Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

January 17, 2013 Pick up graded papers from round table

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "January 17, 2013 Pick up graded papers from round table"— Presentation transcript:

1 January 17, 2013 Pick up graded papers from round table
You will be taking APQ 19 have KP ready HOMEWORK: Please Print and bring: “A Dutch Massacre of the Algonquin” & “The Devastation of the Indies”

2 January 11, QED 17 HOMEWORK: Print and read the documents China has an Ancient Mariner and Letter of Christopher Columbus to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.  While reading the articles annotate by highlighting or notating with a “P”, “N”, or “I” those items that are “Positive”, “Negative” and “Interesting”.  Bring these pages to class for follow-up analysis and discussion – there will also be a comparative quiz over the articles. 

3 When last we met… Emergence of Nation-States Humanism Urbanization
Church Problems Papal schism Protestant Reformation Questioning Authority Luther & Calvin Scientific Revolution Emergence of Nation-States Henry VIII Louis XIV Ferdinand & Isabella



6 “Age of Exploration” Why Europe?

7 I. Why not China? Sailing the Indian Ocean and China sea since 1st century BCE Had armed junks with multiple masts and sails since the 2nd century CE Junks had watertight compartments since 2nd century CE Chinese ships had axial rudder since 1st century CE

8 China invented the magnetic compass in the 12th century CE
Chinese were more advanced with astronomy and celestial navigation

9 Voyages of Zheng He Sailed several naval expeditions to India, Persia, and Africa. Hundreds of ships and thousands of sailors. Some Ships were over 440 ft long and carried 1,000 men

10 Voyages of Zheng He (1405-33 CE)
In contrast, Columbus’ fleet only had three ships, the largest only 115 ft. long and carried 40 men.

11 Voyages of Zheng He 1433-Chinese government launched no further expeditions. 1436-Emperor forbid building ships for overseas voyages. While Spain and Portugal explored and claimed new lands, China withdrew from sea voyage.

12 Why China did not explore the world
1. The Chinese government had an inadequate system of collecting taxes. Spending exceeded revenue. 2. Chinese believed that their civilization was superior to all others, so foreign goods were inferior, and there was little to learn from foreigners.

13 Why China did not explore the world
3. Neo-Confucian scholars held many important government posts. Their philosophy suppressed the desire for worldly things. So trade was held in contempt. 4. Mid-1400s, Mongols began frequently attacking China’s northern border.

14 Arabs dominated Mediterranean and Indian Ocean since 9th centuryce
II. Why Not Arabs? Arabs dominated Mediterranean and Indian Ocean since 9th centuryce Arab dhow

15 Why Not Arabs? Arab ships weren’t as big as the Chinese, but they dominated spice islands of Malaysia, gold-rich Africa, and cotton/silk-producing Asia!

16 Indian Ocean Trade Arab merchants were ordained by the Prophet. “I commend the merchants to you, for they are the courtiers of the horizons and God’s trusted servants on earth.” ~Mohammed

17 Why Not Arabs? Arabs had developed sophisticated methods of determining latitude

18 Astrolabe & Quadrant When a sailor loses sight of land, he must have a method of determining his direction. Astrolabe - determining latitude a simple wooden or brass stick with degrees marked around its edge Quadrant - A quarter circle measuring 0 to 90 degrees marked around its curved edge.

19 Ibn Battuta (14th century)
Arabs traveled for discovery. Ibn Battuta, an Islamic historian traveled over 75,000 miles, making him one of most traveled men of his age. He visited India, China, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, and the African interior as far south as the Niger River.

20 Ibn Battuta (14th century)
His achievements are historically significant; however, since he was often a passenger on voyages and the not the primary explorer he is often overlooked in history books.

21 III. European Incentive
The Crusades brought knowledge and goods from Asia and the Islamic world.

22 European Incentive The Mongol Empire had fostered trade
between east and west; but it’s collapse disrupted this trade.

23 European Incentive Asian spices improved European food.
But spice had to be bought from Arab merchants who Became Wealthy at the expense Of Europe.

24 Trade disadvantage of Europe
Lack of trade items; other than gold and silver, Europe had nothing that the east wanted. This led to a drain of wealth in Europe. (imbalance of trade) Lack of technology; Europe did not have the technology to conquer or bypass the Arab world.

25 Trade disadvantage of Europe
3. Geography; Europe was isolated from Asia. They were forced to rely on Arab merchants that acted as the middle men in this trade network.

26 Technological changes of the 15th century
Better ships; Europeans developed deep-draft ships capable of carrying heavy loads on the Atlantic Ocean.

27 Technological changes of the 15th century
2. Magnetic compass; Europe adopted the compass from the Arabs who themselves got it from the Chinese.

28 Tchnological changes of the 15th century
Mapmaking; Mapmaking enhanced by humanism from the Renaissance became more accurate.

29 European technological changes of the 15th century
Gunpowder; Europe adopted the knowledge of gunpowder from the Chinese. Metalwork; European advancements in metalworking allowed blacksmiths to create the first guns and cannons.

30 IV. Portuguese Exploration
Prince Henry “The Navigator.” He established a naval observatory for the teaching of navigation, astronomy, and cartography.

31 Portuguese Exploration
Prince Henry sent expeditions down the west coast of Africa to outflank the Muslim hold on Asian trade routes. Why Portugal: land is lined by Atlantic Ocean and Spain. Spain, Genoese, Venetians monopolize trade; Portugal has no access to the Mediterranean; forced to go South.

32 Portuguese Exploration
27 years after Henry's death Bartolomu Dias’ ship rounded the Cape of Good Hope in [1487].

33 Portuguese Exploration
In 1497 Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape and continued sailing along the eastern coast of Africa. He located a route to India, but had to contend with Arab strongholds.

34 Portuguese Exploration
1502- deGama returns with 14 heavily armed ships to defeat the Arab fleet. 1511- the Portuguese control the Spice routes. 1513- Portuguese trade extended to China and Japan.

35 V. Spanish Exploration Portuguese success inspires Columbus to sail west in search of a new route to Southeast Asia (India) Financed by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who wanted to increase Spanish power. Reconquista”-Spain had recently defeated the Muslims (Moors) in Spain and needed wealth to maintain control. They were also eager to Christianize the East. 69 days across the Atlantic, lands in the Bahamas, later finds Hispanola  swears to his dying day that this is part of the east Indies; there is NO New Continent. 1502 Amerigo Vespuci (sailing for the Portuguese) hits land on what is now Brazil proving there is a new continent; first to assert that it is a new land.

36 Spanish Exploration Columbus reaches the Caribbean which he believes to be the East Indies

37 For Gold For God For Glory Spanish Crown

38 Line of Demarcation 2 catholic countries vying for territory in the new world. 1494 Pope (Alexander VI) Spain has the right to claim land west of the line Portugal has the right to claim land east of the line Alexander IV – 1493, divides Atlantic Ocean in half.

39 Treaty of Tordesillas

40 Big Ten Explorers

41 Columbus Sailed for Spain on behalf of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella Sailed west to Indies Landed on the Bahamas 2 min. video

42 Magellan Searched for passage to Pacific Ocean
Sailed through “straits of Magellan” Died in Philippines Crew lst to circumnavigate the world

43 Cabot Sailed for England Landed on coast of New-foundland
Gave England claim to North America

44 Ponce de Leon 1st to land on the mainland of North America (Florida)
Looking for the “fountain of youth” Established St. Augustine, FL

45 De Soto Sailed for Spain
Explored Mississippi River & Present-day Oklahoma

46 Coronado Looking for fabled seven cities of gold
Explored present-day Arizona and New Mexico

47 Cortes Spanish Conquistador
Conquered Aztec empire under rule of Montezuma II

48 Balboa Spanish Explorer
Claimed Pacific Ocean and all adjoining lands for Spain

49 Pizzaro Conquered the Inca Empire

50 Vespucci Amerigo Vespucci Map maker
First to call America a “new world”. America was named after him


52 Triangular Trade The Pattern of trade in the Atlantic

53 The Columbian Exchange What was traded

54 Columbian Exchange From America Corn/maize Potatoes Squash Beans
Chocolate Buffalo Beaver Parrots Pineapples Squash Tomatoes Peanuts Chilis Chocolate Avocados Tobacco Syphillis

55 Columbian Exchange From Europe Wheat Bananas Grapes Melons Sugar
Coconuts Olives Rice Figs Honeybees Cattle Pigs Chickens Rabbits Horses Sheep Goats Rats Small Pox Influenza Measles Slaves


57 “Letter from Christopher Columbus to King Ferdinand”
What is Columbus’ POV? His motive? Was his voyage successful?

58 Kirkpatrick Sale “The Conquest of Paradise”
“Thinking Historically” Read your assigned excerpt. Focus on Sales point of view and analysis of Columbus’ letter.

59 ? ? ? “The absence of evidence is not the same as evidence of absence”
What did Columbus accomplish? Was his voyage successful? According to? POV: Author? Purpose or intent? What effect does this have on your view of this historic event? Is Columbus a villain or merely ethnocentric?

60 The End! 1494 – New line draw to make land divide “more fair”

Download ppt "January 17, 2013 Pick up graded papers from round table"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google