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The Study of Speech Sounds. PHONETICS How are speech sounds made? Speech Sounds PHONOLOGY How are speech sounds classified?

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Presentation on theme: "The Study of Speech Sounds. PHONETICS How are speech sounds made? Speech Sounds PHONOLOGY How are speech sounds classified?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Study of Speech Sounds

2 PHONETICS How are speech sounds made? Speech Sounds PHONOLOGY How are speech sounds classified?

3 What is Phonetics? DEFINITION The study of how speech sounds are made, and which sounds are used in a given language. COMPONENTS OF PHONETICS Identifying the place of articulation in the vocal tract, mouth and nose. Identifying the manner of articulation, including how air is channeled and/or stopped during speech sounds. Identifying which speech sounds are used in any given language, and which are not.

4 Consonants are formed by the slowing or stopping of air somewhere in the vocal tract Consonants Types of Speech Sounds Vowels Vowels are formed by changes in the shape of the vocal tract as air passes through unimpeded

5 The Phonetics of Consonants means where the vocal tract is shut off or narrowed Place of articulation Voicing Manner of Articulation means how the vocal tract is shut off or narrowed means whether air is forced through the larynx or not

6 The Anatomy of the Vocal Tract Your homework is to go online and find out what the following articulatory places are and where they are located: Glottis Uvula

7 Consonant Place of Articulation 1: Bilabials Bilabials are accomplished by narrowing the vocal tract using both lips pin map boy

8 Consonant Place of Articulation 2: Labiodentals Labiodentals are accomplished by narrowing the vocal tract using both the lips and the teeth fan van

9 Consonant Place of Articulation 3: Apicodental (Interdentals) Apicodentals, also called interdentals are accomplished by narrowing the vocal tract using the tip (apex) of the tongue between the teeth to narrow the vocal tract there thing

10 Consonant Place of Articulation 4: Apicoalveolar (Alveolar) Apicoalveolar, also called alveolars are accomplished by narrowing the vocal tract using the tip (apex) of the tongue against the alveolar ridge behind the teeth dip tip

11 Consonant Place of Articulation 5: Alveolarpalatal Alveolarpalatal are accomplished by narrowing the vocal tract using the tip (apex) of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge at the front edge of the palate shout judge child

12 Consonant Place of Articulation 6: Velums Velums are accomplished by completely closing the vocal tract at the velum get cat

13 Manner of Articulation means how the shutting off or narrowing of the vocal tract is done

14 Consonant Manner of Articulation 1: Stops Stops are accomplished by completely obstructing the airstream pick get dig

15 Consonant Manner of Articulation 2: Fricatives Fricatives are accomplished by almost completely obstructing the airstream causing friction fish kiss shell

16 Consonant Manner of Articulation 3: Affricatives Affricatives are accomplished by stopping the air flow and then releasing air to cause friction child gym judge

17 Consonant Manner of Articulation 4: Nasals Nasals are accomplished by closing the vocal tract at the velum and forcing air through the nasal passages nickel man ring

18 Consonant Manner of Articulation 5: Liquids Liquids are accomplished by restricting but not closing off air flow leave ring

19 Consonant Manner of Articulation 6: Glides Glides are accomplished by restricting but not closing off air flow followed by a slight opening of the vocal tract yet wash whistle

20 Consonant Manner of Articulation 7: Taps Taps are accomplished by quickly tapping the tongue against another part of the vocal tract and is frequently found in the middle of a word letter ladder

21 Consonant Manner of Articulation 8: Trills Trills are accomplished by forcing the tongue, uvula or lips to vibrate In Spanish perro barrio

22 Two Types of Voicing sounds are made by narrowing the vocal cords and forcing air between them got bit sounds are made by opening the vocal cords and allowing air to flow past them caught pit Voiced Unvoiced

23 Classification of Vowels Four Criteria for Classifying Vowels: Tongue Height Tongue Location (toward back or front) Mouth & Lip Tension Lip Rounding Vs stretching

24 Tongue Height Three Positions: High: bit straight pool cook Mid Mouth: get wait spot rope Low: bat got

25 Tongue Location Three Positions: Back: pool cook rope got Center: but around Front: hit heat pet wait bat

26 Mouth &Lip Tension Two States: TenseRelaxed heat hit soon soot wait wet

27 Lip Rounding Two States: Rounded Not Rounded pool hit look heat wrote pat caught pet wait

28 Websites That Make Speech Sounds web.uvic.ca/ling/resources/ipa/charts/IP Alab/IPAlab.htmweb.uvic.ca/ling/resources/ipa/charts/IP Alab/IPAlab.htm nglish/framesetwww.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/e nglish/frameset hapter1/flash.htmlhttp://www.phonetics.ucla.edu/course/c hapter1/flash.html

29 The International Phonetic Alphabet !Kung Click Language 6fZ-7z1w 6fZ-7z1w

30 Phonemics

31 Definition of Phoneme A minimal class of sounds which possess shared features that clearly contrast with those of other phonemes and form the basis of distinguishing one utterance from another. Eg. English {s}, {z} Spanish {s, z}

32 Most Languages have 50 or fewer phonemes. No language uses all possible phonemes The sounds contained in corresponding phonenemes in different languages may vary significantly.

33 English Phonemes 1-15 of 42 Phoneme Spelling(s) and Example Words /A/ a (table), a_e (bake), ai (train), ay (say) /a/ a (flat) /b/b (ball) /k/ c (cake), k (key), ck (back) /d/ d (door) /E/ e (me), ee (feet), ea (leap), y (baby) /e/ e (pet), ea (head) /f/f (fix), ph (phone) /g/ g (gas) /h/ h (hot) /I/ i (I), i_e (bite), igh (light), y (sky) /i/ i (sit) /j/ j (jet), dge (edge), g[e, i, y] (gem) /l/l (lamp) /m/ m (my)

34 English Phonemes of 42 Phoneme Spellings and Example Words /n/n (no), kn (knock) /O/ o (okay), o_e (bone), oa (soap), ow (low) /o/o (hot) /p/p (pie) /kw/ qu (quick) /r/r (road), wr (wrong), er (her), ir (sir), ur (fur) /s/s (say), c[e, i, y] (cent) /t/ t (time) /U/ u (future), u_e (use), ew (few) /u/u (thumb), a (about), e (loaded), o (wagon) /v/v (voice) /w/w (wash) /ks/ or /gz/x (box, exam)

35 English Phonemes of 42 Phoneme Spellings and Example Words /y/y (yes) /z/z (zoo), s (nose) /OO/oo (boot), u (truth), u_e (rude), ew (chew) /oo/oo (book), u (put) /oi/oi (soil), oy (toy) /ou/ou (out), ow (cow) /aw/ aw (saw), au (caught), a[l] (tall) /ar/ ar (car) /sh/ sh (ship), ti (nation), ci (special) /hw/wh (white) /ch/ ch (chest), tch (catch) /th/ or /th/th (thick, this) /ng/ng (sing), n (think) /zh/ s (measure)

36 Spanish Phonemes 1-14 of 25 Phoneme Spellings and Example Words /a/a (casa) /e/e (pesebre) /i/i (mi), y (y) /o/o (pozo /u/u (tuyo) /b/b (baso), v (vaso), w (wagon) /d/ d (donde), d (pedid) /f/ f (fuego), f (filosofo) /g/ g (paga), p (pague), g (guitarra), g (guapo) /j/io (comio), ie (pie), ie (hierro), y (cayo), ll (callo) /k/ q (quito), c (casa), k (kilo), cc (accion), x (taxi) /l/ l (cola), l (paralelo), l (el) /m/m (campo), m (cama), n (invierno) /n/ n (cana)

37 Spanish Phonemes of 25 Phoneme Spellings and Example Words /n,/n~ (can~a) /p/p (pozo), p (pues), p (papa) /r/r (caro), r ( carta), r (parar), r (trato) /r-/rr (carro), r (honrado), r (rosa) /s/s (sastre), s (casa), x (exito) /t/t (tonto), t (tu) /tj/ ch (chato) /w/ u (cuerno), u (ruego), hu (ahuecar), u (causa) /x/ j (juego), g (pagina), j (escojo), g (escoge), x (Mexico) /iya/ll (callo), ll (llamar) /0-/ z (lapiz), c (lapices), c (cierra), z (caza)

38 Some Differences between the Spanish and the English Written Language 29 letters represent 25 phonemes pronunciation of words is based on their spelling some phonemes are spelled using more than one letter (me llamo) 26 letters represent 42 phonemes sometimes the pronunciation varies: spelling represents more than one word (read) some letters do not have direct relation to the sounds in the word (height)

39 Some Differences between the Spanish and the English Written Language if a letter is doubled both letters are pronounced (leer) also applies to diphthongs (Euro) 5 vowel letters and 5 vowel sounds a few phonemes can be spelled in more than one way (/h/= g or j) doubled letters represent only one phoneme (school) 5 vowel letters and 15 vowel sounds 19 consonant phonemes are spelled using more than one letter (enough)

40 Phonemic Categories Differ from One Language to Another In English, trilled and untrilled rs are in the same phoneme. In English b and v are in different phonemes. berry vs. very In English r and l are in different phonemes river vs. liver In Spanish, trilled and untrilled rs are in different phonemes. pero vs. perro In Spanish, b and v are in the same phoneme. In Chinese r and l are in the same phoneme

41 Allophones Definition: Phones that occupy the same phoneme are called allophones.

42 Goals of a Phonemic Analysis 1. To identify a minimal set of phonemes for the language 2.To identify which phones from the language are classified together in a given phoneme as allophones 3.To identify the contexts in which a given allophone will be used instead of others in the same phoneme

43 Kinds of Allophones Free variation allophones Complementary distribution allophones

44 Free Variation Allophones Where the use of a particular allophone overlaps with the use of others Two sounds are used indiscriminately in different phonetic contexts The variation is due to dialectical variation or personal linguistic habits. llophones/index.htm

45 Complementary Distribution Allophones Two allophones are in complementary distribution if the contexts in which they appear do not overlap. Two sounds are never used in the same phonetic context. E.g. [p ʰ ] always occurs when it comes at the beginning of a syllable and is followed by a stressed vowel (as in the word pin). [p] occurs in all other situations (as in the word spin).

46 Kinds of Phonetic Context Some Examples Immediate context = the sounds which immediately precede and follow the allophone The stress of the sounds that follow or precede the allophone - Whether the allophone begins or ends a word When the allophone begins a word, the sound with which the word preceding the allophone ends When the allophone ends a word, the sound with which the word following the allophone begins

47 Immediate Context Example She vs. Shoe The vowel following the sh sound changes the way the sound is made. The two sh sounds are allophones of the same phoneme, but are used in different contexts, one following the oo and one following the ee sound.

48 Immediate Context Example Pin vs. Spot vs. Top P at the beginning of the word is asperated. P in the middle of the word is not asperated. P at the end of the word is not asperated.

49 PowerPoint Study Guide Phonetics PalateNasals Phonology LarynxGlides Place of articulation GlottisLiquids Manner of articulation VelumTaps Voicing BilabialTrills Consonants LabiodentalTongue height Vowels ApicodentalTongue location Nasal passage ApicoalveolarMouth tension Lips AlveolarpalatalLip rounding Teeth VelumPhonemes Apex of the tongue StopsAllophones Blade of the tongue FricativeFree variation allophones Alveolar ridge AffricativeComplementary allophones


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