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OGT Question of the Day! Make sure you write down the entire question and your answer. After we go over it as a class make sure you have the correct response.

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Presentation on theme: "OGT Question of the Day! Make sure you write down the entire question and your answer. After we go over it as a class make sure you have the correct response."— Presentation transcript:

1 OGT Question of the Day! Make sure you write down the entire question and your answer. After we go over it as a class make sure you have the correct response. Make sure you write down the entire question and your answer. After we go over it as a class make sure you have the correct response. This will be a grade at the end of each 9 weeks. This will be a grade at the end of each 9 weeks. You are responsible for any questions you miss due to absences. You are responsible for any questions you miss due to absences.

2 T-method/T-square Method To answer a 2 pt extended response use the T-Method To answer a 2 pt extended response use the T-Method Write the action verb on the line. Write the action verb on the line. To answer a 4 pt extended response use the t-square method. To answer a 4 pt extended response use the t-square method. Write the action verb in the top of each square. Write the action verb in the top of each square. Describe List

3 OGT Performance Verbs Analyze: Consider the different parts of a problem, situation, or equation in order to determine the nature of the whole. Taking something apart to look at its component parts Compare: Examination of similarities and/or differences. Compare implies looking at only similaritieswhile compare and contrast implies looking at similarities and differences. 10th grade students should know the difference between point by point comparison or block comparison and should be able to write in either style. Describe: Give as many details as possible. If the question involves an object or a place, all five senses should be utilized. If the question involves a person or a story, dialogue or conversation may be necessary. If the question involves a person only, an anecdote may be helpful. A web or a list of details created before writing is a good way to ensure that the student provides enough description. Evaluate: The student uses given criteria or comes up with his/her own criteria to judge the role or value of something. This might include explaining the pros and cons and/or consequences of a decision or action. It might ask for a value judgment on a piece of literature or a decision made by a person in history. Explain: The student is asked to give reasons for something. It might be to clarify the function of something, to identify causes for events or relationships, or it might be to examine factors leading up to an incident or a result.

4 OGT Performance Verbs cont. Formulate: The student is asked to come up with a new concept, theory, or hypothesis. This is to be done based on information, trends, patterns, observations, etc. An example could be devising a category to classify seemingly dissimilar events. Infer: Students are asked to provide an answer that is not explicitly named or stated in the question or the text. This is done by predicting events or extracting data from a given set of facts. Predict: The student is asked to use knowledge already provided in a piece of reading or in a chart or graph in order to make a statement about what will happen next. For instance, if a component in a process is changed, what will be the consequences? Summarize: Condense the information given in a piece of reading or on a chart or graph into a smaller piece of writing, for instance several paragraphs summarized in one paragraph or one paragraph summarized in one sentence. When asking students to summarize, they should be directed to look at the topic sentences in a piece of writing. Support: Use information from text or charts or graphs to give evidence for a conclusion or argument. Support is more than just the student's opinion. It should be facts, details, or quotations from what has been read or observed. Trace: Describe a path or sequence of events or give an accurate chronology

5 List some causes of weather. Solar energy (heats air and land) Solar energy (heats air and land) Elevation (temperature falls with increased elevation) Elevation (temperature falls with increased elevation) Nearness to large bodies of water (humidity and temperature affected) Nearness to large bodies of water (humidity and temperature affected) Temperature (determines how much water vapor air can hold) Temperature (determines how much water vapor air can hold) Air Pressure (produces wind and air mass patterns). Air Pressure (produces wind and air mass patterns).

6 2,6,1,5,4,8,3,7 Organize the following steps to scientifically solve a problem. Organize the following steps to scientifically solve a problem. 1. Develop a hypothesis. 2. Ask a question based on observations. 3. Draw Conclusions. 4. Test hypothesis. 5. Plan test with materials and methods. 6. Do background research. 7. Report Findings 8. Record and analyze data

7 The individuals listed below played a role n the development of evolutionary theory. Match them with their concept. The individuals listed below played a role n the development of evolutionary theory. Match them with their concept. A.Charles Darwin B.Jean Baptiste Lamark C.Charles Lyell D.Thomas Malthus E.Gregor Mendel 1.The Earth is very old, and it was formed by gradual processes that still operate today. 2.Events during an organisms lifetime can produce changes that can be inherited by its offspring. 3.The human population was growing so rapidly that it would someday exceed available resources. 4.Organisms that are best adapted to their environment survive to reproduce. 5.Offspring can resemble or differ from parents because of the unit of inheritance (gene).

8 1.When baking soda and vinegar are combined, the mixture foams. 2.A chemical reaction must be taken place when baking soda and vinegar are combined. 3.The ducks arrived at the Wilsons pond two weeks earlier this spring than last spring. 4.The leaves are falling earlier since the weather has been so cold. 5.The dog must have frightened the rabbit. It ran into a bush. Evidence gathered by paying close attention. Observations are based on fact – events that you see or hear, or measurements that you make. Uses evidence to draw a conclusion. Inferences are logical guesses that use facts to back them up. Observation Inference

9 What are fossils? What are fossils? In what kind of rock are most fossils found? In what kind of rock are most fossils found? How does the arrangement of fossils in rock strata provide evidence that evolution has occurred? How does the arrangement of fossils in rock strata provide evidence that evolution has occurred? Fossils are the actual remains or traces of organisms that once lived. Fossils are usually found in strata (layers) of sedimentary rock. Fossils in the oldest layers are of simpler organisms than the fossils in the newer layer. Fossils in the newer layer are more like present organisms.

10 What is Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation? What is Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation? Compare your weight on the surface of the Earth to your weight on the surface of the moon. Compare your weight on the surface of the Earth to your weight on the surface of the moon. Between any two objects in the universe there is gravity. The bigger the object is, the more gravity it has. Your weight on the moon will be about 1/16 of your weight on the Earth. So if you weight 100 lbs. on Earth you would weigh 6.25 lbs.

11 FACTS ABOUT CELLS? What are the 6 most common chemical elements found in cells? What are the 6 most common chemical elements found in cells? What is the source of new cells? What is the source of new cells? Are viruses cells? Are viruses cells? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulfur All new cells come from existing cells. NO

12 What is the Ozone layer and why is it important? Why are there holes in the ozone layer over the South Pole? What is being done about CFC s? The ozone is a layer in the stratosphere that absorbs ultraviolet rays from the sun, keeping most of the life harming rays from reaching the Earth s surface. Chloroflourocarbons (CFC s) once used in refrigerators, air conditioners, and aerosols were released into the atmosphere. These chemicals decreased the amount of ozone, which created a hole (especially over Antarctica where the ozone tends to be naturally thin. In 1986 International Congress in Montreal produced a treaty to reduce and then ban CFC production by 1996.

13 Tell whether each statement is Mitosis or Meiosis? Tell whether each statement is Mitosis or Meiosis? 1. Haploid Daughter cells. 2. Daughter cells are identical. 3. Homologous chromosomes for tetrands. 4. Two consecutive cell divisions. 5. Chromosome number is maintained 6. Produces genetic variation. Meiosis Mitosis Meiosis Mitosis

14 Define Radioactivity. Give one beneficial use of radioactivity. Radioactivity is the spontaneous release of energy by certain atoms, such as uranium, as these atoms disintegrate. Radioactivity is the spontaneous release of energy by certain atoms, such as uranium, as these atoms disintegrate. Radioactivity helps doctors to see the development of cancer by using a radioactive liquid to highlight masses in the body. Radioactivity helps doctors to see the development of cancer by using a radioactive liquid to highlight masses in the body.

15 Limiting factors keep populations from growing forever. In which of the following situations does the population decline because of a density-independent limiting factor? In which is the decline due to a density-dependent limiting factor? 1. About 10,000 sea lions live on an island in the Arctic Ocean. Most of them die when a volcano erupts on the island. 2. A herd of antelope lives on a prairie between two mountain ranges. As the population continues to grow, many antelope die from starvation. density-independent limiting factor: the population decline is caused by an environmental factor unrelated to the size of the population. density-dependent limiting factor: population growth declines as the density of the antelope population increases. The availability of food is directly related to the size of the population.

16 What is the name of the scale that measures the strength of acids and bases? What would be the pH of an acid, a base, and a neutral substance? Give examples of substances or situations where you may test for acids and bases. pH scale Acid – below 7 on the pH scale (lemon juice, tomatoes, vinegars, fruits.) Base – above 7 on the pH scale (baking soda, soap, ammonia Neutral 7 (pure distilled water) Fish tanks, swimming pools

17 Describe ways of estimating geologic time. Radiometric dating: a technique based on the half-life or radioactive isotopes that is used to determine the age of materials. Rock sequencing: analyzing the order of rock strata to estimate their relative ages; Rocks lower in the order tend to be older than those near the top. Fossils: remains or traces of prehistoric organisms that are often formed when cell structures of buried organisms are replaced by minerals.

18 1. Define a wave. 2. Name some types of waves. 3. Why type of wave does not need matter to travel? A wave is a traveling disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another. Sound, electromagnetic, seismic, water, and light waves. Light and electromagnetic waves do not need matter to travel.

19 List some severe weather patterns. Explain each pattern and tell where it is found. Tropical storms (hurricanes) Tropical storms (hurricanes) start as low-pressure areas over warm ocean water. Tornadoes Tornadoes are rotating air funnels that descend from storm clouds, often reaching the ground. The are found throughout the world but they are common in Oklahoma, Nebraska, Illinois, and Ohio. Monsoons are wind systems that seasonally reverse direction. Monsoon winds bring rain from the ocean in the summer, and bring drought from land during the winter. Monsoons can be found over the Asian continent and Australia.

20 Suppose a population of small lizards lives on an island of black volcanic rock. The lizards range in color from light gray to dark gray. As birds of prey feed on the lizards, they choose the light grey ones far more often than the dark gray ones. What will most likely happen to the skin color trait in this lizard population. In this situation, the dark grey lizards are better adapted for survival. Over time their numbers will most likely increase while the number of lighter grey lizards will decrease. The accumulation of favorable variations in a population illustrates natural selection. In this situation, the dark grey lizards are better adapted for survival. Over time their numbers will most likely increase while the number of lighter grey lizards will decrease. The accumulation of favorable variations in a population illustrates natural selection.

21 Match each process with its example 1) Homeostasis 2) Energy Transfer 3) Transportation of molecules 4) Disposal of Waste 5) Synthesis of new molecules a)Kidneys filter nitrogen from cells. b)Amino acids link to form proteins c)Light energy is converted to chemical energy in glucose. d)Water moves through cell membranes. e)A dog pants after a long run. The dog pants to cool of in order to return his system to its normal balance.

22 A. What is an element? Give an example. B. How are atoms and molecules related to elements? An element is a basic substance made of a single type of atom. Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and gold are all elements. Molecules are chemical combinations of two or more atoms. Hydrogen and oxygen can combine to make a molecule of water (H 2 0).

23 What is the relationship between the processes of respiration and photosynthesis? Respiration produces carbon dioxide and water; which are the raw material used in photosynthesis. The products of photosynthesis (glucose and oxygen) are the raw materials of respiration. Respiration produces carbon dioxide and water; which are the raw material used in photosynthesis. The products of photosynthesis (glucose and oxygen) are the raw materials of respiration.

24 Identify some physical properties of substances and give examples. Color (gold is often yellow) Color (gold is often yellow) Hardness (diamonds are the hardest mineral) Hardness (diamonds are the hardest mineral) Conductivity (copper conducts electricity) Conductivity (copper conducts electricity) Density (lead is dense) Density (lead is dense) Ductility (copper can be molded into a wire) Ductility (copper can be molded into a wire) Magnetism (iron, cobalt, and nickel are magnetic) Magnetism (iron, cobalt, and nickel are magnetic)

25 Define Biome. Define Biome. Name 6 common biomes. Describe the climate of each. Name 6 common biomes. Describe the climate of each. A biome is a distinct ecological community of plants and animals living together in a particular climate. Arctic tundra: dry and wet seasons; cold Deciduous forest: moisture evenly distributed throughout the year; warm summers, cold winters Desert: sporadic, highly localized moisture; great daily range of temperatures. Coniferous forest: moisture that varies throughout the year; cold winters, cool summers Tropical rainforest: long wet season with a short dry season, hot. Temperate grassland: wet and dry seasons; hot

26 The noble gas neon is used in Problem 4 for filling neon signs. Like other noble elements, it has a full octet (complete outer energy level) of electrons, which makes the gas A. freeze at room temperature. B. react with other gases in the air. C. unlikely to combine with other elements. D. solidify at standard pressure and temperature. C. unlikely to combine with other elements.

27 1. Gertrude cut two bars of different types of soap into four pieces each. She put one piece from each bar into each of four beakers, labeled Beaker W, Beaker X, Beaker Y, and Beaker Z. Each beaker contained a different unknown liquid. According to the results shown in the picture, which beaker contained the liquid that was densest? A.Beaker W B.Beaker X C.Beaker Y D.Beaker Z A. Beaker W

28 Draw a simple model of an oxygen atom showing the placement of the nucleus, protons, neutrons, and electrons. Draw a simple model of an oxygen atom showing the placement of the nucleus, protons, neutrons, and electrons. Which part gives atomic number of the element? Which part gives atomic number of the element? How would you make your atom an ion? An Isotope? How would you make your atom an ion? An Isotope? Proton Neutron Electron # of Protons An atom becomes an ion (electrically charged) when it loses or gains and electron. An isotope has extra neutrons, increasing the mass of an atom.

29 1. At which level is the most energy available? 2. At which level is the least energy available? 3. What percent of the producer energy is available to the filter feeders? 4. What percent of the producer energy is available to the first order carnivore? Producer level (bottom level) 3 rd level consumer 10 percent (100/1000) 1 percent (10/1000)

30 What is the name of the scale that measures the strength of acids and bases? pH scale What would be the pH of an acid, a base, and a neutral substance? Acid = less than 7; base = more than 7; neutral = 7 Give examples of substances or situation where you may test for acids and bases. Fish tanks, swimming pools

31 How do science and invention affect one another? Invention uses scientific principles to make something work better or to create a new tool (the discovery of electromagnetic waves let to the invention of TV.) Invention uses scientific principles to make something work better or to create a new tool (the discovery of electromagnetic waves let to the invention of TV.) Using new tools (inventions) allows scientists to determine unknown scientific principles. (The Hubble telescope allows scientists to learn more about the universe) Using new tools (inventions) allows scientists to determine unknown scientific principles. (The Hubble telescope allows scientists to learn more about the universe)

32 Limiting factors keep populations from growing forever. In which of the following situations does the population decline because of a density-independent limiting factor? In which is the decline due to a density-dependent limiting factor? Limiting factors keep populations from growing forever. In which of the following situations does the population decline because of a density-independent limiting factor? In which is the decline due to a density-dependent limiting factor? 1. About 10,000 sea lions live on an island in the Arctic Ocean. Most of them die when a volcano erupts on the island. Density independent because the death was caused by a natural disaster. Density independent because the death was caused by a natural disaster. 2. A herd of antelope lives on a prairie between two mountain ranges. As the population continues to grow, many antelope die from starvation. Density dependent there is not enough food for a growing population of antelope so some must die off. Availability of food is directly related to the size of the population.

33 Distinguish between biotic factors and abiotic factors in an organisms environment. List all biotic factors. Give examples of abiotic factors. biotic factors are the living factors biotic factors are the living factors abiotic factors are the non living factors that affect the organisms in an environment. abiotic factors are the non living factors that affect the organisms in an environment. Biotic factors are prokaryotes, protists, fungi, plants and animals. Biotic factors are prokaryotes, protists, fungi, plants and animals. Abiotic factors include temperature, water, and light. Abiotic factors include temperature, water, and light.

34 What is the Law of Conservation of Energy? In any physical or chemical change, energy can not be created or destroyed. In any physical or chemical change, energy can not be created or destroyed. Mg Cl - => MgCl 2

35 C. Application of insecticides to wet areas where mosquitos breed

36 Scientific Law vs. Scientific Theory A Scientific Theory is a well-tested explanation for a set of observations. Ex. It is against the law to drink and drive because driving while intoxicated causes car crashes. A Scientific Theory is a well-tested explanation for a set of observations. Ex. It is against the law to drink and drive because driving while intoxicated causes car crashes. A Scientific Law is a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature without attempting to explain it. Ex. Do not drink and drive. A Scientific Law is a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature without attempting to explain it. Ex. Do not drink and drive.

37

38 1. Define fission and fusion. 2. Fission or fusion? 1. New elements being formed in the intense heat of stars. 2. Neutron hitting uranium-235 to release energy like a nuclear bomb. 3. Power generated in a nuclear submarines reactor. Fission is a reaction the produces energy when nuclei split apart into fragments. Fusion is a process in which two nuclei come together. Fusion Fission

39

40 C. Potassium

41 Define the following terms: Define the following terms: A. Tectonic plates B. Theory of plate tectonics C. Mantle convection Moving sheets of rock that form the Earths surface. The theory that explains how a few thin, rigid tectonic plates move across the Earth. Plates move because of mantle convection. Pangea = all continents were once connected but now are separated by oceans. A force deep in the Earth, caused by internal heat energy, moves continents and the plates.

42 At 25°C, water has a density of 1.0 g/mL and vegetable oil has a density of 0.90 g/mL. How would a substance with a density of 0.95 g/mL behave when placed in both oil and water? A. sink in both oil and water B. sink in oil and float on water C. float on oil and sink in water D. float on both oil and water B. Sink in oil and float on water

43 Define conduction, convection and radiation. Conduction is the transfer of heat across two materials which have physical contact with each other. Ex. Metal pot on the stove is heated when the burner is on. Conduction is the transfer of heat across two materials which have physical contact with each other. Ex. Metal pot on the stove is heated when the burner is on. Convection is the process by which heat is transferred by the movement of a heated fluid (gas or liquid). Ex. Steam rises from a pot of boiling water. Convection is the process by which heat is transferred by the movement of a heated fluid (gas or liquid). Ex. Steam rises from a pot of boiling water. Radiation is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. This form of transfer does not need a medium (material) for travel. Ex. Earth is heated by electromagnetic waves that ravel through space from the sun. Radiation is the transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves. This form of transfer does not need a medium (material) for travel. Ex. Earth is heated by electromagnetic waves that ravel through space from the sun.

44 Label the graph in Figure 4-4, which depicts the population growth for a sample of paramecium. Use these terms: initial growth stage, exponential growth stage, leveling-off stage, carrying capacity. initial growth stage exponential growth leveling-off stage carrying capacity

45 B. The Universe Is Expanding

46 State Newtons Laws of Motion 1. Unless acted on by an outside force, a body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion remains in motion. (Inertia) 2. Change of motion is proportional to the force used to produce the change. 3. For every action there is an equal reaction.

47 A. density

48 Define potential energy and kinetic energy. Give and example of each. Potential energy is the energy of position. Ex. A pendulum at the top of its swing. Potential energy is the energy of position. Ex. A pendulum at the top of its swing. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Ex. The pendulum actually moving. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Ex. The pendulum actually moving.

49

50 Define Radioactivity: Give an example of one beneficial use of radioactivity Radioactivity is the spontaneous release of energy by certain atoms, such as uranium, as these atoms disentegrate. Radioactivity helps doctors to see the development of cancer by using a radioactive liquid traveling through the body to highlight masses in an x-ray.

51 A. Sheep competed with the deer.

52 How does electric current flow? How does electric current flow? Explain what make some materials conductors of electricity and other materials insulators. Explain what make some materials conductors of electricity and other materials insulators. Electric current flows when electrons move freely. Materials with loosely held electrons are conductors. (Copper) Materials with tightly bound electrons are insulators. (Clay, rubber)

53

54 D. 4

55 C. 3

56 1. What are fossils? 2. In what kind of rock are most fossils found? 3. How does the arrangement of fossils in rock layer provide evidence that evolution has occurred? 4. How can you tell which fossils are the oldest? Fossils are the actual remains or traces of organisms that once lived. Fossils are usually found in layers of sedimentary rock. Fossils in the oldest layer are simpler organisms. Fossils in the newer layer are more like present organisms. The oldest layers are always on the bottom of sedimentary rock and the young layers on top.

57 Match each process with its example 1. Homeostasis 2. Energy transfer 3. Transportation of molecules 4. Disposal of waste 5. Synthesis of new molecules A. Kidneys filter nitrogen from cells. B. Amino Acids link to form proteins. C. Light energy is converted to chemical energy in glucose. D. Water moves through cell membranes. E. A dog pants after a long run.

58 Conduction, Convection, Radiation? A. The metal handle of a pot on the stove becomes hot. B. You warm yourself by a campfire. C. Warm air at the Earths equator: cold air at the poles, sinks. D. Medical x-rays are used to produce images of the body. E. An air mass touches the ocean surface that is part of a warm ocean current. The air heats up and rises. Cooler air moves in to take its place. conduction radiation convection radiation convection and radiation

59 Use T-Method Describe Covalent bond is when two elements share and electron to get 8 in their outershell. Ionic bond is when Na gives Cl an electron. So both Na and Cl have 8 electrons in their outershell.

60 A. O%

61 C. Making a turn to the east.

62 D. Light Energy is converted to chemical energy.

63 Explain how the body plan of the sea anemone shows radial symmetry and the body plan of the toad shows bilateral symmetry. The body parts of a sea anenome are arranged around an imaginary central axis. Such animals can be divided among many planes. The body parts of a sea anenome are arranged around an imaginary central axis. Such animals can be divided among many planes. The toad has left and right halves. Animals that have bilateral symmetry can be divided into mirror images only along the midline. The toad has left and right halves. Animals that have bilateral symmetry can be divided into mirror images only along the midline.

64 Match the following effects on ecosystems to their possible causes. a.Acid precipitation b.Biomagnification c.Global warming d.Loss of biodiversity e.Ozone thinning 1.Habitat destruction 2.Nitrogen and sulfur oxides from power plants and vehicles. 3.Increased levels of atmospheric CO 2 4.Chlorofluorocarbons 5.Ingestion of pollutans by organisms at the bottom of a food chain.

65 1. What is the Big Bang Theory? 2. What evidence exists to support this theory? The universe began from a small, dense collection of matter, and it has been expanding ever since. Isotopes of hydrogen, helium, and lithium are abundant in the universe; Edwin Hubble observed universal expansion; scientists discovered that Earth Receives microwave radiation from all directions

66 D. D

67 C. The foot pushes backward on the sidewalk; the sidewalk pushes forward on the foot.

68 Describe a similarity and a difference of a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell. Describe Both a prokaryotic and a Eukaryotic cell have a membrane. A Prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus or organelles and a eukaryotic cell does.

69 How will the mice be treated? To verify proper feeding and care of the mice. What is the potential for the mice to die? It is important the mice do not suffer needlessly.

70 A. Matching fossils on the continents of Africa and South America

71 List some causes of weather. Solar energy (heats air and land) Solar energy (heats air and land) Elevation (temperature falls with increased elevation) Elevation (temperature falls with increased elevation) Nearness to large bodies of water (humidity and temperature affected) Nearness to large bodies of water (humidity and temperature affected) Temperature (determines how much water vapor air can hold) Temperature (determines how much water vapor air can hold) Air Pressure (produces wind and air mass patterns). Air Pressure (produces wind and air mass patterns).

72 D. Reduce pollutants commonly associated with fossil fuel combustion.

73 C. These five landmasses were once joined together in a single landmass.

74 What is the greenhouse effect? Why is it important to life? What is the greenhouse effect? Why is it important to life? How is theory of global warming related to this effect? What human activities might contribute to global warming. How is theory of global warming related to this effect? What human activities might contribute to global warming. Carbon dioxide and other gases in the atmosphere prevent the sun s heat energy from radiating back into space from Earth. The burning of fossil fuels increases the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Because CO 2 absorbs heat, the atmosphere may become warmer. Humans contribute to carbon dioxide by burning gasoline and heating homes with fossil fuels.

75 C. Convection Currents

76 C. Data from experiments that have not been performed.

77 A section of one strand of DNA has this sequence of bases: GCATAGGAA. What is the base sequence of the complimentary strand. A section of one strand of DNA has this sequence of bases: GCATAGGAA. What is the base sequence of the complimentary strand. Explain how DNA replication occurs. Explain how DNA replication occurs. Complimentary strand = CGTATCCTT 1.The DNA helix unwinds. 2.The molecules pair up with correct bases. 3.Two identical daughter DNA helices are formed.

78 1. Describe how force, acceleration and mass relate in the action of kicking a soccer ball. 2. What is friction? How does it affect acceleration of a soccer ball? Force from the foot applied to the mass (the ball) results in acceleration (change in motion). The greater the force applied, the greater acceleration will be. If you kick the soccer ball with more force, it will speed up faster. Friction is a surface force directly opposing relative motion. If the ball is rolling forward friction is pushing backward. Friction decreases the speed of a moving object because it pushes in the opposite direction.

79 One could conclude that sound is transmitted fastest in A. solids. B. liquids. C. gases. D. a vacuum. A. solids

80 Use this information for problems 1, 2, and 3. Use this information for problems 1, 2, and 3. We did an experiment to see if the distance a toy car rolled was affected by the size of the car s wheels. First, we set up a ramp at 45°. Each of the toy cars was rolled down the same ramp. At the bottom of the ramp, the cars rolled onto the classroom floor. We used a metric ruler to measure the distance each car rolled. The cars we used all had the same mass, but the wheels on each car were a different diameter. Our hypothesis was: If a toy car has larger wheels, then it will roll a greater distance. We did an experiment to see if the distance a toy car rolled was affected by the size of the car s wheels. First, we set up a ramp at 45°. Each of the toy cars was rolled down the same ramp. At the bottom of the ramp, the cars rolled onto the classroom floor. We used a metric ruler to measure the distance each car rolled. The cars we used all had the same mass, but the wheels on each car were a different diameter. Our hypothesis was: If a toy car has larger wheels, then it will roll a greater distance. 1. Which of the statements below represents the manipulated variable? 1. Which of the statements below represents the manipulated variable? A. masses of the toy cars A. masses of the toy cars B. distance traveled by the toy cars B. distance traveled by the toy cars C. height of the ramp C. height of the ramp D. surface at the bottom of the ramp D. surface at the bottom of the ramp E. size of the toy car s wheels E. size of the toy car s wheels 2. Which of the statements below represents the responding variable? 2. Which of the statements below represents the responding variable? A. masses of the toy cars A. masses of the toy cars B. distance traveled by the toy cars B. distance traveled by the toy cars C. height of the ramp C. height of the ramp D. surface at the bottom of the ramp D. surface at the bottom of the ramp E. size of the toy car s wheels E. size of the toy car s wheels 3. All of the statements below are controlled variables EXCEPT? 3. All of the statements below are controlled variables EXCEPT? A. the height of the ramp A. the height of the ramp B. he masses of the toy cars B. he masses of the toy cars C. the distance the cars travel C. the distance the cars travel D. the type of floor they roll on D. the type of floor they roll on E. size of the toy car s wheels E. size of the toy car s wheels B. distance traveled by the toy cars B. distance traveled by the toy cars C. the distance the cars travel C. the distance the cars travel

81 A. The water reduces friction.

82 1. How are stars created? 2. How do stars produce energy? 3. How are stars responsible for the creation of elements? A new star forms when a huge cloud made of hydrogen and other matter collapses in space. Gravity at the center of the new star creates great heat. The intense heat inside a star causes the hydrogen protons to move so rapidly that they join together; or fuse. This process, fusion, is a nuclear reaction that creates energy. The star starts to glow. Ongoing fusion of pr0tons in stars results in many different proton combinations. Each different combination produces a different element.

83 1. Which ideas is NOT one of the main points of Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection? a. Overproduction is common in nature. b. Organisms within a population must compete to survive. c. Variations in populations are the result of random mutations. d. Organisms with favorable adaptations have a better chance of surviving to reproduce. 2. What other naturalist developed a theory of natural selection identical to Darwins theory? c. Darwin recognized that variations occurred in populations. However, he was unable to explain the reason for these variations since he had no knowledge of mutations or other genetic processes. Alfred Russel Wallace

84 D D DDD D D = Dominant d = Recessive d d d ddd True or False: The offspring of a Dd x Dd could have different genotypes and phenotypes. True. The Punnet Square show three different genotypes: DD, Dd, dd. If D is dominant, then the phenotypes of DD and Dd could be different than the phenotype of dd.

85 A student is testing the conductivity of two solid substances. Substance A has high conductivity and substance B has low conductivity. Based on this information, what must be true regarding these two substances? A.Electrons in substance A are able to move more easily than electrons in substance B. B. There is more energy stored in chemical bonds in substance A than there is in substance B. C. The atomic nuclei in substance A have more mass than the atomic nuclei in substance B. D. Substance A contains a higher percentage of radioactive atoms than does substance B. A.Electrons in substance A are able to move more easily than electrons in substance B.

86 D. Alcoholic Fermentation

87 12. Based on the illustration to the right, which of the following is a reasonable observation? A.The tree is in Seattle, Washington. B. This is an area that gets a large amount of rain each year. C. This tree is home to seven varieties of birds. D. It is raining.

88 1. What is the periodic table of elements? 1. What is the periodic table of elements? 2. Identify the parts of the element square. 2. Identify the parts of the element square. The periodic table of elements is an organizational table developed by Mendeleev in Elements are arranged in row by increasing atomic number and in columns by chemical properties Atomic number Atomic symbol Atomic mass

89 List some causes of weather. Solar energy (heats air and land) Solar energy (heats air and land) Elevation (temperature falls with increased elevation) Elevation (temperature falls with increased elevation) Nearness to large bodies of water (humidity and temperature affected) Nearness to large bodies of water (humidity and temperature affected) Temperature (determines how much water vapor air can hold) Temperature (determines how much water vapor air can hold) Air Pressure (produces wind and air mass patterns). Air Pressure (produces wind and air mass patterns).

90 What is physical change in matter? Give examples. What is physical change in matter? Give examples. What is chemical change in matter? Give examples. What is chemical change in matter? Give examples. A change in the phase (state) of matter or a change in which parts do not lose their identity (Examples: ice melting to water) A reaction causes a change in the properties of matter; it is usually difficult to reverse (spilling bleach on a pair of jeans; a stick burning in a campfire.

91 D. Pasteurization

92 Could the speed of sound be used to estimate dry air temperature, based on the data above? A.No, because the speed of sound in dry air is the same regardless of temperature. B. No, because as temperature increases, the speed of sound in dry air increases. C. Yes, because as temperature increases, the speed of sound in dry air increases. D. Yes, because as temperature decreases, the speed of sound in dry air increases. C. Yes, because as temperature increases, the speed of sound in dry air increases.

93 The water level in a graduated cylinder rises from 10 cm 3 to 35 cm 3 when a solid lead ball is added. What is the approximate volume of the lead ball? A. 3.5 cm 3 B. 25 cm 3 C. 35 cm 3 D. 45 cm 3 B. 25 cm3

94 C.3

95 D. Disclose all medical procedures and provide information on risks and potential side effects.

96 B. Cup A was a better insulator than cup B

97 DESCRIBEEXPLAIN

98 Define Endothermic reaction. Define Endothermic reaction. Define Exothermic reaction. Define Exothermic reaction. A chemical reaction in which the final energy of the products of the reaction is greater than the intitial energy; energy must be supplied to make the reaction proceed (Ex. The chemical reactions that occur when you bake a cake.) A chemical reaction that gives off energy in some form (Ex. The chemical reactions in a burning sheet of paper)

99

100 D. Surface Temperature

101 A. Gravity

102 Give some examples of conserving energy resources. Recycling Recycling Buying fuel efficient automobiles Buying fuel efficient automobiles Riding a bike instead of driving Riding a bike instead of driving Insulating bridges Insulating bridges

103 Identify Explain Identify There will be less oxygen in the air. Living things will not be able to survive without oxygen. Plant and animal habitats will be destroyed. Plants and animals may die. These plants and animals may cure certain diseases.

104 C. flagellum

105 B. 14

106 C. The skier gains potential energy as she is lifted up the slope and loses potential energy as she skis down the slope.

107 A. 1

108 B. Cyclic Nature of Earths Processes

109 C. Conduction causes heat to leave the hand

110 Same mean temperature Different levels of precipitation.

111 A. Mutualism

112 D. The flat sheet of paper has greater surface area and encounters more air resistance than when it is crumpled.

113 D. Organs are made from different types of tissues.

114 PredictExplain Significant friction will slow the box down. Significant friction will cause a greater force to act in the opposite direction

115 D s

116 A. Always the same

117 D. Build walls out of porous materials, upholster the seats and add carpets.

118 D. The absence of a nuclear membrane

119 C. Fermentation and cellular respiration.

120 A. Matching fossils on the continents of Africa and South America

121 A. V

122 D. Thermal

123 A. The youngest sedimentary layer was deposited by glaciers.

124 D. Surface temperature

125 D. Gravitational attraction

126 C. More direct observations have been enabled scientists to change solar system models.

127 C. Respiration

128 B. Geyser formation


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