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15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Doctorate in Business Administration Hofstede in Luxembourg: An intercultural comparison with.

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Presentation on theme: "15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Doctorate in Business Administration Hofstede in Luxembourg: An intercultural comparison with."— Presentation transcript:

1 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Doctorate in Business Administration Hofstede in Luxembourg: An intercultural comparison with France and Germany Applying Geert Hofstede in collaboration with Lindab 1

2 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter Overview Acknowledgements Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Literature Review Chapter 3: Methodology Chapter 4: Data Analysis Chapter 5: Conclusion ReferencesAppendixes 2

3 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 1: Introduction 3

4 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel My Research Question The purposes of this study are: The purposes of this study are: Where does Luxembourg fit in on the 7 Hofstede cultural dimensions? Where does Luxembourg fit in on the 7 Hofstede cultural dimensions? to explain Luxembourg peoples high scores on the measure of happiness to explain Luxembourg peoples high scores on the measure of happiness I would like to test the validity of Hofstedes work in 2010, being contested, looking at France and Germany, previously researched, adding entirely new data for Luxembourg, for which he has only provided estimates. I would like to test the validity of Hofstedes work in 2010, being contested, looking at France and Germany, previously researched, adding entirely new data for Luxembourg, for which he has only provided estimates. 4

5 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel My Contribution to Knowledge My contribution to knowledge is adding the data that I collected about Luxembourg to Hofstedes data, as Hofstede bases his research on Luxembourg on estimates. My contribution to knowledge is adding the data that I collected about Luxembourg to Hofstedes data, as Hofstede bases his research on Luxembourg on estimates. 5

6 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel My originality There is no research about Hofstedes cultural dimensions in Luxembourg There is no research about Hofstedes cultural dimensions in Luxembourg Choice of ONE company: Lindab Choice of ONE company: Lindab Interviews, Questionnaires at Lindab Luxembourg, France and Germany and their comparison Interviews, Questionnaires at Lindab Luxembourg, France and Germany and their comparison Differentialisation of the Luxembourger with Luxembourgish Nationality Differentialisation of the Luxembourger with Luxembourgish Nationality Extrapolation of the pattern of the Luxembourger Extrapolation of the pattern of the Luxembourger My results in Hofstedes maps of the world My results in Hofstedes maps of the world 6

7 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Review of the Literature Review of the Literature Participant Observation (Primary Data) Participant Observation (Primary Data) Interviews (Primary Data) Interviews (Primary Data) Questionnaires (Primary Data) Questionnaires (Primary Data) Methods 7

8 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 2: Literature Review 8

9 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Literature Review The era before Hofstede: The era before Hofstede: Maslow, Abraham Maslow, Abraham McClelland, David McClelland, David Herzberg, Frederick Herzberg, Frederick Rockeach, Milton Rockeach, Milton Hall, Edward Hall, Edward Kluckhohn, Florence and Strodtbeck, Fred Kluckhohn, Florence and Strodtbeck, Fred 9 The era after Hofstede: The era after Hofstede: Triandis, Harry Triandis, Harry Smith, Peter, B. Smith, Peter, B. Schwartz, Shalom Schwartz, Shalom Trompenaars, Fons & Hamden-Turner, Charles Trompenaars, Fons & Hamden-Turner, Charles De Mooij, Marieke De Mooij, Marieke Inglehart, Ronald Inglehart, Ronald The GLOBE, House, Robert; Hanges, Paul… The GLOBE, House, Robert; Hanges, Paul… Schein, Edgar Schein, Edgar Bond, Michael, Harris Bond, Michael, Harris Mintzberg, Henry Mintzberg, Henry Minkov, Michael Minkov, Michael Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Gert Jan McSweeney McSweeney The era besides Hofstede: The era besides Hofstede: Scholz, Christian; Böhm, Hans Scholz, Christian; Böhm, Hans Lewis, Richard D. Lewis, Richard D. Spizzo, Daniel Spizzo, Daniel The era beyond Hofstede: The era beyond Hofstede: Aaker, Jennifer Aaker, Jennifer Briley, Donnel Briley, Donnel Nakata, Cheryl Nakata, Cheryl Kirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung, Hermans, Kempen…. Kirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung, Hermans, Kempen….

10 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel The era before Hofstede (- 1980): The era before Hofstede (- 1980): Abraham Maslow Abraham Maslow David McClelland David McClelland Frederick Herzberg Frederick Herzberg Milton Rockeach Milton Rockeach Edward Hall Edward Hall Florence Kluckhohn Florence Kluckhohn Fred Strodtbeck Fred Strodtbeck Culture Theories 10

11 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 2: Literature Review Mc Clelland, David: achievement motivation, motivation theory. Hall, Edward: Anthropologist, lifelong research on culture, with descriptive, qualitative methods. Lived with Navajo and Hopi Native Americans. Studied France, Germany, compared with America, mostly descriptive research. 11 Herzberg, Frederick: Two Factor Theory: Motivator Factors: Achievement, Recognition, Work Itself. Responsibility, Promotion, Growth. Hygiene Factors: Pay and Benefits, Company Policy and Administration, Relationships with co-workers, Supervision, Status, Job Security, Working Conditions, Personal life. Herzberg, Frederick: Two Factor Theory: Motivator Factors: Achievement, Recognition, Work Itself. Responsibility, Promotion, Growth. Hygiene Factors: Pay and Benefits, Company Policy and Administration, Relationships with co-workers, Supervision, Status, Job Security, Working Conditions, Personal life. Rockeach, Milton: Rockeach Value Survey, the terminal values in RVS are: true friendship, mature love, self-respect, happiness, inner harmony, equality, freedom, pleasure, social recognition, wisdom, salvation, family security, national security, a sense of accomplishment, a world of beauty, a world at peace, a comfortable life, an exciting life. Rockeach, Milton: Rockeach Value Survey, the terminal values in RVS are: true friendship, mature love, self-respect, happiness, inner harmony, equality, freedom, pleasure, social recognition, wisdom, salvation, family security, national security, a sense of accomplishment, a world of beauty, a world at peace, a comfortable life, an exciting life. The era before Hofstede Maslow, Abraham: hierarchy of needs: physiological (food, sleep…), safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization. Maslow, Abraham: hierarchy of needs: physiological (food, sleep…), safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization. Kluckhohn, Florence, Strodtbeck, Fred: Values Orientation Theory: universal problems in all human societies, limited numbers for value-based solutions, and different cultures have different preferences. Kluckhohn, Florence, Strodtbeck, Fred: Values Orientation Theory: universal problems in all human societies, limited numbers for value-based solutions, and different cultures have different preferences. All American, thinking the world is like the USA

12 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Hofstedes Era (1980-2000): Hofstedes Era (1980-2000): Christian Scholz Christian Scholz Hans Böhm Hans Böhm Richard D. Lewis Richard D. Lewis Daniel Spizzo Daniel Spizzo Culture Theories 12

13 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Literature Review Besides Hofstede. Besides Hofstede. 13 Christian Scholz and Hans Böhm: a comparative analysis of human resource management (HRM) in Europe, impacts contexts and different approaches to HRM in Europe, researching in Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Turkey, comparing the UK, North America and continental Europe. Professor Dr Christian Scholz holds the chair of Business Administration, Organisation, HRM at University of Saarland. His research in Europe is about cultural, political and economic differences with the aim of avoiding fatal and expensive mistakes in doing business in Europe. Christian Scholz and Hans Böhm: a comparative analysis of human resource management (HRM) in Europe, impacts contexts and different approaches to HRM in Europe, researching in Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Turkey, comparing the UK, North America and continental Europe. Professor Dr Christian Scholz holds the chair of Business Administration, Organisation, HRM at University of Saarland. His research in Europe is about cultural, political and economic differences with the aim of avoiding fatal and expensive mistakes in doing business in Europe. Richard D. Lewis: explores the relationship between language and thought, how the mind is conditioned culturally at an early age, he researches about the cultural capital in organisations, about meetings, space and time, status and leadership, communication style, listening habits, team-building mechanisms, negotiation and decision-making. Richard D. Lewis: explores the relationship between language and thought, how the mind is conditioned culturally at an early age, he researches about the cultural capital in organisations, about meetings, space and time, status and leadership, communication style, listening habits, team-building mechanisms, negotiation and decision-making.

14 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel The era after Hofstede (2000 - ): The era after Hofstede (2000 - ): Harry Triandis Harry Triandis Peter B. Smith Peter B. Smith Shalom Schwartz Shalom Schwartz Fons Trompenaars & Charles Hamden-Turner Fons Trompenaars & Charles Hamden-Turner Marieke De Mooij Marieke De Mooij Ronald Inglehart Ronald Inglehart The GLOBE: Robert House, Paul Hanges… The GLOBE: Robert House, Paul Hanges… Edgar Schein Edgar Schein Michael Harris Bond Michael Harris Bond Henry Mintzberg Henry Mintzberg Michael Minkov Michael Minkov Gert Jan Hofstede Gert Jan Hofstede McSweeney McSweeney Culture Theories 14

15 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Literature Review Hofstedes replications. Hofstedes replications. Continued 15 Trompenaars, Fons & Hamden- Turner, Charles: Riding the wave of culture, interviewed 8800 companies in 43 countries, identified 5 dimensions of culture: Universalism versus particularism, communitarianism versus individualism, neutral versus emotional, diffuse versus specific, achievement versus ascription. De Mooij, Marieke: Global Marketing, Consumer Behaviour and Culture, co-wrote with Geert Hofstede The Hofstede Model. De Mooij, Marieke: Global Marketing, Consumer Behaviour and Culture, co-wrote with Geert Hofstede The Hofstede Model. Triandis, Harry: Individualism/Collectivism research. Traditional collectivist Greece. Triandis, Harry: Individualism/Collectivism research. Traditional collectivist Greece. Schwartz, Shalom: identified 7 country-level value orientations surveying 60,000 people in 63 countries: conservatism or embeddedness, intellectual autonomy, affective autonomy, hierarchy, egalitarianism, mastery, harmony. Summarised in 3 culture dimensions: embeddedness versus autonomy, hierarchy versus egalitarianism, mastery versus harmony. Schwartz, Shalom: identified 7 country-level value orientations surveying 60,000 people in 63 countries: conservatism or embeddedness, intellectual autonomy, affective autonomy, hierarchy, egalitarianism, mastery, harmony. Summarised in 3 culture dimensions: embeddedness versus autonomy, hierarchy versus egalitarianism, mastery versus harmony. Peter Smith: identified 2 country-level dimensions: egalitarian commitment versus conservatism, utilitarian involvement versus loyal involvement by analysing the data from Trompenaars. Peter Smith: identified 2 country-level dimensions: egalitarian commitment versus conservatism, utilitarian involvement versus loyal involvement by analysing the data from Trompenaars.

16 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Literature Review Continued 16 Ronald Inglehart: World Values Survey: the worlds most impressive database: questionnaire consisting of 360 questions in over 100 countries with over 420,000 respondents in several waves (wave 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, wave 6 being carried out 2010-2012). WVS is headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden www.worldvaluessurvey.org. Hofstede has stated that today he would use data from the WVS and analyse it, instead of collecting new data. www.worldvaluessurvey.org Ronald Inglehart: World Values Survey: the worlds most impressive database: questionnaire consisting of 360 questions in over 100 countries with over 420,000 respondents in several waves (wave 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, wave 6 being carried out 2010-2012). WVS is headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden www.worldvaluessurvey.org. Hofstede has stated that today he would use data from the WVS and analyse it, instead of collecting new data. www.worldvaluessurvey.org

17 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Literature Review Continued 17 Cameron, and Quinn: 4 forms of organisational culture profile: the clan culture, the adhocracy culture, the hierarchy culture, the market culture. Cameron, and Quinn: 4 forms of organisational culture profile: the clan culture, the adhocracy culture, the hierarchy culture, the market culture. Schein, Edgar: Corporate Culture Survival Guide, when cultures meet through acquisitions, mergers, joint ventures. Scheins 10 culture change mechanisms: incremental change through general and specific evolution, insight, promotion of hybrids within the culture, systematic promotion from selected subcultures, technological seduction, infusion of outsiders, scandal and explosion of myths, turnarounds, mergers and acquisitions, destructions and rebirth. 7 dimensions of culture, 3 levels of culture: artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, basic underlying assumptions. Schein is a psychologist. Schein, Edgar: Corporate Culture Survival Guide, when cultures meet through acquisitions, mergers, joint ventures. Scheins 10 culture change mechanisms: incremental change through general and specific evolution, insight, promotion of hybrids within the culture, systematic promotion from selected subcultures, technological seduction, infusion of outsiders, scandal and explosion of myths, turnarounds, mergers and acquisitions, destructions and rebirth. 7 dimensions of culture, 3 levels of culture: artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, basic underlying assumptions. Schein is a psychologist. Bond, Michael Harris: Chinese Values Survey. Bond, Michael Harris: Chinese Values Survey. Mintzberg, Henry: Organisational structure research. the typical 5 configurations of most organisations: operating core, strategic apex, middle line, techno-structure, support staff. 5 coordinating activities mechanisms in organisations: mutual adjustment, direct supervision, standardisation of work processes, standardisation of outputs, standardisation of skills. 6 species of organisations: the entrepreneurial O., the machine O., the professional O., the project O., the missionary O., the political O. Mintzberg, Henry: Organisational structure research. the typical 5 configurations of most organisations: operating core, strategic apex, middle line, techno-structure, support staff. 5 coordinating activities mechanisms in organisations: mutual adjustment, direct supervision, standardisation of work processes, standardisation of outputs, standardisation of skills. 6 species of organisations: the entrepreneurial O., the machine O., the professional O., the project O., the missionary O., the political O. The GLOBE: House, Robert; Hanges, Paul; Javidan, Mansour; Dorfman, Peter; Gupta, Vipin: involving 160 researchers worldwide in 62 cultures: nine dimensions of culture: Power Distance, Uncertainty avoidance, Humane Orientation, Collectivism I (Institutional Collectivism), Collectivism II (In-Group Collectivism), Assertiveness, Gender Egalitarianism, Future Orientation, Performance Orientation. The GLOBE: House, Robert; Hanges, Paul; Javidan, Mansour; Dorfman, Peter; Gupta, Vipin: involving 160 researchers worldwide in 62 cultures: nine dimensions of culture: Power Distance, Uncertainty avoidance, Humane Orientation, Collectivism I (Institutional Collectivism), Collectivism II (In-Group Collectivism), Assertiveness, Gender Egalitarianism, Future Orientation, Performance Orientation.

18 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Literature Review Continued 18 Minkov, Michael: from Sofia, Bulgaria, co-writes with Geert Hofstede, analyses data from Ingelharts WVS, Cultural Differences in a Globalizing World, adds a sixth cultural dimension to Hofstede: Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR). 4 dimensions of culture: industry vs indulgence, Monumentalism vs flexumility, hypometropia vs prudence, exclusionism vs universalism. Minkov, Michael: from Sofia, Bulgaria, co-writes with Geert Hofstede, analyses data from Ingelharts WVS, Cultural Differences in a Globalizing World, adds a sixth cultural dimension to Hofstede: Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR). 4 dimensions of culture: industry vs indulgence, Monumentalism vs flexumility, hypometropia vs prudence, exclusionism vs universalism. Hofstede, Gert Jan (his son): concentrates on training and teaching culture, Exploring Culture.

19 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Literature Review Going beyond Hofstede. Going beyond Hofstede. Continued 19 Donnel Briley is Professor of Marketing at University of Sydney, Australia. His areas of expertise are consumer choice and international marketing, studying the influence of culture and ethnicity on consumers judgments and decisions. Donnel Briley is Professor of Marketing at University of Sydney, Australia. His areas of expertise are consumer choice and international marketing, studying the influence of culture and ethnicity on consumers judgments and decisions. Jennifer Aaker Professor at Stanford Graduate School of Business, Happiness Studies, The Dragonfly Effect. Jennifer Aaker Professor at Stanford Graduate School of Business, Happiness Studies, The Dragonfly Effect. Cheryl Nakata focuses her research on culture on its theoretical explorations and managerial applications in international business, marketing, innovation and strategy. She is Associate Professor of Marketing and International Business at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Cheryl Nakata focuses her research on culture on its theoretical explorations and managerial applications in international business, marketing, innovation and strategy. She is Associate Professor of Marketing and International Business at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Kirkman, Lowe, Gibson, Nakata, Briley, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Chiu, Morris, Wyer, Hermans, Kempen, Jenner, Mc Nab, Brisling, Worthly, Leung. Kirkman, Lowe, Gibson, Nakata, Briley, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Chiu, Morris, Wyer, Hermans, Kempen, Jenner, Mc Nab, Brisling, Worthly, Leung.

20 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel New theories: New theories: Jennifer Aaker Jennifer Aaker Donnel Briley Donnel Briley Cheryl Nakata Cheryl Nakata Kirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung, Hermans, Kempen…. Kirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung, Hermans, Kempen…. Culture Theories 20

21 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Literature Review Donnel Briley at University of Sydney. Donnel Briley at University of Sydney. 21

22 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel What did he do? Born in the Netherlands in 1928 Born in the Netherlands in 1928 IBM HRM research in the 1960s IBM HRM research in the 1960s 116,000 questionnaires 116,000 questionnaires Identified 4 cultural dimensions, later added more: Identified 4 cultural dimensions, later added more: IDV/COLL, UAI, PDI, MAS/FEM, IDV/COLL, UAI, PDI, MAS/FEM, LTO, IVR, MON. LTO, IVR, MON. Dared to contradict Maslow, Herzberg, McClelland Dared to contradict Maslow, Herzberg, McClelland Brought cultural research from the US to Europe Brought cultural research from the US to Europe Emeritus Professor at Maastricht University Emeritus Professor at Maastricht University http://www.geerthofstede.nl/ http://www.geerthofstede.nl/ http://www.geerthofstede.nl/ Start at 2:36 Start at 2:36 22 Geert Hofstede (1928- )

23 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 23 Culture is measured in terms of all of the followings: symbols, heroes, rituals, values, practices, norms, beliefs, self-perceptions, cognitive ability and behaviours

24 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 24 Heroes are persons that serve as model, such as: S.A.R. Grand-Duc Henri Jean-Claude Juncker Andy+Franck Schleck Charly Gaul

25 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 25 Symbols are words, gestures, pictures or objects, such as jargon, dresses, national anthem, flags or status symbols http://www.nationalanthems.me/luxembourg-ons-heemechthttp://www.nationalanthems.me/luxembourg-ons-heemecht/

26 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 26 Rituals are collective activities (Schouberfouer), ways of greeting (Moien) social and religious ceremonies (Octave)

27 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 27 Values are broad tendencies, feelings that come in pairings such as: evil – good dirty – clean dangerous – safe forbidden – permitted moral – immoral ugly – beautiful unnatural – natural irrational - rational

28 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture 28 Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) Power Distance Index (PDI) Long-Term versus Short- Term Orientation(LTO) Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR) Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI ) Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) Monumentalism (MON) Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture - Explained Easily : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gJzRS0I7tA&feature=related

29 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 29 Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) defined as people looking after themselves and their immediate family only, versus people belonging to in-groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) defined as the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations Power Distance Index (PDI) defined as the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) defined as the dominant values in a masculine society are achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life

30 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 30 Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation(LTO) defined as the extent to which a society exhibits a pragmatic future-orientated perspective rather than a conventional historic or short-term point of view Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR) defined as Indulgence stands for enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for regulation of these by strict social norms Monumentalism (MON) defined as veneration of heroes by buildings, songs, music, celebrations

31 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Limitations of Hofstede 31 Hofstedes data from the 1960s might be outdated. Hofstede used IBM employees as sample for his research. The questions used in the questionnaire are self-perceptive questions. Hofstede uses and recommends using secondary data (WVS from Inglehart). Hofstedes IBM study didnt start as an intercultural study but as a work satisfaction survey. Hofstedes cultural model is fixed, not flexible.

32 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 3: Methodology 32

33 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 3: Methodology Review of the Literature. Review of the Literature. Participant Observation (Primary Data). Participant Observation (Primary Data). Interviews (Primary Data). Interviews (Primary Data). Questionnaires (Primary Data). Questionnaires (Primary Data). 33

34 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 3: Methodology Participant Observation. Participant Observation. 34

35 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Luxembourg 35 Unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. Unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. Grand Duke: Henri. Grand Duke: Henri. Prime Minister: Jean-Claude Juncker. Prime Minister: Jean-Claude Juncker. Official languages: Luxembourgish, French, German. Official languages: Luxembourgish, French, German. Capital Luxembourg (90,000 inhabitants). Capital Luxembourg (90,000 inhabitants). Size: 2,586 km2. Size: 2,586 km2. Population total: 511,000. Population total: 511,000. Motto: Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn We want to remain what we are Motto: Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn We want to remain what we are Anthem: Ons Heemecht – Our Homeland Anthem: Ons Heemecht – Our Homeland Queen Mary II and Marie-Astrid

36 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Data Analysis: Participant Observation 36 HRone American Chamber of Commerce Chamber of Commerce and Sacred Heart University Luxembourg PaperJam Business Club European Commission Participant Observation LPRA – Luxembourg Professionals Recruiters Association Brasserie Guillaume Femmes Leaders Luxembourg POG – Personnel Officers Group Libreria Italiana BEE SECURE Fairs Foires Continued

37 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 3: Methodology Choice of ONE company: Lindab Buildings. Choice of ONE company: Lindab Buildings. 37

38 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 38 Methodology Lindab Buildings Continued

39 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 3: Methodology Interviews (Primary Data). Interviews (Primary Data). 39

40 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Methodology Interviews. Interviews. Elaboration of questions with Hofstede. Elaboration of questions with Hofstede. Pre-study within the HR community in Luxembourg. Pre-study within the HR community in Luxembourg. Validation by the Director Human Resources Lindab. Validation by the Director Human Resources Lindab. Interviewing of Lindab Luxembourg / France / Germany. Interviewing of Lindab Luxembourg / France / Germany. Transcript writing. Transcript writing. Comparison of the interviews in Luxembourg, France, Germany. Comparison of the interviews in Luxembourg, France, Germany. 40 Continued

41 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 3: Methodology Questionnaires (Primary Data). Questionnaires (Primary Data). 41

42 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 42 Methodology Questionnaire. 1.Questionnaire evaluation together with Hofstede: review and validation. 2.Questionnaire translation: English, French, German and, much desired, Luxembourgish. 3.Pre-study within the HR community in Luxembourg. 4.Questionnaire review with HRD Lindab. 5.Questionnaire distribution at Lindab Luxembourg, France, Germany. 6.Collection of filled-in questionnaires. 7.Excel sheet elaboration for questionnaires. 8.Fill-in all questionnaires in Excel sheet. 9.Clean-up database on Excel. 10. Analyse database on Excel. 11. Calculation of mean scores per question in Excel. 12. Calculation of IDV, MAS, UAI, PDI, LTO, IVR, MON, in Excel. 13. In SPSS: Logistic Regression on Happiness. Continued

43 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 4: Data Analysis 43

44 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 4: Data Analysis Participant Observation (Primary Data). Participant Observation (Primary Data). Interviews (Primary Data). Interviews (Primary Data). Questionnaires (Primary Data). Questionnaires (Primary Data). 44

45 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 4: Data Analysis Participant Observation. Participant Observation. 45

46 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Data Analysis: Participant Observation 46 Luxembourg prefers: Luxembourg prefers: Meeting in person, in a Hotel or Bank. Meeting in person, in a Hotel or Bank. Champagne and Cocktail. Champagne and Cocktail. Lunch or Dinner. Lunch or Dinner. Continued

47 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 4: Data Analysis Interviews (Primary Data). Interviews (Primary Data). 47

48 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Hofstedes Interview Analysis Symbols. Symbols. Values. Values. Heroes. Heroes. Rituals. Rituals. 48

49 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 49 Data Analysis:Interviews: Symbols – Values – Heroes – Rituals Data Analysis: Interviews: Symbols – Values – Heroes – Rituals Lindab LuxembourgLindab FranceLindab Germany SymbolsLindab Life Excellence in construction The open door Lindab is the leader in building construction Standardisation Conquering new markets Code of ethics Cost Analyses Quality Handbook Procedures ValuesCustomer success : Be Nr. 1 Down to earth Neatness and order Corporate social responsibility Mutual trust Quality in work Punctuality Team work Good relations among employees Satisfied clients Long-term orientation Reliability HeroesThe director The directors at Lindab Luxembourg RitualsChristmas Party Seniority awards 24 hour bicycle race ING Marathon Christmas PartyBirthday cake Christmas Party Meeting for success

50 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Chapter 4: Data Analysis Questionnaires (Primary Data). Questionnaires (Primary Data). 50

51 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel PDI = 35(mQVAL7 – mQVAL2) + 25(mQVAL23 – mQVAL26) + C (pd) PDI = 35(mQVAL7 – mQVAL2) + 25(mQVAL23 – mQVAL26) + C (pd) UAI = 40(m QVAL20 – mQVAL16) + 25(mQVAL24 – mQVAL27) + C (ua) UAI = 40(m QVAL20 – mQVAL16) + 25(mQVAL24 – mQVAL27) + C (ua) IDV = 35(mQVAL4 – mQVAL1) + 35(mQVAL9 – mQVAL6) + C (ic) IDV = 35(mQVAL4 – mQVAL1) + 35(mQVAL9 – mQVAL6) + C (ic) MAS = 35(mQVAL5 – mQVAL3) + 35(mQVAL08 – mQVAL10) + C (mf) MAS = 35(mQVAL5 – mQVAL3) + 35(mQVAL08 – mQVAL10) + C (mf) LTO = 40(mQVAL18 – mQVAL15) + 25(mQVAL28 – mQVAL25) + C (ls) LTO = 40(mQVAL18 – mQVAL15) + 25(mQVAL28 – mQVAL25) + C (ls) IVR = 35(mQVAL12 – mQVAL11) + 40(mQVAL19 – mQVAL17) + C (ir) IVR = 35(mQVAL12 – mQVAL11) + 40(mQVAL19 – mQVAL17) + C (ir) MON = 35(mQVAL14 – mQVAL13) + 25 (mQVAL22 – mQVAL21) + C (mo) MON = 35(mQVAL14 – mQVAL13) + 25 (mQVAL22 – mQVAL21) + C (mo) Culture Calculation Formulas 51

52 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 52 Hofstedes Cultural Dimension Calculations of the Paper Questionnaire Table 4.1 Comparison Lindab Luxembourg – Lindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality – Hofstedes estimates on Luxembourg (on a scale from 1-100, 1 being the lowest and 100 the highest score) Lindab Luxembourg Lindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality Hofstedes estimates on Luxembourg PDI362940 UAI979570 IDV51.53460 MAS475450 LTO696564 IVR53.55556 MON1024-

53 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 53 Hofstedes Cultural Dimension Calculations of the Paper Questionnaire Lindab Luxem -bourg Lindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality Hofstedes estimates on Luxembourg Lindab France Hofstedes France Lindab Germany Hofstedes Germany PDI 36294032.5683735 UAI 97957028.88667.565 IDV 51.53460417165.567 MAS 47545043.54364.566 LTO 696564376384.583 IVR 53.5555680484640 MON 1024-3116.56.59.9 Table 4.2 Comparison Lindab Luxembourg – Lindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality – Hofstede s estimates on Luxembourg – Lindab France – Hofstede s France – Lindab Germany – Hofstede s Germany

54 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 54 Hofstedes cultural dimensions on Luxembourg – France – Germany – UK – Belgium FR – Belgium NL – Italy – the Netherlands NL – China – USA - Japan LuxbgFranceGermanyUKBelgium FR Belgium NL ItalyNLChinaUSAJapan PDI 406835 68615038804054 UAI 7086653593977553304692 IDV 6071678971787680209146 MAS 504366 60437014666295 LTO 6463835182 6167872688 IVR 5648406957 3068246842 MON -16.59.935.4-- 35.211.9 057.24.0

55 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Cultural Map PDI - IDV shows the special place that Lux. Nat. holds: strong Collectivism (weak Individualism) and small Power Distance 55

56 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 56 Cultural Map PDI - UAI shows the special place that Luxembourg and Lux. Nat. hold: strong Uncertainty Avoidance and small Power Distance

57 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 57 Cultural Map shows the special place that Luxembourg and Lux. Nat. hold: next to Hofstedes France Cultural Map IVR - LTO shows the special place that Luxembourg and Lux. Nat. hold: next to Hofstedes France

58 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 58 What is Logistic Regression? http://video.mynet.com/1982yucel/Arabic-Super-hits-Belly- Dance/1447061/http://video.mynet.com/1982yucel/Arabic-Super-hits-Belly- Dance/1447061/ start at 1:02 Logistic regression allows prediction of group membership, for example, prediction of whether someone is a belly dancer based on gender, occupational category, preferred type of reading material and age. Logistic regression allows to evaluate the odds (the probability) of membership in the group of belly dancers based on the combination of values of the predictor variables, 25 year old female sports professor, teaching hip-hop and reading dance books

59 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 59 Logistic Regression Definition: Logistic Regression is a statistical method used to model the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable – like for example happiness – and a combination of independent variables – like for example taking risk, free time for life, level of education job level manager or non- manager, state of health, religion Logistic Regression is calculated in SPSS. SPSS is a computer program from IBM. SPSS means Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Between 2009 and 2010 it was called PASW – Predictive Analytics SoftWare

60 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 60 Logistic Regression Regression Coefficients Odds Ratios Taking Risk0.9312.538 Free Time for Life0.9742.647 Level of Education-0.9300.394 Contradict boss1.0962.993 State of health1.4854.416 Importance of Religion 0.6771.969 Constant-0.6280.534 Dependent Variable: Being happy Table Logistic regression – Being happy – Regression coefficient and Odds Ratio

61 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 61 Correlation Matrix * Significant at.05 Taking Risk Free Time for Life Level of Education Contradict boss State of health Importance of Religion Taking Risk1.000- Free Time for Life 0.2141.000 Level of Education 0.054-0.2131.000 Contradict boss -0.1490.1260.1821.000 State of health0.1050.006-0.279-0.2331.000 Importance of Religion 0.195-0.101-0.122-0.0650.0861.000

62 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Constant-0.628 For a person who takes risks+(0.931)x1 And who takes free time for himself/herself +(0.974)x1 Who has a high level of education+(-0.930)x1 Who dares to contradict the boss+(1.096)x1 Whose state of health is good+(1.485)x1 For whom religion is important+(0.677)x1 e =e =3.605 z = 3.605 = 36.7817 + 1 = 37.7817 logit = p with z = with the constant p= p = 0.97 The probability for this person to be happy is 0.97. This is a very high probability, near 1 62

63 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Logistic Regression: The probability of Luxembourgers of being happy 63 Who does Not take risk Probability of being happy = 0.97 Person 1 Person 2 Probability of being happy = 0.94 Who takes free time for life for him/herself Who has a high level of education Who dares to contradict the boss Whose state of health is good For whom religion is important Who takes risk Who takes free time for life for him/herself Who has a high level of education Who dares to contradict the boss Who se state of health is good For whom religion is important

64 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Conclusion Conclusion Luxembourgers use their language as identifier use their language as identifier are highly uncertainty avoidant are highly uncertainty avoidant are long-term oriented are long-term oriented have low power distance have low power distance are highly collectivist are highly collectivist and are happy and are happy 64 HAPPY HIGH UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE LOW POWER DISTANCE HIGH COLLECTIVISM/ LOW INDIVIDUALISM LANGUAGE AS IDENTIFIER LONG-TERM ORIENTATION

65 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 65 PDI (Power Distance Indicator) in Luxembourg is low with 36/100. Lux.Nat. have an even lower PDI of 29, compared with China (80) and France (68) Luxembourg being small, hierarchy is not felt that much, boss and employees meet in the same sport clubs, supermarkets, bars, evening events EXPLANATIONS

66 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 66 UAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Indicator) is high, near 100 in Luxembourg (97) and Lux.Nat.(95) Uncertain and unknown situations are avoided, Secure, regulated, clear life without surprises, is preferred EXPLANATIONS

67 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 67 IDV (Individualism versus Collectivism) is medium (51.5) in Luxembourg and diverges from Lux.Nat. (34). Lux.Nat. are highly collective people, preferring the well-being of the group and country This is contrary to people in USA (91) and Italy (76), where people take their time for themselves or their immediate family EXPLANATIONS

68 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 68 MAS (Masculinity versus Femininity) is medium (47) for Luxembourg and Lux.Nat. (54) This shows a country where the characteristics of a masculine dominant country = competition and success, and those of a feminine dominant country = caring for others and quality of life, are equally distributed The most masculine countries are Japan (95), Austria and Venezuela, the most feminine are Sweden, Norway and The Netherlands EXPLANATIONS

69 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 69 LTO (Long-Term Orientation versus Short- Term Orientation) is high in Luxembourg (69) and Lux.Nat. (65) Long-term is characterized by foreseen, and planned events and by perseverance and thrift Contrary to USA (26) where short-term decisions are taken. Germany with score of 83 on LTO is the example for a highly long-term oriented country EXPLANATIONS

70 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 70 IVR (Indulgence versus Restraint) is medium in Luxembourg (53.5) and Lux.Nat. (55) In general people in Luxembourg indulge on life, they love profiting from the benefits of life, they enjoy life Italy has an IVR of 30, where religion, traditions and social rules limit personal enjoying of life EXPLANATIONS

71 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 71 MON (Monumentalism) is low in Luxembourg (10) but more than the double for Lux.Nat. (24). Lux.Nat. love their national traditions and nationality, the Grand Ducal family, National Day, National Hymn and are living their national identity. The USA (54.2) are living a strong MON, contrary to Japan (4); US people love symbols, banner, heroes, their president, elections… EXPLANATIONS

72 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 72 After World War I the need was to assure the national identity, to give value to the concept of citizenship, why it is important to be Luxembourger and the advantages that come with the citizenship. When Nazism (World War II) engulfed small Luxembourg, because for Germans this small land seemed to be German, the Luxembourgish language attained its importance, the discriminating factor to distinguish between who is able to benefit from Luxembourgish citizenship and its advantages, and who not. Luxembourgish language defines the in-group. In order to benefit from all of the advantages of the Luxembourgish nationality, one has to be able to speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is not only a dialect, but the key giving access to the advantages of the rights of the citizenship. French is for bureaucratic problems, German for religious ceremonies, Luxembourgish to define the in-group (Spizzo, 1995). LANGUAGE AS IDENTIFIER

73 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 73 Hofstedes Dimensions of Culture in Luxembourg: Why are people in Luxembourg happy? Luxembourgers are happy because they: Use their language as identifier are highly uncertainty avoidant are long-term oriented have low power distance are highly collectivist

74 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Conclusion Evaluation whether my research question and my objectives were met?: Evaluation whether my research question and my objectives were met?: Yes, I reached my objective: I succeeded in replicating Hofstedes studies in Luxembourg. Yes, I reached my objective: I succeeded in replicating Hofstedes studies in Luxembourg. My contribution to knowledge was adding the data that I collected about Luxembourg to Hofstedes data, as Hofstede bases his research on Luxembourg on estimates; I did so. My contribution to knowledge was adding the data that I collected about Luxembourg to Hofstedes data, as Hofstede bases his research on Luxembourg on estimates; I did so. My objective was also to come up with a pattern for the Luxembourger. I did so. My objective was also to come up with a pattern for the Luxembourger. I did so. 74 Continued

75 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Conclusion Did my research add to the thinking in the literature? Did my research add to the thinking in the literature? Yes, there is only little in the literature about Luxembourg, further research is needed. Yes, there is only little in the literature about Luxembourg, further research is needed. 75 Continued

76 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Conclusion What are my recommendations for the business world from my research? What are my recommendations for the business world from my research? Hofstede started an incredible process of research in cross-cultural studies, which I recommend should continue and be expanded over time with the trends like: writing, print, radio, telephones, telegraphs, photography, film, disk and tape recording, television, video, computers, internet, mobile telephones, social media, globalisation. Hofstede started an incredible process of research in cross-cultural studies, which I recommend should continue and be expanded over time with the trends like: writing, print, radio, telephones, telegraphs, photography, film, disk and tape recording, television, video, computers, internet, mobile telephones, social media, globalisation. 76 Continued

77 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Conclusion What are the limitations of my research? What are the limitations of my research? As single researcher I cannot cover the amount of 160 researchers in the GLOBE or Ingleharts WVS. I should hire people to research in Luxembourg and the world. As single researcher I cannot cover the amount of 160 researchers in the GLOBE or Ingleharts WVS. I should hire people to research in Luxembourg and the world. I researched 1 company in Luxembourg, France and Germany. More companies and civil servants should be researched (45% of the Lux. Nat. are civil servants). I researched 1 company in Luxembourg, France and Germany. More companies and civil servants should be researched (45% of the Lux. Nat. are civil servants). Time limitation (research for a Doctorate, not a lifetime research), more statistics could be made. Time limitation (research for a Doctorate, not a lifetime research), more statistics could be made. 77 Continued

78 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Conclusion Suggestions for further research in the field? Suggestions for further research in the field? Seeing cultural research more flexible, open, and investigating in other domains. Seeing cultural research more flexible, open, and investigating in other domains. Linking culture with Happiness studies, Linking culture with Happiness studies, Language as an identifier, Language as an identifier, Social Media, Social Media, Psychology, Psychology, Marketing, Marketing, and Communication. and Communication. Replicate Hofstedes studies in other companies in Luxembourg. Replicate Hofstedes studies in other companies in Luxembourg. 78 Continued

79 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Conclusion What have I learnt from the research project in terms of knowledge and my personal experience? What have I learnt from the research project in terms of knowledge and my personal experience? Known people like my supervisors from LGSM, Hofstede, Briley, Burçik, de Mooij, Nakata, Kirkman, and the company Lindab. PowerPoint, Word, Excel, SPSS, internet, web blog. Known people like my supervisors from LGSM, Hofstede, Briley, Burçik, de Mooij, Nakata, Kirkman, and the company Lindab. PowerPoint, Word, Excel, SPSS, internet, web blog. Hofstedes estimates on Luxembourg are still valid, because Luxembourg has not had a crisis like the Eastern European countries. Hofstedes estimates on Luxembourg are still valid, because Luxembourg has not had a crisis like the Eastern European countries. My research at Lindab revealed some surprising results about Luxembourgish society that I personally found intriguing, especially the response rate of over 90%. My research at Lindab revealed some surprising results about Luxembourgish society that I personally found intriguing, especially the response rate of over 90%. 79 Continued

80 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel Conclusion What are my near projects as outcomes from this research? What are my near projects as outcomes from this research? A post-doc distance program: I wish to extend this research and continue my research. A post-doc distance program: I wish to extend this research and continue my research. Publication of my thesis (done). Publication of my thesis (done). Publication of articles (in process). Publication of articles (in process). Be Professor at a Business School (with ESG ? ) (applied). Be Professor at a Business School (with ESG ? ) (applied). 80 Continued

81 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel References 81

82 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 82 References Aaker, Smith Adair Avery Bitektin Blake Blodget Bond Bradford University Braun Brewer Briley Cameron, Quinn Creswell Cronjé Crotts Cranston Davis De Mooij De Lorenzo Denzin De Walt Diener, Lucas Dumont, Poirier Eckhardt Eisenhardt Eldridge Elms Fontaine Frey Gantenbein Glaser Gordon Greenwald Haag Hagerty Hall Have, ten Hermans, Kempen Herzberg Hofstede Geert Hofstede Gert Jan Hong Hopp Hoppe Horner Horton House Husserl IBM Info Press Lxg Inglehart IPSE Jameson Javidan Jenner Jones Kanayama Kegan Kingsley Kirkman Kluckhohn, Strodtbeck Lester Leung Lewis Likert Lopez-Menchero Lord, Gerber Lunghi Lxg Tourist Office Maseland Maslow McClelland McGregor McSweeney Menard Meyerson Minkov Mintzberg Continued

83 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 83 References Mogilner, Aaker Molard Moraru Moustaka Myers Nakata Neefs, Laures OPOCE Orr, Hauser Pallant paperJam Peterson Posthuma Pratt Prince, Hoppe Rawls Reisinger Roberts Robertson Rockeach Saunders, Lewis, Thornhill Scandula Schein Scholz, Böhm Schwartz Signorini Sinclair Singelis Smith Sohn Sondergaard Spizzo Statec Strauss Stutzer Tan, Koveos Taras Taylor Treece Triandis Trochim Trompenaars, Hampden-Turner Tung van Horn Venaik Verbeke Verluise Vroom Webb, Campbell Welter Welzel Williams Wilson World Values Survey Yin Zinkin

84 15 November 2012Luxembourg Presentation by Ursula Schinzel 84 Thank you for your attention


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