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Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall 2009 1 Wireless Communications GSM GPRS UMTS CDMA 2000 WiFi References:

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Presentation on theme: "Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall 2009 1 Wireless Communications GSM GPRS UMTS CDMA 2000 WiFi References:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Wireless Communications GSM GPRS UMTS CDMA 2000 WiFi References: GPRS Cisco White Paper UMTS Forum White Paper 2005

2 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Wireless Migration Path TACS NMT (900) GSM(900) AMPS SMR 1G GSM(1800) GSM(1900) IS-136(1900) IS-95(1900) GPRS WCDMA GPRS EDGE IS-136(800) IS-95(800) iDEN(800) 2G CDMA2000 1X CDMA2000 3X 2.5G3G 192 kbps 384 kbps 200 kbps 2 Mbps TACS – Total Access Communication System NMT – Nordic Mobile Telephone SMR – Specialized Mobile radio iDEN – Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network (Motorola) EDGE – Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution

3 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall G spectrum allocation D-AMPS/TDMA IS-54/136 (800) GSM (850) GSM-EU (900) EGSM-EU (900) GSM-EU (1800) Year1983/ Base Tx MHz Base Rx MHz Spectr. allocat.25 MHz 9.8 MHz150 MHz Radio Channel30 kHz200 kHz No of carriers channel/carrier3 (6)8888 Modulation4DPSK 1 0.3GMSK 2 0.3GMSK CODECA/VCELP 3 RELP 4 / ACELP RELP/ ACELP RELP/ ACELP RELP/ ACELP 1 DMSK – Differential Phase Shift Keying, 2 GMSK – Gaussian Maximum Shift Keying, 3 CELP – Code Excited Linear Prediction, A – Algebraic, V – Vector (8 kbps), 4 RELP – Residual ELP (13 kbps). Tanenbaum page 687: G723.1 – 5.3 to 6.4 kbps.

4 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall G spectrum allocation GSM-US (1900) 1 CDMA IS-95 1 CDMA2000 1X WCDMA IS-661 Year Base Tx MHz Base Rx MHz Spectr. allocat.60 MHz50 MHz120 MHz Radio Channel200 kHz1.25 MHz 5 MHz No of carriers *12 = 180 channel/carrier864 Modulation0.3GMSKQPSK 2 QPSK CODECRELP/ ACELP CELP 3 CELP 1 2G 2 QPSK – Quadrature Phase Shift Keying. 3 CELP – Code Excited Linear Prediction,

5 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Spectrum Frequency Chart

6 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GSM Spectrum ARFCN – Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number. Offset between downlink and uplink

7 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Offset

8 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Coverage – Frequency Reuse Carrier/Interference = 17 dB For N (reuse pattern) = 7, d/r = 4.6 MSC – Mobile Service/Switching Center G F E D C B A D r d MSC1 MSC2

9 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GSM (2G) Standard Reference Model AuC - Authentication Center BSC - Base Stations Controller BTS – Base Transceiver Station (50–100 BTS) EIR – Equipment Identity Register GMSC - Gateway Mobile Service Center HLR – Home Location Register (one per ntwk) VLR – Visitor Location Register MT – Mobile Terminal ME - Mobile Equipment (IMEI – International Mobile Equipment Identity) + SIM (Subscriber Identity Card containing IMSI – International Mobile Subscriber Identity) SMSC - Short Message Service Center PSTN - Public Switching Telephone Network TRAU – Transcoding and Rate Adaptation Unit BSC BTS Abis MSC/VLR A GMSC E VLR B D SS7 signaling SS7 signaling + trunks PSTN C HLR AuC SMSC Um MT TRAU optional Ater EIR F

10 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Location update AB distance Registration (passive), Handover (active)

11 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall MS* EIR GMSC Um BTS1 BSC1 MSC1 A E C PSTN VLR1 Abis F HLR AuC SMSC MSC2 VLR2 G D BTS2 BSC2 A Abis Um B B Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) *Mobile Station = MT + ME

12 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GSM Location Update (Registration) MS Previous MSC1/VLR GMSC/HLR/AuC New MSC2/VLR BSS2* Channel Request Channel Assigned Loc Update Request Authentication Info Loc. info Update Send Auth. Info Authentication Challenge Authentication Response Update Location Cancel Location Cancel Location Ack Insert Subscr. Data Location Update Accept Clear Channel Subscr. Data Ack Update Location Ack Channel Released Clear Complete *BSS = BTS + BSC

13 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GSM Standard Reference Model (2) Signaling GSM signaling + voice MT EIR GMSC Um BTS BSC MSC A E C D PSTN VLR Abis TE R F HLR AuC SMSC BTS: radio station that talks to mobiles. BSC: allocate channels and other resources. HLR: IMSI, last location area, class of service. VLR: IMSI, class of service. AuC: secret key (the same as in SIM card). EIR: IMEI if reported stolen marked invalid. SMSC: Short Message Service data base. Radio Resource Management: BSC radio/fixed channels/slots Allocation during call setup, and handoffs. Mobility management: HLR/VLR – registration, inter MSC handoffs, authentication Connection Management: MSC + supplementary services and Short Message Service. All Interfaces are SS7 protocol based

14 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPRS: GSM Packet Radio Service (2.5G) BSC – splits voice and data traffic) GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support Node SGSN - Serving GPRS Support Node (protocol converter and router) Signaling Signaling + data GSM signaling + voice PDN TE MT SGSN EIR GMSC Um Gn Gb Gs Gr Gi Gc Gd Gp Gf other PLMN SGSN BTS BSC MSC A E C D PSTN VLR Abis TE R F HLR AuC SGSN Gn GGSN SMSC PDN - Packet Data Network (Internet) PLMN - Public Land Mobile Network PSTN – Public Switching Telephone Network

15 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall UMTS (3G) RNC UE NodeB PDN TE MT SGSNGGSN EIR GMSC Um Gn Gb Gs Gr Gi Gc Gd Gp Gf IuPS other PLMN SGSN UE - User Equipment Node B - Logical node for radio T/R. (equivalent to BTS). RNC - Radio Network Controller (equivalent to BSC). BTS BSC Signaling Signaling + data MSC A E C D GSM signaling + voice PSTN VLR UuIubis Abis TE R IuCS F SMSCHLR AuC (BTS)

16 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GSM Air Interface Um T T T T T T T T T T T T A T T T T T T T T T T T T One multiframe = 26 frames = 120 msec 0* frame = 8 slots = 4.62 ms 3tail bits T - Traffic Channel (TCH) A - Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) 57 message/ data bits 57 message/ data bits 26 training Sequence bits 8.25 gua- rd bits 1 Stealing bits For FACCH bits/0.577 msec = kbps 140 useful bits. 3tail bits *If only one carrier per cell this slot is shared by: BCCH, CCCH, and SDCCH. If more then one carrier this slot is shared by BCCH and CCCH and next slot Carries SDCCH. TCH for uplink and downlink are separated by 3 burst periods so that MS does not have to transmit and receive simultaneously.

17 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPRS CCHs RACH Random Access Ch. PRACH Packet Random Access Ch. Uplink CCCH Common Control Ch. PCH Paging Ch. AGCH Access Grant Ch. NCH Notification Ch. Downlink PCCCH Common Control Ch. PPCH Paging Ch. PAGCH Access Grant Ch. PNCH Notification Ch. voice packet BCCH Broadcast Control Channel PBCCH Packet Broadcast Control Channel BCCH – general info regarding BTS and network and of the CCCH configuration. CCCH – Common Control Channel Random Access use Slotted Aloha

18 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPRS TCH and Associated CCHs FACCH/F(H) Fast Associated Control Ch. E-FACCH/F Enhanced Fast Associated Control Ch. SACCH/F(H) Slow Associated Control Ch. TCH Traffic Ch. stand-alone 4(8) slots Voice Traffic Channel F(H) Full(Half) Rate SDCCH/4(8) Stand-alone Dedicated Control Ch. SACCH/M Slow Associated Control Ch. for Multislot configur. SACCH/C4(C8) Slow SDCCH/4(8) Associated Control Ch. SACCH/CTS Slow Associated Control Ch. for CTS PACCH Packet Associated Control Ch. PTCCH Packet timing Advance Control Ch. Packet Traffic Channel SDCCH – used prior to call for SMS or signaling. SACCH – used when MS in on call to signal power strength in preparation for handoff and SMS. FACCH – used when MS on call for non-voice info like supplementary services and control

19 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Burst Structure 3tail bits 57 message/ data bits 57 message/ data bits 26 training sequence bits 8.25 guard bits 1 Stealing bits for FACCH 1 3tail bits Training bits are for equalization. Radio waves bounce of everything. Which one to use is determined by training sequence bits. It keeps MS in phase with BTS. Normal Burst 3tail bits bits (empty frame) 8.25 guard bits 3tail bits FCB Frequency Control Burst 3tail bits 8.25 guard bits 3tail bits SCB Synchronous Control Burst 38 message or training bits message or training bits 64 extended training sequence bits 8 tail bits 8.25 guard bits Access Control Burst 44 synchronization bits 60 guard bits 36 encryption bits Voice coders (Vocoders) full-rate 13 kbps, half-rate 7 kbps.

20 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPRS Interfaces Application IP/X.25 SNDCP LLC RLC MAC GSM RF RLCBSSGP MACNtwk GSM RFL1bis UmGb relay SNDCPGTP LLC TCP/ UDP BSSGPIP NtwkL2 L1bisL1 relay Gn IP/X.25 GTP TCP/ UDP IP L2 L1 Gi SNDCP – Sub-Network Dependent Convergence Protocol. Maps networks layer protocol like IP/X.25 into underlying LLC BSSGP – Base Station GPRS Protocol. Processes routing and QoS for BSS. LLC – Link Layer Control (LAPD). GTP – GPRS Tunnel Protocol MS BSS SGSN GGSN

21 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPRS Location Update - Attach MS Previous SGSN/VLR HLR/AuC New SGSN/VLR BSS Packet Channel Req. Channel Assigned Attach Request Authentication Info Send Auth. Info Authentication Challenge Authentication Response Update GPRS Loc Cancel Location Cancel Location RR Insert Subscr. Data Attach Accept Ack Subscr. Data RR Update GPRS Loc RR Attach Complete Attach Request Packet Channel Req. Channel Assigned Packet Channel Req. Channel Assigned Attach Complete

22 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall PDP Context (IP address allocation) MS Internet GGSN SGSN BSS Activate PDP Context Autentication Request PDP Context Req. SNDCP PDU GTP PDU TCP/IP PDU Autentication Response PDP Context Resp. PDP Context Accept TCP/IP PDU GTP PDU SNDCP PDU

23 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall CDMA concept d 1 o =1 d 1 1 =-1 Data bits Chips Senders d 2 o =1d 2 1 = Data bits Chips Z i, 1 m = d i 1 c m 1 Z i, 2 m = d i 2 c m Channel Z i, * m d 1 o =1 d 1 1 =-1 d 1 i = ( m Z i, * m c 1 m )/M d 2 i = ( m Z i, * m c 2 m )/M d 2 o =1 d 2 1 =1 Chip rate Spreading factor = chip_rate/data_rate. dB = 10 log( spreading rate/data rate ) has the same effect as dB (signal/noise).

24 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall UMTS W-CDMA (Wideband CDMA) etc. MHz CDMA channels 5 MHz each 15 TDD slots/frame etc. 2,000 mks 1,333 mks 667 mks EU Uplink: MHz Downlink: MHz 12 Channels * 15 slots = 180 channels Each channel can be used as up-link and down-link. This enables asymmetric slot allocation.

25 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall W-CDMA Frame Format One superframe = 72 frames = 720 msec frame = 15 slots = 10 ms 1 slot = 2560 chips = ms Data or Control: Uplink or Downlink

26 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall WCDMA Concept data sequence (bits/sec) spreading sequence (chips/sec) transmit sequence SF (Spreading Factor) = chip_rate/bit_rate = 2^k. Chip Rate = 3.84 Mbps For transmit sequences to be orthogonal it must be: ==> SF (chosen) = 3.84 Mbps/bit_rate. 1 SF= SF=2SF=4 Orthogonal functions with spreading factors For speech of 12.2 kbps the spreading factor = or gain = 25 dB. Max spreading factor = 256 with gain 24 dB. Maximum data rate = 960 kbps (gross) = 460 (net) which gives spreading factor = 4 and the gain of 6 dB. How do we achieve 2 Mbps (net). Using 5 time slots.

27 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Evolution of UMTS Core Network 3GPP 1999 (from slide 9) UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network ME USIM UE Node B RNC Iub Iur UTRAN RNC Node B PCM MSC/ VLR Iu-cs SGSN Iu-ps Gn (GTP/IP) Core Network GMSC HSS AuC PCM GGSN PSTN Internet Gi (IP) HSS – Home Subscriber Server (previous HLR) signaling CS (voice) PS (data) Gc Gr C D Gd Gs SMSC Signaling + SMS

28 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall RTP/IP 3GPP Release 4 March 2004 H248/IP MGW Iu-cs (control) IP MSC/VLR Server SGSN Iu-ps Iu-cs (bearer) Gn (GTP/IP) Core Network H248/IP MGW GMSC Server HSS AuC PCM GGSN SS7 GW PSTN Internet Gi (IP) HSS – Home Subscriber Server (previous HLR) Node B RNC Iub Iur UTRAN RNC Node B signaling CS (voice) PS (data)

29 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPP Release 5 June 2004 Node B RNC Iub Gr Cx Iur SGSN Iu-IM UTRAN Core Network RNC CSCF Gn HSS AuC Gi GGSN PSTN Internet Gi IM – IP Media domain MGC – Media Gateway Controller CSCF – Call State Control Function background all Streamline/ interactive MGW MGC Mg Mc conversational SIP proxy

30 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall WiFi (Wireless LAN) architecture* Router Server Access Point - AP Access Point - AP Wireless LAN – BSS** LAN Wireless LAN AP polls base stations about 30 m *Tanenbaum Chapter 4.4. ** Basic Service Set PCF (Point Cordination Function) or infrastructure mode

31 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall WiFi (Wireless LAN) architecture A B C D Range of A Range of B 1.Hidden station problem: A is transmitting to B. If D senses the channel it will not hear anything and falsely conclude that it may start transmitting to B. 2.Exposed station problem (inverse): A is transmitting to D. B wants to transmit to C however it hears channel busy. DCF (Distributed Cordination Function) or point-to-point mode

32 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Frequency range and IEEE ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) band: –902 – 928 MHz –2.4 – GHz –5.735 – GHz Upper layers Logical Link Control DCF PCF InfraredFHSSDSSS MAC physical DCF – Distributed Coordination Function PCF – Point Coordination Function FHSS – Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum DSSS – Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

33 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall DCF MACAW (Multiple Access with Collision Avoidence for Wireless) Since probability of correct frame is low, MAC layer splits the frame into fragments and creates acknowledgment. * Network Allocation Vector Station A RTSFragm1 Station B CTS Station C (hidden from B) NAV* Ack Station D (hidden from A) NAV Fragm2 Ack

34 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Combo: DCF and PCF SIFS (Shortest InterFrame Spacing) allows parties already in a dialog to go first letting: sender to send next fragment without repeated RTS, receiver to send ack, receiver to respond to RTS by CTS, etc. PIFS (PCF InterFrame Spacing) allows Base Station to grab a channel. Base Station (if nothing to send) broadcasts beacon frame every 1 to 10 msec to inform about clock synchronization, polling sequence etc. DIFS (DCF InterFrame Spacing) any station may attempt to get a channel to start a new frame. EIFS (Extended InterFrame Spacing) allows receiving station to report a bad frame. Station B Ack SIFS PIFS DIFS EIFS

35 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Data Frame, Fig Frame control Dur- ation Addr 1 Addr2Addr3SeqAddr4Data (0-2312)CHK – Bytes OWMorePwrRetryMFFrom DS To DS Sub- type TypeVer- sion bits Version- protocol version. Type- data, control, or management frame. Subtype- RTS, CTS or Ack. To/From DS- frame is coming from another distribution system (another Ethernet cell). MF - more fragments will follow. Retry- retransmission of a frame sent earlier. Pwr- used by the Base Station to off/on power of the receiver. More- sender has more frames. W- frame body has been encrypted into WEP (Wireless Equivalent Privacy). O- sequence of frames with this bit must be processed strictly in order. Duration- duration in the channel of this frame and its ack. Addr1 and 2- source and destination address. Addr3 and 4- source and destination address within another (inter)cell. Seq- 12 bits are for frame number and 4 for fragment. Data - payload up to 2312 bytes.

36 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall DNS – Domain Name System Electronic mail –MIME – Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions World Wide Web HTML – HyperText Markup Language XML – eXtesible Markup Language XHTML – eXtended HyperText Markup Language Dynamic Web Documents Internet Applications and Services

37 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Wireless Application and Services SMS - Short Message Service –Infrastructure –Protocol layers –Structure of Message Segment –Network Functions for Message Delivery –SMS and Delivery EMS - Enhanced Messaging Service –Basic EMS –Animation –MIDI – Musical Instruments Digital Interface –Color Animation

38 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall WAP – Wireless Application Protocol –WAP Protocol Stack –WAP Languages and Design Tool –WAP Traffic Modelling and Performance issues –Wireless Web Wireless Multimedia Application and Services

39 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall MMS - Multimedia Messaging Service MMS Architecture –MMS Environment –MMS Client –MMS Center –Interfaces –WAP realization of MMS –Message sending, retrieval, forwarding, reports.

40 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Transaction Flow –Person-to-Person –Content-to-Person –Message delivery, cancellation, replacement –Delivery Report and Error Handling MMS - Multimedia Messaging Service

41 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall IMPS - Instant Messaging and Presence Service Infrastructure Protocols Security Evolution

42 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall Push-to-Talk Architecture Standardization Service Access Performance

43 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall LBS - Location based Services LBS server Positioning System Supplementary Systems LBS Clients

44 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPP – Third Generation Partnership Project History: ETSI (European Telecommunications Standard Institute) SMG (Special Mobile Group) + CEPT (Conference Europeanne des Postes et Telecommunications carried GSM standards for 18 years -> > 3GPP Joint project between 6 standardization bodies from: Europe (ETSI), North America (T1), Korea (TTA – Telecommunication Technology Association), Japan (TTC - Telecommunication Technology Committee and ARIB – Association of Radio Industries and Business), China (CWCS – China Wireless Telecommunications Standard) Structure: 3GPP = PCG (Project Coordination Group) => TSG (Technical Specification Groups) to create and maintain 3GPP specifications. Objective: –UMTS technical specification –maintain existing GSM specifications –developing further GSM extensions (like GPRS) Involved in development of messaging standards: –General service requirements –Architecture –Formats and codecs –Low level technical realizations

45 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPP – Documents TR – Technical Reports: Feasibility studies that may become standards. TS – Technical Specifications: Define GSM/UMTS standards published independently by constituents. Specs are usually frozen for 1 to 1.5 years between releases (only essential corrections allowed). Three stages: –Service description from users perspective –Logical analysis -> functional architecture and information flow –Implementation = technical realizations

46 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPP – Organizational Structure P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a ti o n G r o u p ( P C G ) TSG CN Core Network TSG GERAN GSM EDGE Radio Access Network TSG RAN Radio Access Network TSG SA Services & System Aspects TSG T Terminals CN (Core Network): -WG1 Call Control, Session Management, Mobility Management (Iu) -WG2 CAMEL (Customized Applications for Mobile Network Enhanced Logic) -WG3 Interworking with external networks -WG4 MAP/GTB/BCH/SS -WG5 Open Service Architecture (OSA) GERAN (GSM EDGE Radio Access network): -WG1 Radio Access -WG2 Protocol aspects -WG3 Base Station Testing and OA&M -WG4 Terminal Testing Radio Aspects -WG5 Terminal Testing Protocol Aspects RAN (Radio Access Network): -WG1 Radio Layer 1 Spec -WG2 Radio Layer 2 Spec -WG3 Iub, Iur, Iu specs and UTRAN O7M requirement SA (Service Architecture): -WG1 Services -WG2 Architecture -WG3 Security -WG4 Codec -WG5 Telecom Management T (Terminals): -WG1 Mobile Terminal Conformance Testing -WG2 MT Services and Capabilities -WG3 Universal Subscriber identity Module TSG - Technical Specification Groups

47 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPP Milestones Timeline MMS EMS Service availability SMS UMTS GPRS Network availability GSM 3GPP R96 3GPP R97 3GPP R98 3GPP Rel.99 3GPP Rel.4 3GPP Rel.5 3GPP Rel.6 Standardiza- tion milestone WAP 1.0 WAP WAP 2.0 OMA MMS 1.1 OMA MMS 1.2 OMA MMS 1.3

48 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPP – Documents Document number aa.bbb or aa.bb 3GPP TS V5.1.0 Document type: TS: Techn. Spec TR: Techn Report Document version: x: major version or release y: technical version z: editorial version

49 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GPP2 Third Generation Partnership Project 2 Joint project between ITU (International Telecommunication Union) and IMT-200 (International Mobile Telecommunications. Objective: –produce specification for services deployed in North American and Asian markets for CDMA networks –Adopting 3GPP and OMA interfaces for CDMA.

50 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall GSMA – GSM Association Global trade organization that represents the interest of several hundreds of GSM mobile operators. Objective: promoting, protecting, enhancing the interests of GSM operators. It publishes technical recommendations widely endorsed by GSM community.

51 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall IETF – Internet Engineering Task Force Documents start by RFC (Request For Comments), i.e. RFC 822 Stable RFC may fall into Standard Track documents: * technical specifications (description of protocol, service, procedure, convention, or format. * applicability statements. 1.Proposed standard is registered by IESG (Internet Engeneering Steering Group) and given to public for review. 2.Proposed standard is moved to draft standard if it has at least two implementations. 3.If proposed standard reaches maturity for many implementations it becomes Internet Standard and gets the name: RFC 822 Standard for the format of ARPA Internet text messages. D. Crocker. Aug /Status: STANDARD/STD0011.

52 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall W3C – WWW Consortium created 1994 Development widely accepted protocols and formats for WWW. TS from W3C are known as recommendations. W3C collaborates closely with IETF. Example of documents are: HTML, URI, HTTP, XML, XHTML, SVG, SMIL. W3C are organized into following five domains: Architecture domain: WWW architecture. Documents format domain: definition of formats and languages. Interaction domain: user interactions with WWW. Technology and Society domain: social and legal issues. Web Accessibility Initiative: promoting usability for disabled people.

53 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall W3C documents release procedures Proposed recommendation Candidate recommendation Last call Working draft Working draft Increasing level of maturity

54 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall WAP Forum WAP forum -> > Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Documents: Specification: proposal, draft, etc. Change Request: unofficial proposal to change spec. initiated by individuals (forum members). Specification Change Documents (SCD): proposed modification of specification released only by specification working group. Specification Implementation Note (SIN): an approved modification of previously published spec. WAP-205-MMSArchOverview a Specification state A: approved P: proposed T: prototype O: obsolete D: draft Specification version (date) 25/04/2001 Specification registered name Document identifier

55 Faruk Hadziomerovic: Wireless Communications and Services, SSST Fall OMA – Open Mobile Alliance Established 2002 by about 200 companies to develop interoperable application enablers, which are bearer agnostic, and independent of any operating system. Working groups: Requirements (REQ); identify cases for services and interoperability requirements. Architecture (ARCH): design of overall OMA architecture. Messaging group (MWG): building application enablers for messaging services. Sub-working group MMSG is responsible for design of OMA MMS standard Mobile Web Services (MWS): responsible for OMA Web Services.


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