Presentation on theme: "Doctorate in Business Administration Hofstede in Luxembourg: An intercultural comparison with France and Germany Applying Geert Hofstede in collaboration."— Presentation transcript:
1 Doctorate in Business Administration Hofstede in Luxembourg: An intercultural comparison with France and Germany Applying Geert Hofstede in collaboration with Lindab This "Deco" border was drawn on the Slide master using PowerPoint's Rectangle and Line tools. A smaller version was placed on the Notes Master by selecting all of the elements (using Select All from the Edit menu), deselecting the unwanted elements such as the Title (holding down the Shift key and clicking on the unwanted elements), and then using Paste as Picture from the Edit menu to place the border on the Notes Master. After pasting as a picture, we used the resize handles (with Shift to maintain the proportions) to reduce it to the size you see.Be sure to delete this word processing box before using this template for your own presentation.
4 My Research Question The purposes of this study are: Where does Luxembourg fit in on the 7 Hofstede cultural dimensions?to explain Luxembourg people’s high scores on the measure of happinessI would like to test the validity of Hofstede’s work in 2010, being contested, looking at France and Germany, previously researched, adding entirely new data for Luxembourg, for which he has only provided estimates.
5 My Contribution to Knowledge My contribution to knowledge is adding the data that I collected about Luxembourg to Hofstede’s data, as Hofstede bases his research on Luxembourg on estimates.
6 My originalityThere is no research about Hofstede’s cultural dimensions in LuxembourgChoice of ONE company: LindabInterviews, Questionnaires at Lindab Luxembourg, France and Germany and their comparisonDifferentialisation of the Luxembourger with Luxembourgish NationalityExtrapolation of the pattern of the LuxembourgerMy results in Hofstede’s maps of the world
7 Methods Review of the Literature Participant Observation (Primary Data)Interviews (Primary Data)Questionnaires (Primary Data)
9 Literature Review The era after Hofstede: The era before Hofstede: Triandis, HarrySmith, Peter, B.Schwartz, ShalomTrompenaars, Fons & Hamden-Turner, CharlesDe Mooij, MariekeInglehart, RonaldThe GLOBE, House, Robert; Hanges, Paul…Schein, EdgarBond, Michael, HarrisMintzberg, HenryMinkov, MichaelHofstede, Gert JanMcSweeneyThe era before Hofstede:Maslow, AbrahamMcClelland, DavidHerzberg, FrederickRockeach, MiltonHall, EdwardKluckhohn, Florence and Strodtbeck, FredThe era besides Hofstede:Scholz, Christian; Böhm, HansLewis, Richard D.Spizzo, DanielThe era beyond Hofstede:Aaker, JenniferBriley, DonnelNakata, CherylKirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung, Hermans, Kempen….
10 Culture Theories The era before Hofstede (- 1980): Abraham Maslow David McClellandFrederick HerzbergMilton RockeachEdward HallFlorence KluckhohnFred Strodtbeck
11 Chapter 2: Literature Review The era before HofstedeMaslow, Abraham:hierarchy of needs: physiological (food, sleep…), safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization.Mc Clelland, David: achievement motivation, motivation theory.Herzberg, Frederick:“Two Factor Theory”: Motivator Factors: Achievement, Recognition, Work Itself. Responsibility, Promotion, Growth. Hygiene Factors: Pay and Benefits, Company Policy and Administration, Relationships with co-workers, Supervision, Status, Job Security, Working Conditions, Personal life.Kluckhohn, Florence, Strodtbeck, Fred:Values Orientation Theory: universal problems in all human societies, limited numbers for value-based solutions, and different cultures have different preferences.Rockeach, Milton:Rockeach Value Survey, the terminal values in RVS are: true friendship, mature love, self-respect, happiness, inner harmony, equality, freedom, pleasure, social recognition, wisdom, salvation, family security, national security, a sense of accomplishment, a world of beauty, a world at peace, a comfortable life, an exciting life.Hall, Edward: Anthropologist, lifelong research on culture, with descriptive, qualitative methods. Lived with Navajo and Hopi Native Americans. Studied France, Germany, compared with America, mostly descriptive research.All American, thinking the world is like the USA
12 Culture Theories Hofstede’s Era (1980-2000): Christian Scholz Hans BöhmRichard D. LewisDaniel Spizzo
13 Christian Scholz and Hans Böhm: Literature ReviewBesides Hofstede.Christian Scholz and Hans Böhm:a comparative analysis of human resource management (HRM) in Europe, impacts contexts and different approaches to HRM in Europe, researching in Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Turkey, comparing the UK, North America and continental Europe. Professor Dr Christian Scholz holds the chair of Business Administration, Organisation, HRM at University of Saarland. His research in Europe is about cultural, political and economic differences with the aim of avoiding fatal and expensive mistakes in doing business in Europe.Richard D. Lewis:explores the relationship between language and thought, how the mind is conditioned culturally at an early age, he researches about the cultural capital in organisations, about meetings, space and time, status and leadership, communication style, listening habits, team-building mechanisms, negotiation and decision-making.
14 Culture Theories The era after Hofstede (2000 - ): Harry Triandis Peter B. SmithShalom SchwartzFons Trompenaars & Charles Hamden-TurnerMarieke De MooijRonald InglehartThe GLOBE: Robert House, Paul Hanges…Edgar ScheinMichael Harris BondHenry MintzbergMichael MinkovGert Jan HofstedeMcSweeney
15 Individualism/Collectivism research. Traditional collectivist Greece. Literature ReviewContinuedHofstede’s replications.De Mooij, Marieke:Global Marketing, Consumer Behaviour and Culture, co-wrote with Geert Hofstede “The Hofstede Model”.Triandis, Harry:Individualism/Collectivism research. Traditional collectivist Greece.Trompenaars, Fons & Hamden-Turner, Charles: “Riding the wave of culture”, interviewed 8800 companies in 43 countries, identified 5 dimensions of culture: Universalism versus particularism, communitarianism versus individualism, neutral versus emotional, diffuse versus specific, achievement versus ascription.Schwartz, Shalom:identified 7 country-level value orientations surveying 60,000 people in 63 countries: conservatism or embeddedness, intellectual autonomy, affective autonomy, hierarchy, egalitarianism, mastery, harmony. Summarised in 3 culture dimensions: embeddedness versus autonomy, hierarchy versus egalitarianism, mastery versus harmony.Peter Smith:identified 2 country-level dimensions: egalitarian commitment versus conservatism, utilitarian involvement versus loyal involvement by analysing the data from Trompenaars.
16 Literature Review Continued Ronald Inglehart: World Values Survey: the world’s most impressive database: questionnaire consisting of 360 questions in over 100 countries with over 420,000 respondents in several waves (wave 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, wave 6 being carried out ). WVS is headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden . Hofstede has stated that today he would use data from the WVS and analyse it, instead of collecting new data.
17 Literature Review Continued The GLOBE: House, Robert; Hanges, Paul; Javidan, Mansour; Dorfman, Peter; Gupta, Vipin:involving 160 researchers worldwide in 62 cultures: nine dimensions of culture: Power Distance, Uncertainty avoidance, Humane Orientation, Collectivism I (Institutional Collectivism), Collectivism II (In-Group Collectivism), Assertiveness, Gender Egalitarianism, Future Orientation, Performance Orientation.Bond, Michael Harris:Chinese Values Survey.Mintzberg, Henry:Organisational structure research. the typical 5 configurations of most organisations: operating core, strategic apex, middle line, techno-structure, support staff. 5 coordinating activities mechanisms in organisations: mutual adjustment, direct supervision, standardisation of work processes, standardisation of outputs, standardisation of skills. 6 species of organisations: the entrepreneurial O., the machine O., the professional O., the project O., the missionary O., the political O.Schein, Edgar:“Corporate Culture Survival Guide”, when cultures meet through acquisitions, mergers, joint ventures. Schein’s 10 culture change mechanisms: incremental change through general and specific evolution, insight, promotion of hybrids within the culture, systematic promotion from selected subcultures, technological seduction, infusion of outsiders, scandal and explosion of myths, turnarounds, mergers and acquisitions, destructions and rebirth. 7 dimensions of culture, 3 levels of culture: artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, basic underlying assumptions. Schein is a psychologist.Cameron, and Quinn:4 forms of organisational culture profile: the clan culture, the adhocracy culture, the hierarchy culture, the market culture.
18 Literature Review Minkov, Michael: Continued from Sofia, Bulgaria, co-writes with Geert Hofstede, analyses data from Ingelhart’s WVS, “Cultural Differences in a Globalizing World”, adds a sixth cultural dimension to Hofstede: Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR). 4 dimensions of culture: industry vs indulgence, Monumentalism vs flexumility, hypometropia vs prudence, exclusionism vs universalism.Hofstede, Gert Jan (his son): concentrates on training and teaching culture, “Exploring Culture”.
19 Literature Review Going beyond Hofstede. Continued Jennifer Aaker Professor at Stanford Graduate School of Business, Happiness Studies, The Dragonfly Effect.Kirkman,Lowe,Gibson,Nakata,Briley,Hong,Benet-Martínez,Chiu,Morris,Wyer,Hermans,Kempen,Jenner,Mc Nab,Brisling,Worthly,Leung.Donnel Brileyis Professor of Marketing at University of Sydney, Australia. His areas of expertise are consumer choice and international marketing, studying the influence of culture and ethnicity on consumers’ judgments and decisions.Cheryl Nakatafocuses her research on culture on its theoretical explorations and managerial applications in international business, marketing, innovation and strategy. She is Associate Professor of Marketing and International Business at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
20 Culture Theories New theories: Jennifer Aaker Donnel Briley Cheryl NakataKirkman, Hong, Benet-Martínez, Leung, Hermans, Kempen….
21 Literature ReviewDonnel Briley at University of Sydney.
22 Geert Hofstede (1928- ) What did he do? Born in the Netherlands in 1928IBM HRM research in the 1960s116,000 questionnairesIdentified 4 cultural dimensions, later added more:IDV/COLL, UAI, PDI, MAS/FEM,LTO, IVR, MON.Dared to contradict Maslow, Herzberg, McClellandBrought cultural research from the US to EuropeEmeritus Professor at Maastricht UniversityStart at 2:36
23 Cultureis measured in terms of all of the followings: symbols, heroes, rituals, values, practices, norms, beliefs, self-perceptions, cognitive ability and behaviours
24 Heroesare persons that serve as model, such as:S.A.R. Grand-Duc HenriJean-Claude JunckerAndy+Franck SchleckCharly Gaul
25 Symbolsare words, gestures, pictures or objects, such as jargon, dresses, national anthem, flags orstatus symbols
26 Ritualsare collective activities (Schouberfouer),ways of greeting (Moien) social and religious ceremonies (Octave)
27 are broad tendencies, feelings that come in pairings such as: Valuesare broad tendencies, feelings that come in pairings such as:evil – gooddirty – cleandangerous – safeforbidden – permittedmoral – immoralugly – beautifulunnatural – naturalirrational - rational
28 Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture - Explained Easily :Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)UncertaintyAvoidance (UAI)Power DistanceIndex (PDI)Masculinity versusFemininity (MAS)Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation(LTO)Indulgence versusRestraint (IVR)Monumentalism(MON)
29 Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV) defined as “people looking after themselves and their immediate family only, versus people belonging to in-groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty”Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)defined as “the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations”Power Distance Index (PDI)defined as “the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally”Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)defined as “the dominant values in a masculine society are achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life”
30 Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation(LTO) defined as “the extent to which a society exhibits a pragmatic future-orientated perspective rather than a conventional historic or short-term point of view”Indulgence versus Restraint (IVR)defined as “Indulgence stands for enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for regulation of these by strict social norms”Monumentalism (MON)defined as “ veneration of heroes by buildings, songs, music, celebrations”
31 Limitations of Hofstede Hofstede’s data from the 1960s might be outdated.Hofstede used IBM employees as sample for his research.The questions used in the questionnaire are self-perceptive questions.Hofstede uses and recommends using secondary data (WVS from Inglehart).Hofstede’s IBM study didn’t start as an intercultural study but as a ‘work satisfaction survey’.Hofstede’s cultural model is fixed, not flexible.
35 LuxembourgUnitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.Grand Duke: Henri.Prime Minister: Jean-Claude Juncker.Official languages: Luxembourgish, French, German.Capital Luxembourg (90,000 inhabitants).Size: 2,586 km2.Population total: 511,000.Motto: “Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn” “We want to remain what we are”Anthem: “Ons Heemecht” – “Our Homeland”Queen Mary II and Marie-Astrid
36 Data Analysis: Participant Observation ContinuedData Analysis: Participant ObservationFemmes Leaders LuxembourgLPRA – Luxembourg Professionals Recruiters AssociationHRoneBEE SECUREPaperJam Business ClubFairs‘Foires’European CommissionAmerican Chamber of CommerceLibreria ItalianaBrasserie GuillaumePOG – Personnel Officer’s GroupChamber of Commerce and Sacred Heart University LuxembourgParticipantObservation
37 Chapter 3: MethodologyChoice of ONE company: Lindab Buildings.
40 Methodology Lindab Life Interviews Interviews. ContinuedLindab LifeInterviewsInterviews.Elaboration of questions with Hofstede.Pre-study within the HR community in Luxembourg.Validation by the Director Human Resources Lindab.Interviewing of Lindab Luxembourg / France / Germany.Transcript writing.Comparison of the interviews in Luxembourg, France, Germany.
42 Methodology Questionnaire. ContinuedQuestionnaire.Questionnaire evaluation together with Hofstede: review and validation.Questionnaire translation: English, French, German and, much desired, Luxembourgish.Pre-study within the HR community in Luxembourg.Questionnaire review with HRD Lindab.Questionnaire distribution at Lindab Luxembourg, France, Germany.Collection of filled-in questionnaires.Excel sheet elaboration for questionnaires.Fill-in all questionnaires in Excel sheet.Clean-up database on Excel.Analyse database on Excel.Calculation of mean scores per question in Excel.Calculation of IDV, MAS, UAI, PDI, LTO, IVR, MON, in Excel.In SPSS: Logistic Regression on Happiness.
49 Data Analysis: Interviews: Symbols – Values – Heroes – Rituals Lindab LuxembourgLindab FranceLindab GermanySymbolsLindab LifeExcellence in constructionThe open doorLindab is the leader in building constructionStandardisationConquering new marketsCode of ethicsCost AnalysesQuality HandbookProceduresValuesCustomer success : Be Nr. 1Down to earthNeatness and orderCorporate social responsibilityMutual trustQuality in workPunctualityTeam workGood relations among employeesSatisfied clientsLong-term orientationReliabilityHeroesThe directorThe directors at Lindab LuxembourgRitualsChristmas PartySeniority awards24 hour bicycle raceING MarathonBirthday cakeMeeting for success
50 Chapter 4: Data Analysis Questionnaires (Primary Data).
52 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Calculations of the Paper Questionnaire Table 4.1 Comparison Lindab Luxembourg – Lindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality – Hofstede’s estimates on Luxembourg(on a scale from 1-100, 1 being the lowest and 100 the highest score)Lindab LuxembourgLindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationalityHofstede’s estimates on LuxembourgPDI362940UAI979570IDV51.53460MAS475450LTO696564IVR53.55556MON1024-
53 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Calculations of the Paper Questionnaire Table 4.2 Comparison Lindab Luxembourg – Lindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationality – Hofstede’s estimates on Luxembourg –Lindab France – Hofstede’s France – Lindab Germany – Hofstede’s GermanyLindab Luxem-bourgLindab Luxembourg with Luxembourgish nationalityHofstede’s estimates on LuxembourgLindab FranceHofstede’s FranceLindab GermanyHofstede’s GermanyPDI36294032.5683735UAI97957028.88667.565IDV51.53460417165.567MAS47545043.54364.566LTO69646384.583IVR53.55556804846MON1024-322.214.171.124
54 Hofstede’s cultural dimensions on Luxembourg – France – Germany – UK – Belgium FR – Belgium NL – Italy – the Netherlands NL – China – USA - JapanLuxbgFranceGermanyUKBelgium FRBelgium NLItalyNLChinaUSAJapanPDI4068356150388054UAI70866593977553304692IDV6071678978762091MAS4366146295LTO6463835182872688IVR564869572442MON-16.59.935.435.211.957.24.0
55 Cultural Map PDI - IDV shows the special place that Lux. Nat Cultural Map PDI - IDV shows the special place that Lux. Nat. holds: strong Collectivism (weak Individualism) and small Power Distance
56 Cultural Map PDI - UAI shows the special place that Luxembourg and Lux Cultural Map PDI - UAI shows the special place that Luxembourg and Lux. Nat. hold: strong Uncertainty Avoidance and small Power Distance
57 Cultural Map IVR - LTO shows the special place that Luxembourg and Lux Cultural Map IVR - LTO shows the special place that Luxembourg and Lux. Nat. hold: next to Hofstede’s France
58 What is Logistic Regression? start at 1:02Logistic regression allows prediction of group membership, for example, prediction of whether someone is a belly dancer based on gender, occupational category, preferred type of reading material and age. Logistic regression allows to evaluate the odds (the probability) of membership in the group of belly dancers based on the combination of values of the predictor variables, 25 year old female sports professor, teaching hip-hop and reading dance books
59 Logistic Regression Definition: Logistic Regression is a statistical method used to model the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable – like for example ‘happiness’ – and a combination of independent variables – like for example ‘taking risk’, ‘free time for life’, ‘level of education’ ‘job level manager or non-manager’, ‘state of health’, ‘religion’Logistic Regression is calculated in SPSS. SPSS is a computer program from IBM. SPSS means ‘Statistical Package for the Social Sciences’. Between 2009 and 2010 it was called PASW – ‘Predictive Analytics SoftWare’
60 Logistic Regression Regression Coefficients Odds Ratios Taking Risk Table Logistic regression – Being happy – Regression coefficient and Odds RatioDependent Variable: Being happyRegression CoefficientsOdds RatiosTaking Risk0.9312.538Free Time for Life0.9742.647Level of Education-0.9300.394Contradict boss1.0962.993State of health1.4854.416Importance of Religion0.6771.969Constant-0.6280.534
61 Correlation Matrix * Significant at .05 Taking Risk Free Time for Life Level of EducationContradict bossState of healthImportance of Religion1.000-0.2140.054-0.213-0.1490.1260.1820.1050.006-0.279-0.2330.195-0.101-0.122-0.0650.086
62 Constant-0.628For a person who takes risks+(0.931)x1And who takes free time for himself/herself+(0.974)x1Who has a high level of education+(-0.930)x1Who dares to contradict the boss+(1.096)x1Whose state of health is good+(1.485)x1For whom religion is important+(0.677)x1e =3.605z = 3.605=+ 1 =logit = pwith z =with the constantp= p=p = 0.97The probability for this person to be happy is This is a very high probability, near 1
63 Logistic Regression: The probability of Luxembourgers of being happy Who takes riskWho takes free time for life for him/herselfProbability of being happy = 0.97Person 1Who has a high level of educationWho dares to contradict the bossWhose state of health is goodFor whom religion is importantWho does Not take riskPerson 2Probability of being happy = 0.94Who takes free time for life for him/herselfWho has a high level of educationWho dares to contradict the bossWhose state of health is goodFor whom religion is important
64 Conclusion Luxembourgers use their language as identifier LONG-TERM ORIENTATIONHIGH UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCELOW POWER DISTANCELuxembourgersuse their language as identifierare highly uncertainty avoidantare long-term orientedhave low power distanceare highly collectivistand are happyLANGUAGE AS IDENTIFIERHIGH COLLECTIVISM/LOW INDIVIDUALISMHAPPY
65 ExplanationsPDI (Power Distance Indicator) in Luxembourg is low with 36/100.Lux.Nat. have an even lower PDI of 29, compared with China (80) and France (68)Luxembourg being small, hierarchy is not felt that much, boss and employees meet in the same sport clubs, supermarkets, bars, evening events
66 ExplanationsUAI (Uncertainty Avoidance Indicator) is high, near 100 in Luxembourg (97) and Lux.Nat.(95)Uncertain and unknown situations are avoided,Secure, regulated, clear life without surprises, is preferred
67 ExplanationsIDV (Individualism versus Collectivism) is medium (51.5) in Luxembourg and diverges from Lux.Nat. (34).Lux.Nat. are highly collective people, preferring the well-being of the group and countryThis is contrary to people in USA (91) and Italy (76), where people take their time for themselves or their immediate family
68 ExplanationsMAS (Masculinity versus Femininity) is medium (47) for Luxembourg and Lux.Nat. (54)This shows a country where the characteristics of a masculine dominant country = competition and success, and those of a feminine dominant country = caring for others and quality of life, are equally distributedThe most masculine countries are Japan (95), Austria and Venezuela, the most feminine are Sweden, Norway and The Netherlands
69 ExplanationsLTO (Long-Term Orientation versus Short-Term Orientation) is high in Luxembourg (69) and Lux.Nat. (65)Long-term is characterized by foreseen, and planned events and by perseverance and thriftContrary to USA (26) where short-term decisions are taken.Germany with score of 83 on LTO is the example for a highly long-term oriented country
70 ExplanationsIVR (Indulgence versus Restraint) is medium in Luxembourg (53.5) and Lux.Nat. (55)In general people in Luxembourg indulge on life, they love profiting from the benefits of life, they enjoy lifeItaly has an IVR of 30, where religion, traditions and social rules limit personal enjoying of life
71 ExplanationsMON (Monumentalism) is low in Luxembourg (10) but more than the double for Lux.Nat. (24).Lux.Nat. love their national traditions and nationality, the Grand Ducal family, National Day, National Hymn and are living their national identity.The USA (54.2) are living a strong MON, contrary to Japan (4); US people love symbols, banner, heroes, their president, elections…
72 Language as Identifier After World War I the need was to assure the national identity, to give value to the concept of ‘citizenship’, why it is important to be ‘Luxembourger’ and the advantages that come with the citizenship. When Nazism (World War II) engulfed small Luxembourg, because for Germans this small land seemed to be German, the Luxembourgish language attained its importance, the discriminating factor to distinguish between who is able to benefit from Luxembourgish citizenship and its advantages, and who not. Luxembourgish language defines the in-group. In order to benefit from all of the advantages of the Luxembourgish nationality, one has to be able to speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is not only a dialect, but the key giving access to the advantages of the rights of the citizenship. French is for bureaucratic problems, German for religious ceremonies, Luxembourgish to define the in-group (Spizzo, 1995).
73 Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture in Luxembourg: Why are people in Luxembourg happy? Luxembourgers are happy because they:Use their language as identifierare highly uncertainty avoidantare long-term orientedhave low power distanceare highly collectivist
74 ConclusionContinuedEvaluation whether my research question and my objectives were met?:Yes, I reached my objective: I succeeded in replicating Hofstede’s studies in Luxembourg.My contribution to knowledge was adding the data that I collected about Luxembourg to Hofstede’s data, as Hofstede bases his research on Luxembourg on estimates; I did so.My objective was also to come up with a pattern for the Luxembourger. I did so.
75 Conclusion Did my research add to the thinking in the literature? ContinuedDid my research add to the thinking in the literature?Yes, there is only little in the literature about Luxembourg, further research is needed.
76 ConclusionContinuedWhat are my recommendations for the business world from my research?Hofstede started an incredible process of research in cross-cultural studies, which I recommend should continue and be expanded over time with the trends like: writing, print, radio, telephones, telegraphs, photography, film, disk and tape recording, television, video, computers, internet, mobile telephones, social media, globalisation.
77 Conclusion What are the limitations of my research? ContinuedWhat are the limitations of my research?As single researcher I cannot cover the amount of 160 researchers in the GLOBE or Inglehart’s WVS. I should hire people to research in Luxembourg and the world.I researched 1 company in Luxembourg, France and Germany. More companies and civil servants should be researched (45% of the Lux. Nat. are civil servants).Time limitation (research for a Doctorate, not a lifetime research), more statistics could be made.
78 Conclusion Suggestions for further research in the field? ContinuedSuggestions for further research in the field?Seeing cultural research more flexible, open, and investigating in other domains.Linking culture with ‘Happiness studies’,‘Language as an identifier’,‘Social Media’,‘Psychology’,‘Marketing’,and ‘Communication’.Replicate Hofstede’s studies in other companies in Luxembourg.
79 ConclusionContinuedWhat have I learnt from the research project in terms of knowledge and my personal experience?Known people like my supervisors from LGSM, Hofstede, Briley, Burçik, de Mooij, Nakata, Kirkman, and the company Lindab. PowerPoint, Word, Excel, SPSS, internet, web blog.Hofstede’s estimates on Luxembourg are still valid, because Luxembourg has not had a crisis like the Eastern European countries.My research at Lindab revealed some surprising results about Luxembourgish society that I personally found intriguing, especially the response rate of over 90%.
80 Conclusion What are my near projects as outcomes from this research? ContinuedWhat are my near projects as outcomes from this research?A post-doc distance program: I wish to extend this research and continue my research.Publication of my thesis (done).Publication of articles (in process).Be Professor at a Business School (with ESG ? ) (applied).