2Protestant Reformation Began in Northern Europe. They attacked the Medieval Catholic Church.They were worried about the human capacity for evil and wanted parents, teachers and govt. officials to be strict.Driven by rejection of Papal Authority, many reformers were guild members who questioned centralized authority in any form.Priesthood of all believers v. privileged few.
3WWJD?The Modern Devotion or Brothers of the Common Life began in the Netherlands and spread around Northern Europe.They built religious lives outside of formal church offices.They studied, educated, published and served the poor.Thomas Kempis: Imitation of Christ.Individual v. Church dependent
4Martin Luther 1483-1546 Educated by the Brothers of the Common Life Entered Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine in 1505 (Monastery)“Justification by Faith Alone!” v. Good WorksGod is not mans puppet95 Theses
5Albrecht Durer Greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance Woodcuts, Paintings
6Indulgences Get out of Hell free card instead of purgatory Penance for your sins, Crusaders1343, Pope Clement VI ( ) proclaimed “treasury of merit” = Church has ability to free you of your sins1476, Pope Sixtus IV ( ) extended indulgences to all Christians in purgatory.Pope Julius II sold indulgences to pay for war and art.Pope Leo X sent John Tetzel to France to sell Indulgences to pay for reconstruction of St. Peters Basilica.
7John TetzelSold Indulgences like he worked for the home shopping network"As soon as a coin in the coffer rings / the soul from purgatory springs.”Even promoted idea that indulgences could eliminate future sins.When Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg (October 31, 1517) he was especially protesting the idea that Tetzel could sell people salvation.
8Luther’s Excommunication Luther challenged the infallibility of the Pope and the inerrancy of church councils.Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation urged princes to reform church in Germany.Freedom of a Christian argued for salvation by faith alone.In 1520, Pope Leo’s bull Exsurge Domine (“Arise, O Lord” condemned Luther, in 1521 he was excommunicated.Also in 1521, at Diet of Worms, Charles V of HRE ordered Luther to recant his beliefs. When he didn’t he became an outlaw.
10Peasants RevoltRevolted, they thought ML would be on their sideML condemned them as “unChristian”Feudal landowners were raising taxes, peasants wanted to be released from serfdom.70, ,000 peasants died as revolt was crushed.Reformation was about religion, not social, moral or economic changes to society.
11Ulrich Zwingli 1484-1531, leader of the Swiss Reformation Anti-Indulgences, Critic of Swiss mercenary serviceBecame “Peoples Priest” in Zurich.He was against anything that lacked literal support of scripture.Questioned: purgatory, worship of saints, fasting, clerical celibacy.Zurich became center of Puritanical ProtestantismMarburg Colloquy tried to get ML and Z to agree. They didn’t.Z died in battle during Swiss Civil War between Protestants and Catholics.
12Anabaptists Anabaptism means rebaptize. Rejected Infant Baptism, only adult Baptism counts.Started by Conrad Grebel ( ). He worked with Z but was more radical.They refused to swear oaths, were pacifists, would not serve in secular govts.Took over Munster (Germany) Protestants and Catholics united to crush them.
13Other Radicals Mennonites Spiritualists Antitrinitarians Moderate, Pacifist, AnabaptistsSpiritualistsWanted nothing to do with organized church. They were basically hermits.AntitrinitariansCommonsense, rational, and ethical ProtestantismTrinity= God, Jesus and Holy Spirit.
14John CalvinDivine Predestination, individual responsibility to reorder society according to Gods plan.Geneva, Switzerland became home of Calvinism. (Women’s Paradise= men couldn’t beat their wives.)Calvinism replaced Lutheranism in the second half of the 16th century as the most powerful Protestant force in Europe.
15Diet of Augsburg to Peace of Augsburg In 1530, HRE Charles V tried to get Catholics and Protestants to end hostilities and bring HRE together.It ended by ordering all Lutherans to convert to Catholicism. (Obvi this didn’t happen)Lutherans formed the Schmalkaldic League to help defend each other.They supported the Augsburg Confession, a moderate statement of Protestant beliefs written at D of A.1555- The Peace of Augsburg established “Cuius regio, eius religio.” Meaning the ruler of the land established the religion of the territory.
16English ReformationHenry VIII, defended Catholicism against Luther, was given title “Defender of the Faith” by Pope Leo X.Henry VIII, wanted a divorce from Catherine of Aragon, when Pope denied it, Act of Supremacy made Henry head of Church of England, free to divorce and marry at will. He had 6 wives total.Anglican Church = Church of England.
18Counter-ReformationIgnatius of Loyola ( ) preached discipline and religious study. He wanted Catholics to deny themselves luxuries and vices, and to submit to Church authorities.Followers are Jesuits.Council of Trent was Catholic meeting to reform Church. It didn’t make any concessions theologically to Protestants. It reinforced rules that had gone unenforced, like clerical celibacy, veneration of saints, educated priests.
19Family life: Changes(?) MarriageChurch approved age M-14, W-12.people waited until later in life to marry.Birth ControlChurch said sex was for making babies.People have tried to avoid pregnancy in different ways since antiquity.Wet NursingAnother woman would breast feed infants.Usually upper class, Church and physicians thought this was a bad idea.
20Miguel De Cervantes Spanish (1547-1616) Don Quixote is the story of a dim witted middle aged man who thinks he is a knight and needs to do heroic deeds to prove it. He fights a windmill thinking it is a dragon.His squire is Sancho Panza, a clever, worldy peasant.DQ represents old fashioned religious idealism.SP represents down to earth realism.MC thinks both have their place and are necessary to a happy life.
21William Shakespeare English (1564-1616) Married to Anne Hathaway! Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, SonnetsHis works were immensely popular during his lifetime in England and still are.