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Doctorate in Business Administration Hofstede in Luxembourg: An intercultural comparison with France and Germany Applying Geert Hofstede in collaboration.

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Presentation on theme: "Doctorate in Business Administration Hofstede in Luxembourg: An intercultural comparison with France and Germany Applying Geert Hofstede in collaboration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Doctorate in Business Administration Hofstede in Luxembourg: An intercultural comparison with France and Germany Applying Geert Hofstede in collaboration with Lindab   This "Deco" border was drawn on the Slide master using PowerPoint's Rectangle and Line tools. A smaller version was placed on the Notes Master by selecting all of the elements (using Select All from the Edit menu), deselecting the unwanted elements such as the Title (holding down the Shift key and clicking on the unwanted elements), and then using Paste as Picture from the Edit menu to place the border on the Notes Master. After pasting as a picture, we used the resize handles (with Shift to maintain the proportions) to reduce it to the size you see. Be sure to delete this word processing box before using this template for your own presentation.

2 Chapter Overview Acknowledgements Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Literature Review Chapter 3: Methodology Chapter 4: Data Analysis Chapter 5: Conclusion References Appendixes

3 Chapter 1: Introduction

4 My Research Question The purposes of this study are:
Where does Luxembourg fit in on the 7 Hofstede cultural dimensions? to explain Luxembourg people’s high scores on the measure of happiness I would like to test the validity of Hofstede’s work in 2010, being contested, looking at France and Germany, previously researched, adding entirely new data for Luxembourg, for which he has only provided estimates.

5 My Contribution to Knowledge
My contribution to knowledge is adding the data that I collected about Luxembourg to Hofstede’s data, as Hofstede bases his research on Luxembourg on estimates.

6 My originality There is no research about Hofstede’s cultural dimensions in Luxembourg Choice of ONE company: Lindab Interviews, Questionnaires at Lindab Luxembourg, France and Germany and their comparison Differentialisation of the Luxembourger with Luxembourgish Nationality Extrapolation of the pattern of the Luxembourger My results in Hofstede’s maps of the world

7 Methods Review of the Literature
Participant Observation (Primary Data) Interviews (Primary Data) Questionnaires (Primary Data)

8 Chapter 2: Literature Review

9 Literature Review The era after Hofstede: The era before Hofstede:
Triandis, Harry Smith, Peter, B. Schwartz, Shalom Trompenaars, Fons & Hamden-Turner, Charles De Mooij, Marieke Inglehart, Ronald The GLOBE, House, Robert; Hanges, Paul… Schein, Edgar Bond, Michael, Harris Mintzberg, Henry Minkov, Michael Hofstede, Gert Jan McSweeney The era before Hofstede: Maslow, Abraham McClelland, David Herzberg, Frederick Rockeach, Milton Hall, Edward Kluckhohn, Florence and Strodtbeck, Fred The era besides Hofstede: Scholz, Christian; Böhm, Hans Lewis, Richard D. Spizzo, Daniel The era beyond Hofstede: Aaker, Jennifer Briley, Donnel Nakata, Cheryl Kirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung, Hermans, Kempen….

10 Culture Theories The era before Hofstede (- 1980): Abraham Maslow
David McClelland Frederick Herzberg Milton Rockeach Edward Hall Florence Kluckhohn Fred Strodtbeck

11 Chapter 2: Literature Review
The era before Hofstede Maslow, Abraham: hierarchy of needs: physiological (food, sleep…), safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization. Mc Clelland, David: achievement motivation, motivation theory. Herzberg, Frederick: “Two Factor Theory”: Motivator Factors: Achievement, Recognition, Work Itself. Responsibility, Promotion, Growth. Hygiene Factors: Pay and Benefits, Company Policy and Administration, Relationships with co-workers, Supervision, Status, Job Security, Working Conditions, Personal life. Kluckhohn, Florence, Strodtbeck, Fred: Values Orientation Theory: universal problems in all human societies, limited numbers for value-based solutions, and different cultures have different preferences. Rockeach, Milton: Rockeach Value Survey, the terminal values in RVS are: true friendship, mature love, self-respect, happiness, inner harmony, equality, freedom, pleasure, social recognition, wisdom, salvation, family security, national security, a sense of accomplishment, a world of beauty, a world at peace, a comfortable life, an exciting life. Hall, Edward: Anthropologist, lifelong research on culture, with descriptive, qualitative methods. Lived with Navajo and Hopi Native Americans. Studied France, Germany, compared with America, mostly descriptive research. All American, thinking the world is like the USA

12 Culture Theories Hofstede’s Era (1980-2000): Christian Scholz
Hans Böhm Richard D. Lewis Daniel Spizzo

13 Christian Scholz and Hans Böhm:
Literature Review Besides Hofstede. Christian Scholz and Hans Böhm: a comparative analysis of human resource management (HRM) in Europe, impacts contexts and different approaches to HRM in Europe, researching in Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Turkey, comparing the UK, North America and continental Europe. Professor Dr Christian Scholz holds the chair of Business Administration, Organisation, HRM at University of Saarland. His research in Europe is about cultural, political and economic differences with the aim of avoiding fatal and expensive mistakes in doing business in Europe. Richard D. Lewis: explores the relationship between language and thought, how the mind is conditioned culturally at an early age, he researches about the cultural capital in organisations, about meetings, space and time, status and leadership, communication style, listening habits, team-building mechanisms, negotiation and decision-making.

14 Culture Theories The era after Hofstede (2000 - ): Harry Triandis
Peter B. Smith Shalom Schwartz Fons Trompenaars & Charles Hamden-Turner Marieke De Mooij Ronald Inglehart The GLOBE: Robert House, Paul Hanges… Edgar Schein Michael Harris Bond Henry Mintzberg Michael Minkov Gert Jan Hofstede McSweeney

15 Individualism/Collectivism research. Traditional collectivist Greece.
Literature Review Continued Hofstede’s replications. De Mooij, Marieke: Global Marketing, Consumer Behaviour and Culture, co-wrote with Geert Hofstede “The Hofstede Model”. Triandis, Harry: Individualism/Collectivism research. Traditional collectivist Greece. Trompenaars, Fons & Hamden-Turner, Charles: “Riding the wave of culture”, interviewed 8800 companies in 43 countries, identified 5 dimensions of culture: Universalism versus particularism, communitarianism versus individualism, neutral versus emotional, diffuse versus specific, achievement versus ascription. Schwartz, Shalom: identified 7 country-level value orientations surveying 60,000 people in 63 countries: conservatism or embeddedness, intellectual autonomy, affective autonomy, hierarchy, egalitarianism, mastery, harmony. Summarised in 3 culture dimensions: embeddedness versus autonomy, hierarchy versus egalitarianism, mastery versus harmony. Peter Smith: identified 2 country-level dimensions: egalitarian commitment versus conservatism, utilitarian involvement versus loyal involvement by analysing the data from Trompenaars.

16 Literature Review Continued Ronald Inglehart:
World Values Survey: the world’s most impressive database: questionnaire consisting of 360 questions in over 100 countries with over 420,000 respondents in several waves (wave 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, wave 6 being carried out ). WVS is headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden . Hofstede has stated that today he would use data from the WVS and analyse it, instead of collecting new data.

17 Literature Review Continued
The GLOBE: House, Robert; Hanges, Paul; Javidan, Mansour; Dorfman, Peter; Gupta, Vipin: involving 160 researchers worldwide in 62 cultures: nine dimensions of culture: Power Distance, Uncertainty avoidance, Humane Orientation, Collectivism I (Institutional Collectivism), Collectivism II (In-Group Collectivism), Assertiveness, Gender Egalitarianism, Future Orientation, Performance Orientation. Bond, Michael Harris: Chinese Values Survey. Mintzberg, Henry: Organisational structure research. the typical 5 configurations of most organisations: operating core, strategic apex, middle line, techno-structure, support staff. 5 coordinating activities mechanisms in organisations: mutual adjustment, direct supervision, standardisation of work processes, standardisation of outputs, standardisation of skills. 6 species of organisations: the entrepreneurial O., the machine O., the professional O., the project O., the missionary O., the political O. Schein, Edgar: “Corporate Culture Survival Guide”, when cultures meet through acquisitions, mergers, joint ventures. Schein’s 10 culture change mechanisms: incremental change through general and specific evolution, insight, promotion of hybrids within the culture, systematic promotion from selected subcultures, technological seduction, infusion of outsiders, scandal and explosion of myths, turnarounds, mergers and acquisitions, destructions and rebirth. 7 dimensions of culture, 3 levels of culture: artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, basic underlying assumptions. Schein is a psychologist. Cameron, and Quinn: 4 forms of organisational culture profile: the clan culture, the adhocracy culture, the hierarchy culture, the market culture.

18 Literature Review Minkov, Michael: Continued
from Sofia, Bulgaria, co-writes with Geert Hofstede, analyses data from Ingelhart’s WVS, “Cultural Differences in a Globalizing World”, adds a sixth cultural dimension to Hofstede: Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR). 4 dimensions of culture: industry vs indulgence, Monumentalism vs flexumility, hypometropia vs prudence, exclusionism vs universalism. Hofstede, Gert Jan (his son): concentrates on training and teaching culture, “Exploring Culture”.

19 Literature Review Going beyond Hofstede. Continued Jennifer Aaker
Professor at Stanford Graduate School of Business, Happiness Studies, The Dragonfly Effect. Kirkman, Lowe, Gibson, Nakata, Briley, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Chiu, Morris, Wyer, Hermans, Kempen, Jenner, Mc Nab, Brisling, Worthly, Leung. Donnel Briley is Professor of Marketing at University of Sydney, Australia. His areas of expertise are consumer choice and international marketing, studying the influence of culture and ethnicity on consumers’ judgments and decisions. Cheryl Nakata focuses her research on culture on its theoretical explorations and managerial applications in international business, marketing, innovation and strategy. She is Associate Professor of Marketing and International Business at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

20 Culture Theories New theories: Jennifer Aaker Donnel Briley
Cheryl Nakata Kirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung, Hermans, Kempen….

21 Literature Review Donnel Briley at University of Sydney.

22 Geert Hofstede (1928- ) What did he do?
Born in the Netherlands in 1928 IBM HRM research in the 1960s 116,000 questionnaires Identified 4 cultural dimensions, later added more: IDV/COLL, UAI, PDI, MAS/FEM, LTO, IVR, MON. Dared to contradict Maslow, Herzberg, McClelland Brought cultural research from the US to Europe Emeritus Professor at Maastricht University Start at 2:36

23 Culture is measured in terms of all of the followings: symbols, heroes, rituals, values, practices, norms, beliefs, self-perceptions, cognitive ability and behaviours

24 Heroes are persons that serve as model, such as: S.A.R. Grand-Duc Henri Jean-Claude Juncker Andy+Franck Schleck Charly Gaul

25 Symbols are words, gestures, pictures or objects, such as jargon, dresses, national anthem, flags or status symbols

26 Rituals are collective activities (Schouberfouer), ways of greeting (Moien) social and religious ceremonies (Octave)

27 are broad tendencies, feelings that come in pairings such as:
Values are broad tendencies, feelings that come in pairings such as: evil – good dirty – clean dangerous – safe forbidden – permitted moral – immoral ugly – beautiful unnatural – natural irrational - rational

28 Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture
Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture - Explained Easily : Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) Power Distance Index (PDI) Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation(LTO) Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR) Monumentalism (MON)

29 Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)
defined as “people looking after themselves and their immediate family only, versus people belonging to in-groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty” Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) defined as “the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations” Power Distance Index (PDI) defined as “the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally” Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS) defined as “the dominant values in a masculine society are achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life”

30 Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation(LTO)
defined as “the extent to which a society exhibits a pragmatic future-orientated perspective rather than a conventional historic or short-term point of view” Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR) defined as “Indulgence stands for enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for regulation of these by strict social norms” Monumentalism (MON) defined as “ veneration of heroes by buildings, songs, music, celebrations”

31 Limitations of Hofstede
Hofstede’s data from the 1960s might be outdated. Hofstede used IBM employees as sample for his research. The questions used in the questionnaire are self-perceptive questions. Hofstede uses and recommends using secondary data (WVS from Inglehart). Hofstede’s IBM study didn’t start as an intercultural study but as a ‘work satisfaction survey’. Hofstede’s cultural model is fixed, not flexible.

32 Chapter 3: Methodology

33 Chapter 3: Methodology Review of the Literature.
Participant Observation (Primary Data). Interviews (Primary Data). Questionnaires (Primary Data).

34 Chapter 3: Methodology Participant Observation.

35 Luxembourg Unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. Grand Duke: Henri. Prime Minister: Jean-Claude Juncker. Official languages: Luxembourgish, French, German. Capital Luxembourg (90,000 inhabitants). Size: 2,586 km2. Population total: 511,000. Motto: “Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn” “We want to remain what we are” Anthem: “Ons Heemecht” – “Our Homeland” Queen Mary II and Marie-Astrid

36 Data Analysis: Participant Observation
Continued Data Analysis: Participant Observation Femmes Leaders Luxembourg LPRA – Luxembourg Professionals Recruiters Association HRone BEE SECURE PaperJam Business Club Fairs ‘Foires’ European Commission American Chamber of Commerce Libreria Italiana Brasserie Guillaume POG – Personnel Officer’s Group Chamber of Commerce and Sacred Heart University Luxembourg Participant Observation

37 Chapter 3: Methodology Choice of ONE company: Lindab Buildings.

38 Methodology Continued Lindab Buildings

39 Chapter 3: Methodology Interviews (Primary Data).

40 Methodology Lindab Life Interviews Interviews.
Continued Lindab Life Interviews Interviews. Elaboration of questions with Hofstede. Pre-study within the HR community in Luxembourg. Validation by the Director Human Resources Lindab. Interviewing of Lindab Luxembourg / France / Germany. Transcript writing. Comparison of the interviews in Luxembourg, France, Germany.

41 Chapter 3: Methodology Questionnaires (Primary Data).

42 Methodology Questionnaire.
Continued Questionnaire. Questionnaire evaluation together with Hofstede: review and validation. Questionnaire translation: English, French, German and, much desired, Luxembourgish. Pre-study within the HR community in Luxembourg. Questionnaire review with HRD Lindab. Questionnaire distribution at Lindab Luxembourg, France, Germany. Collection of filled-in questionnaires. Excel sheet elaboration for questionnaires. Fill-in all questionnaires in Excel sheet. Clean-up database on Excel. Analyse database on Excel. Calculation of mean scores per question in Excel. Calculation of IDV, MAS, UAI, PDI, LTO, IVR, MON, in Excel. In SPSS: Logistic Regression on Happiness.

43 Chapter 4: Data Analysis

44 Chapter 4: Data Analysis
Participant Observation (Primary Data). Interviews (Primary Data). Questionnaires (Primary Data).

45 Chapter 4: Data Analysis
Participant Observation.

46 Data Analysis: Participant Observation
Continued Luxembourg prefers: Meeting in person, in a Hotel or Bank. Champagne and Cocktail. Lunch or Dinner.

47 Chapter 4: Data Analysis
Interviews (Primary Data).

48 Hofstede’s Interview Analysis
Symbols. Values. Heroes. Rituals.

49 Data Analysis: Interviews: Symbols – Values – Heroes – Rituals
Lindab Luxembourg Lindab France Lindab Germany Symbols Lindab Life Excellence in construction The open door Lindab is the leader in building construction Standardisation Conquering new markets Code of ethics Cost Analyses Quality Handbook Procedures Values Customer success : Be Nr. 1 Down to earth Neatness and order Corporate social responsibility Mutual trust Quality in work Punctuality Team work Good relations among employees Satisfied clients Long-term orientation Reliability Heroes The director The directors at Lindab Luxembourg Rituals Christmas Party Seniority awards 24 hour bicycle race ING Marathon Birthday cake Meeting for success

50 Chapter 4: Data Analysis
Questionnaires (Primary Data).

51 Culture Calculation Formulas
PDI = 35(mQVAL7 – mQVAL2) + 25(mQVAL23 – mQVAL26) + C (pd) UAI = 40(m QVAL20 – mQVAL16) + 25(mQVAL24 – mQVAL27) + C (ua) IDV = 35(mQVAL4 – mQVAL1) + 35(mQVAL9 – mQVAL6) + C (ic) MAS = 35(mQVAL5 – mQVAL3) + 35(mQVAL08 – mQVAL10) + C (mf) LTO = 40(mQVAL18 – mQVAL15) + 25(mQVAL28 – mQVAL25) + C (ls) IVR = 35(mQVAL12 – mQVAL11) + 40(mQVAL19 – mQVAL17) + C (ir) MON = 35(mQVAL14 – mQVAL13) + 25 (mQVAL22 – mQVAL21) + C (mo)

52 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Calculations of the Paper Questionnaire
Table 4.1 Comparison Lindab Luxembourg – Lindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality – Hofstede’s estimates on Luxembourg (on a scale from 1-100, 1 being the lowest and 100 the highest score) Lindab Luxembourg Lindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality Hofstede’s estimates on Luxembourg PDI 36 29 40 UAI 97 95 70 IDV 51.5 34 60 MAS 47 54 50 LTO 69 65 64 IVR 53.5 55 56 MON 10 24 -

53 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Calculations of the Paper Questionnaire
Table 4.2 Comparison Lindab Luxembourg – Lindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality – Hofstede’s estimates on Luxembourg – Lindab France – Hofstede’s France – Lindab Germany – Hofstede’s Germany Lindab Luxem-bourg Lindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality Hofstede’s estimates on Luxembourg Lindab France Hofstede’s France Lindab Germany Hofstede’s Germany PDI 36 29 40 32.5 68 37 35 UAI 97 95 70 28.8 86 67.5 65 IDV 51.5 34 60 41 71 65.5 67 MAS 47 54 50 43.5 43 64.5 66 LTO 69 64 63 84.5 83 IVR 53.5 55 56 80 48 46 MON 10 24 - 31 16.5 6.5 9.9

54 Hofstede’s cultural dimensions on Luxembourg – France – Germany – UK – Belgium FR – Belgium NL – Italy – the Netherlands NL – China – USA - Japan Luxbg France Germany UK Belgium FR Belgium NL Italy NL China USA Japan PDI 40 68 35 61 50 38 80 54 UAI 70 86 65 93 97 75 53 30 46 92 IDV 60 71 67 89 78 76 20 91 MAS 43 66 14 62 95 LTO 64 63 83 51 82 87 26 88 IVR 56 48 69 57 24 42 MON - 16.5 9.9 35.4 35.2 11.9 57.2 4.0

55 Cultural Map PDI - IDV shows the special place that Lux. Nat
Cultural Map PDI - IDV shows the special place that Lux. Nat. holds: strong Collectivism (weak Individualism) and small Power Distance

56 Cultural Map PDI - UAI shows the special place that Luxembourg and Lux
Cultural Map PDI - UAI shows the special place that Luxembourg and Lux. Nat. hold: strong Uncertainty Avoidance and small Power Distance

57 Cultural Map IVR - LTO shows the special place that Luxembourg and Lux
Cultural Map IVR - LTO shows the special place that Luxembourg and Lux. Nat. hold: next to Hofstede’s France

58 What is Logistic Regression?
start at 1:02 Logistic regression allows prediction of group membership, for example, prediction of whether someone is a belly dancer based on gender, occupational category, preferred type of reading material and age. Logistic regression allows to evaluate the odds (the probability) of membership in the group of belly dancers based on the combination of values of the predictor variables, 25 year old female sports professor, teaching hip-hop and reading dance books

59 Logistic Regression Definition:
Logistic Regression is a statistical method used to model the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable – like for example ‘happiness’ – and a combination of independent variables – like for example ‘taking risk’, ‘free time for life’, ‘level of education’ ‘job level manager or non-manager’, ‘state of health’, ‘religion’ Logistic Regression is calculated in SPSS. SPSS is a computer program from IBM. SPSS means ‘Statistical Package for the Social Sciences’. Between 2009 and 2010 it was called PASW – ‘Predictive Analytics SoftWare’

60 Logistic Regression Regression Coefficients Odds Ratios Taking Risk
Table Logistic regression – Being happy – Regression coefficient and Odds Ratio Dependent Variable: Being happy Regression Coefficients Odds Ratios Taking Risk 0.931 2.538 Free Time for Life 0.974 2.647 Level of Education -0.930 0.394 Contradict boss 1.096 2.993 State of health 1.485 4.416 Importance of Religion 0.677 1.969 Constant -0.628 0.534

61 Correlation Matrix * Significant at .05 Taking Risk Free Time for Life
Level of Education Contradict boss State of health Importance of Religion 1.000 - 0.214 0.054 -0.213 -0.149 0.126 0.182 0.105 0.006 -0.279 -0.233 0.195 -0.101 -0.122 -0.065 0.086

62 Constant -0.628 For a person who takes risks +(0.931)x1 And who takes free time for himself/herself +(0.974)x1 Who has a high level of education +(-0.930)x1 Who dares to contradict the boss +(1.096)x1 Whose state of health is good +(1.485)x1 For whom religion is important +(0.677)x1 e = 3.605 z = 3.605 = + 1 = logit = p with z = with the constant p= p= p = 0.97 The probability for this person to be happy is This is a very high probability, near 1

63 Logistic Regression: The probability of Luxembourgers of being happy
Who takes risk Who takes free time for life for him/herself Probability of being happy = 0.97 Person 1 Who has a high level of education Who dares to contradict the boss Whose state of health is good For whom religion is important Who does Not take risk Person 2 Probability of being happy = 0.94 Who takes free time for life for him/herself Who has a high level of education Who dares to contradict the boss Whose state of health is good For whom religion is important

64 Conclusion Luxembourgers use their language as identifier
LONG-TERM ORIENTATION HIGH UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE LOW POWER DISTANCE Luxembourgers use their language as identifier are highly uncertainty avoidant are long-term oriented have low power distance are highly collectivist and are happy LANGUAGE AS IDENTIFIER HIGH COLLECTIVISM/ LOW INDIVIDUALISM HAPPY

65 Explanations PDI (Power Distance Indicator) in Luxembourg is low with 36/100. Lux.Nat. have an even lower PDI of 29, compared with China (80) and France (68) Luxembourg being small, hierarchy is not felt that much, boss and employees meet in the same sport clubs, supermarkets, bars, evening events

66 Explanations UAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Indicator) is high, near 100 in Luxembourg (97) and Lux.Nat.(95) Uncertain and unknown situations are avoided, Secure, regulated, clear life without surprises, is preferred

67 Explanations IDV (Individualism versus Collectivism) is medium (51.5) in Luxembourg and diverges from Lux.Nat. (34). Lux.Nat. are highly collective people, preferring the well-being of the group and country This is contrary to people in USA (91) and Italy (76), where people take their time for themselves or their immediate family

68 Explanations MAS (Masculinity versus Femininity) is medium (47) for Luxembourg and Lux.Nat. (54) This shows a country where the characteristics of a masculine dominant country = competition and success, and those of a feminine dominant country = caring for others and quality of life, are equally distributed The most masculine countries are Japan (95), Austria and Venezuela, the most feminine are Sweden, Norway and The Netherlands

69 Explanations LTO (Long-Term Orientation versus Short-Term Orientation) is high in Luxembourg (69) and Lux.Nat. (65) Long-term is characterized by foreseen, and planned events and by perseverance and thrift Contrary to USA (26) where short-term decisions are taken. Germany with score of 83 on LTO is the example for a highly long-term oriented country

70 Explanations IVR (Indulgence versus Restraint) is medium in Luxembourg (53.5) and Lux.Nat. (55) In general people in Luxembourg indulge on life, they love profiting from the benefits of life, they enjoy life Italy has an IVR of 30, where religion, traditions and social rules limit personal enjoying of life

71 Explanations MON (Monumentalism) is low in Luxembourg (10) but more than the double for Lux.Nat. (24). Lux.Nat. love their national traditions and nationality, the Grand Ducal family, National Day, National Hymn and are living their national identity. The USA (54.2) are living a strong MON, contrary to Japan (4); US people love symbols, banner, heroes, their president, elections…

72 Language as Identifier
After World War I the need was to assure the national identity, to give value to the concept of ‘citizenship’, why it is important to be ‘Luxembourger’ and the advantages that come with the citizenship. When Nazism (World War II) engulfed small Luxembourg, because for Germans this small land seemed to be German, the Luxembourgish language attained its importance, the discriminating factor to distinguish between who is able to benefit from Luxembourgish citizenship and its advantages, and who not. Luxembourgish language defines the in-group. In order to benefit from all of the advantages of the Luxembourgish nationality, one has to be able to speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is not only a dialect, but the key giving access to the advantages of the rights of the citizenship. French is for bureaucratic problems, German for religious ceremonies, Luxembourgish to define the in-group (Spizzo, 1995).

73 Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture in Luxembourg: Why are people in Luxembourg happy?
Luxembourgers are happy because they: Use their language as identifier are highly uncertainty avoidant are long-term oriented have low power distance are highly collectivist

74 Conclusion Continued Evaluation whether my research question and my objectives were met?: Yes, I reached my objective: I succeeded in replicating Hofstede’s studies in Luxembourg. My contribution to knowledge was adding the data that I collected about Luxembourg to Hofstede’s data, as Hofstede bases his research on Luxembourg on estimates; I did so. My objective was also to come up with a pattern for the Luxembourger. I did so.

75 Conclusion Did my research add to the thinking in the literature?
Continued Did my research add to the thinking in the literature? Yes, there is only little in the literature about Luxembourg, further research is needed.

76 Conclusion Continued What are my recommendations for the business world from my research? Hofstede started an incredible process of research in cross-cultural studies, which I recommend should continue and be expanded over time with the trends like: writing, print, radio, telephones, telegraphs, photography, film, disk and tape recording, television, video, computers, internet, mobile telephones, social media, globalisation.

77 Conclusion What are the limitations of my research?
Continued What are the limitations of my research? As single researcher I cannot cover the amount of 160 researchers in the GLOBE or Inglehart’s WVS. I should hire people to research in Luxembourg and the world. I researched 1 company in Luxembourg, France and Germany. More companies and civil servants should be researched (45% of the Lux. Nat. are civil servants). Time limitation (research for a Doctorate, not a lifetime research), more statistics could be made.

78 Conclusion Suggestions for further research in the field?
Continued Suggestions for further research in the field? Seeing cultural research more flexible, open, and investigating in other domains. Linking culture with ‘Happiness studies’, ‘Language as an identifier’, ‘Social Media’, ‘Psychology’, ‘Marketing’, and ‘Communication’. Replicate Hofstede’s studies in other companies in Luxembourg.

79 Conclusion Continued What have I learnt from the research project in terms of knowledge and my personal experience? Known people like my supervisors from LGSM, Hofstede, Briley, Burçik, de Mooij, Nakata, Kirkman, and the company Lindab. PowerPoint, Word, Excel, SPSS, internet, web blog. Hofstede’s estimates on Luxembourg are still valid, because Luxembourg has not had a crisis like the Eastern European countries. My research at Lindab revealed some surprising results about Luxembourgish society that I personally found intriguing, especially the response rate of over 90%.

80 Conclusion What are my near projects as outcomes from this research?
Continued What are my near projects as outcomes from this research? A post-doc distance program: I wish to extend this research and continue my research. Publication of my thesis (done). Publication of articles (in process). Be Professor at a Business School (with ESG ? ) (applied).

81 References

82 References Continued Aaker, Smith Adair Avery Bitektin Blake Blodget
Bond Bradford University Braun Brewer Briley Cameron, Quinn Creswell Cronjé Crotts Cranston Davis De Mooij De Lorenzo Denzin De Walt Diener, Lucas Dumont, Poirier Eckhardt Eisenhardt Eldridge Elms Fontaine Frey Gantenbein Glaser Gordon Greenwald Haag Hagerty Hall Have, ten Hermans, Kempen Herzberg Hofstede Geert Hofstede Gert Jan Hong Hopp Hoppe Horner Horton House Husserl IBM Info Press Lxg Inglehart IPSE Jameson Javidan Jenner Jones Kanayama Kegan Kingsley Kirkman Kluckhohn, Strodtbeck Lester Leung Lewis Likert Lopez-Menchero Lord, Gerber Lunghi Lxg Tourist Office Maseland Maslow McClelland McGregor McSweeney Menard Meyerson Minkov Mintzberg

83 References Mogilner, Aaker Molard Moraru Moustaka Myers Nakata
Neefs, Laures OPOCE Orr, Hauser Pallant paperJam Peterson Posthuma Pratt Prince, Hoppe Rawls Reisinger Roberts Robertson Rockeach Saunders, Lewis, Thornhill Scandula Schein Scholz, Böhm Schwartz Signorini Sinclair Singelis Smith Sohn Sondergaard Spizzo Statec Strauss Stutzer Tan, Koveos Taras Taylor Treece Triandis Trochim Trompenaars, Hampden-Turner Tung van Horn Venaik Verbeke Verluise Vroom Webb, Campbell Welter Welzel Williams Wilson World Values Survey Yin Zinkin

84 Thank you for your attention

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