Presentation on theme: "January 17, 2013 Pick up graded papers from round table You will be taking APQ 19 have KP ready HOMEWORK: Please Print and bring: A Dutch Massacre of the."— Presentation transcript:
January 17, 2013 Pick up graded papers from round table You will be taking APQ 19 have KP ready HOMEWORK: Please Print and bring: A Dutch Massacre of the Algonquin & The Devastation of the Indies
January 11, 2013 QED 17 HOMEWORK: Print and read the documents China has an Ancient Mariner and Letter of Christopher Columbus to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. While reading the articles annotate by highlighting or notating with a P, N, or I those items that are Positive, Negative and Interesting. Bring these pages to class for follow-up analysis and discussion – there will also be a comparative quiz over the articles. China has an Ancient MarinerLetter of Christopher Columbus
When last we met… Humanism Urbanization Church Problems Papal schism Protestant Reformation Questioning Authority Luther & Calvin Scientific Revolution Emergence of Nation-States Henry VIII Louis XIV Ferdinand & Isabella
THE NATION STATE
Why Europe? Age of Exploration
I. Why not China? Sailing the Indian Ocean and China sea since 1 st century BCE Had armed junks with multiple masts and sails since the 2 nd century CE Junks had watertight compartments since 2 nd century CE Chinese ships had axial rudder since 1 st century CE
China invented the magnetic compass in the 12 th century CE Chinese were more advanced with astronomy and celestial navigation
Voyages of Zheng He Sailed several naval expeditions to India, Persia, and Africa. Hundreds of ships and thousands of sailors. Some Ships were over 440 ft long and carried 1,000 men
In contrast, Columbus fleet only had three ships, the largest only 115 ft. long and carried 40 men. Voyages of Zheng He ( CE)
1433-Chinese government launched no further expeditions Emperor forbid building ships for overseas voyages. While Spain and Portugal explored and claimed new lands, China withdrew from sea voyage. Voyages of Zheng He
Why China did not explore the world 1. The Chinese government had an inadequate system of collecting taxes. Spending exceeded revenue. 2. Chinese believed that their civilization was superior to all others, so foreign goods were inferior, and there was little to learn from foreigners.
3. Neo-Confucian scholars held many important government posts. Their philosophy suppressed the desire for worldly things. So trade was held in contempt. 4. Mid-1400s, Mongols began frequently attacking Chinas northern border. Why China did not explore the world
II. Why Not Arabs? Arabs dominated Mediterranean and Indian Ocean since 9 th century ce Arab dhow
Why Not Arabs? Arab ships werent as big as the Chinese, but they dominated spice islands of Malaysia, gold-rich Africa, and cotton/silk-producing Asia!
Indian Ocean Trade Arab merchants were ordained by the Prophet. I commend the merchants to you, for they are the courtiers of the horizons and Gods trusted servants on earth. ~Mohammed
Why Not Arabs? Arabs had developed sophisticated methods of determining latitude
Astrolabe & Quadrant When a sailor loses sight of land, he must have a method of determining his direction. Astrolabe - determining latitude - a simple wooden or brass stick with degrees marked around its edge Quadrant - A quarter circle measuring 0 to 90 degrees marked around its curved edge.
Ibn Battuta (14 th century) Arabs traveled for discovery. Ibn Battuta, an Islamic historian traveled over 75,000 miles, making him one of most traveled men of his age. He visited India, China, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, and the African interior as far south as the Niger River.
Ibn Battuta (14 th century) His achievements are historically significant; however, since he was often a passenger on voyages and the not the primary explorer he is often overlooked in history books.
III. European Incentive The Crusades brought knowledge and goods from Asia and the Islamic world.
European Incentive The Mongol Empire had fostered trade between east and west; but its collapse disrupted this trade.
European Incentive Asian spices improved European food. But spice had to be bought from Arab merchants who Became Wealthy at the expense Of Europe.
Trade disadvantage of Europe 1.Lack of trade items; other than gold and silver, Europe had nothing that the east wanted. This led to a drain of wealth in Europe. (imbalance of trade) 2.Lack of technology; Europe did not have the technology to conquer or bypass the Arab world.
Trade disadvantage of Europe 3. Geography; Europe was isolated from Asia. They were forced to rely on Arab merchants that acted as the middle men in this trade network.
Technological changes of the 15 th century 1.Better ships; Europeans developed deep-draft ships capable of carrying heavy loads on the Atlantic Ocean.
Technological changes of the 15 th century 2. Magnetic compass; Europe adopted the compass from the Arabs who themselves got it from the Chinese.
Tchnological changes of the 15 th century 3.Mapmaking; Mapmaking enhanced by humanism from the Renaissance became more accurate.
European technological changes of the 15 th century 4.Gunpowder; Europe adopted the knowledge of gunpowder from the Chinese. 5.Metalwork; European advancements in metalworking allowed blacksmiths to create the first guns and cannons.
IV. Portuguese Exploration Prince Henry The Navigator. He established a naval observatory for the teaching of navigation, astronomy, and cartography.
Portuguese Exploration Prince Henry sent expeditions down the west coast of Africa to outflank the Muslim hold on Asian trade routes.
Portuguese Exploration 27 years after Henry's death Bartolomu Dias ship rounded the Cape of Good Hope in . Bartolomu Dias
Portuguese Exploration In 1497 Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape and continued sailing along the eastern coast of Africa. He located a route to India, but had to contend with Arab strongholds.
Portuguese Exploration deGama returns with 14 heavily armed ships to defeat the Arab fleet the Portuguese control the Spice routes Portuguese trade extended to China and Japan.
V. Spanish Exploration Portuguese success inspires Columbus to sail west in search of a new route to Southeast Asia (India) Financed by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who wanted to increase Spanish power. Reconquista-Spain had recently defeated the Muslims (Moors) in Spain and needed wealth to maintain control. They were also eager to Christianize the East.
Spanish Exploration Columbus reaches the Caribbean which he believes to be the East Indies
For Gold For God For Glory Spanish Crown
Line of Demarcation 2 catholic countries vying for territory in the new world Pope (Alexander VI) Spain has the right to claim land west of the line Portugal has the right to claim land east of the line
Treaty of Tordesillas
Big Ten Explorers
Sailed for Spain on behalf of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella Sailed west to Indies Landed on the Bahamas Columbus 2 min. video
Magellan Searched for passage to Pacific Ocean Sailed through straits of Magellan Died in Philippines Crew l st to circumnavigate the world
Cabot Sailed for England Landed on coast of New-foundland Gave England claim to North America
Ponce de Leon 1 st to land on the mainland of North America (Florida) Looking for the fountain of youth Established St. Augustine, FL
De Soto Sailed for Spain Explored Mississippi River & Present-day Oklahoma
Coronado Looking for fabled seven cities of gold Explored present-day Arizona and New Mexico
Cortes Spanish Conquistador Conquered Aztec empire under rule of Montezuma II
Balboa Spanish Explorer Claimed Pacific Ocean and all adjoining lands for Spain
Pizzaro Conquered the Inca Empire
Vespucci Amerigo Vespucci Map maker First to call America a new world. America was named after him
Triangular Trade The Pattern of trade in the Atlantic
Columbian Exchange From Europe Small Pox Influenza Measles Slaves Wheat Bananas Grapes Melons Sugar Coconuts Olives Rice Figs Honeybees Cattle Pigs Chickens Rabbits Horses Sheep Goats Rats
Letter from Christopher Columbus to King Ferdinand What is Columbus POV? His motive? Was his voyage successful?
Kirkpatrick Sale The Conquest of Paradise 1.Thinking Historically 2.Read your assigned excerpt. Focus on Sales point of view and analysis of Columbus letter.
? ? ? The absence of evidence is not the same as evidence of absence What did Columbus accomplish? Was his voyage successful? According to? POV: Author? Purpose or intent? What effect does this have on your view of this historic event? Is Columbus a villain or merely ethnocentric?