRITISH WOMEN/USA DONE 5.NATIONAL ACTION ON TOBACCO CESSATION 6.HEPATITIS B VACCINATION OF CHILDREN