Presentation on theme: "Feed-up, Feedback, and Feed-Forward"— Presentation transcript:
1 Feed-up, Feedback, and Feed-Forward Nancy Frey, PhDSDSU/HSHMCPPT available atClick “Resources”Feed Up Back Forward Champaign
2 A Model for Success for All Students TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do ittogether”Collaborative“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYA Model for Success for All StudentsFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
3 The sudden release of responsibility TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”Focus Lesson“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
4 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY DIY SchoolTEACHER RESPONSIBILITY(none)“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradualrelease of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
6 A Model for Success for All Students TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”Formative Assessment“You do ittogether”Collaborative“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYA Model for Success for All StudentsFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
7 HOW LEARN Shifts in Thinking What am I going to teach? What are the students going to do?am I going to teach?What are the students going to?LEARN
8 What shifts have you witnessed in the profession regarding instruction and assessment? How have these shifts impacted your own practice?
9 Today’s Purposes Consider a formative assessment system that feeds information up, back, and forwardLink formative assessment to quality instruction and standards-based gradingExamine leadership qualities necessary for this effortDiscuss these concepts with professional colleagues
10 Comparing Formative and Summative Assessments Checking for understanding is a formative assessment.
11 Why? assessment practices “…formativeassessment practicesgreatly increased the achievement of low-performing students, in some cases to the point of approaching that of high-achieving students.”Chappuis, 2009
12 How?Formative assessments create a learning path for students to reach summative assessments, and increase achievement in standards-based grading systems.
13 Formative Assessment : Where is your school? We understand it and we believe in it.We’re working on it.We’re getting better at it.We’re ready to teach someone else.What is it?
14 Build their sense of competence. Want to motivate students?Build their sense of competence.
15 Feed up: establishing purpose Check for understanding: daily monitoringFeedback: providing information about success and needsFeed forward: using performance for “next steps” instruction and feeding this into an instructional modelFisher & Frey, 2009, Hattie & Timperley, 2007
16 Establishing Purpose: Feed UpEstablishing Purpose:Why are wedoing this anyway?
17 A clear learningtargetestablishescriteria forsuccess
19 Student Accountability is Established Through Daily Purpose
20 What is the Student Accountability? EnglishC: Describe how a character changes in a story.L: Cite text evidence in your literature circle of the character’s change from the beginning of the story to this point.
21 What is the Student Accountability? MathematicsC: Determine reasonableness of a solution to a mathematical problem.L: Use mathematical terms to explain why your answer is reasonable.
22 What is the Student Accountability? BiologyC: Identify the phases in animal cell meiosis I and II.L: Describe the similarities and differences between the two through illustration and words.
23 What is the Student Accountability? HistoryC: Identify one contributing cause of the Revolutionary War.L: Explain the cause to a peer and then summarize the cause in writing.
25 Targets defined through competencies and standards-based grading “The trend of personalized learning has caught on nationwide, but the entire state of Oregon has been using a similar method—proficiency-based instruction—since 2002 when it gave districts the option to award credit for proficiency. To earn credit, students demonstrate what they know based on clear learning targets defined by state standards. Students have intervention time built into their school day to work on concepts in which they aren’t yet proficient. Once they master a concept, they move on.”
26 In one district, “17 percent more high school students met or exceeded standards on the math portion of the Oregon Assessment of Knowledge and Skills in than in , and 11 percent more met or exceeded standards on the reading and literature portion.”District Administrator, May 2012,
27 Standards-based grading and competencies at HSHMC
28 Student Participants 8.5% Students with disabilities 4% with 504 plans th graders62% free/reduced lunch15% from military families44% Latino/Hispanic22% Black16% Asian18% White70% EL students8.5% Students with disabilities4% with 504 plans
30 Standards-based grades derived only from competencies, not attendance, in-class assignments, or homework.Students must pass all competencies with 70% or better.< 70% = Incomplete; student has two weeks to clear it, before mandatory Academic Recovery.RtI2 initiative, honors contracts now tied to this system.
31 Competencies for English 9/10 Semester 1 Content MeasuredAssessment FormatPlagiarism, Citation, ReferencingExam (multiple choice/short answer)Summaries; literary response & analysis (9)Literacy lettersVocabulary development (9)Exam (multiple choice)Research Paper on Essential Question 1Paper & Creative ComponentAnalyzing media, persuasive techniquesLiteracy LettersPersuasive Paper on Essential Question 2
32 Competencies for English 9/10 Semester 2 Content MeasuredAssessment FormatAnalyzing oral communication & speechesExam (multiple choice/short answer)Summaries; literary response & analysis (9)Literacy lettersVocabulary development (9)Exam (multiple choice)Expository paper on EQ 3Paper & Creative ComponentAnalysis of poetryDelivering oral communicationRetelling & dramatic monologueLiteracy LettersAutobiographical Paper on EQ 4
36 Outcomes: SchoolwideHSHMC outperformed state-identified similar schools by 11%.Student achievement increased 4% on state achievement measures.Independent auditor noted that,“HSHMC outperforms all [local] schools in the percentage of students at or above proficiency in ELA and math.” (Audit report, June 2009)
37 Outcomes: Grade Point Averages GPAs increased from 2.89 to 3.36, (t=12.58, df=742, p<.001).The largest gains in GPA came from students living in poverty and students with disabilities.For students living in poverty, average GPA increased from 2.26 to 3.12 (t=16.84, df=414, p<.001).For students with disabilities, average GPA increasedfrom 1.30 to 3.02 (t=7.26, df=61, p<.0001).
38 Outcomes: AttendanceBy the end of the two-year data collection period, attendance had increased from 90.4% to 95.6%.
39 What effects have you seen on student motivation and learning with standards-based grading? What ideas resonate with you?
45 Original price of a microphone: $129. 99. The tax is 7% Original price of a microphone: $ The tax is 7%. What is the total price you have to pay for this?
46 Wendy says…“So, the problem is asking me how much I have to pay for this mic. The information I know is the price and how much tax they make you pay. I think it has to be more than $129, like maybe $150, because the tax is on top of the price. I have to add the tax to the price. But I have to find out how much the tax is. I think you multiply. So I did $ times 7, but that is $909 and that is too much for the microphone. The answer isn’t reasonable. But I don’t know why it didn’t work.”
47 What does Wendy know? What doesn’t she know? What do you do next? “So, the problem is asking me how much I have to pay for this mic. The information I know is the price and how much tax they make you pay. I think it has to be more than $129, like maybe $150, because the tax is on top of the price. I have to add the tax to the price. But I have to find out how much the tax is. I think you multiply. So I did $ times 7, but that is $909 and that is too much for the microphone. The answer isn’t reasonable. But I don’t know why it didn’t work.”What does Wendy know?What doesn’t she know?What do you do next?
49 Progression of Text-Dependent Questions Opinions, arguments,intertextual connectionsInferencesAuthor’s purposeVocab and text structureKey detailsGeneral understandingsWholeAcross textsEntire textSegmentsParagraphSentenceWordPartSource: Frey, N., & Fisher, D. (in press). Common Core State Standards in Literacy (Grades 9-12). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
50 effective questioning techniques Useeffective questioning techniqueswith all typesWait time (I & II)Repeat their answers to solicit more informationRephrase when the student is confusedPrepare key questions in advanceLISTEN
51 In what ways does this teacher check for understanding? Tell participants what they will be listening for and watching for in advance of the video.
52 Checking for Understanding with Clickers Video available at YouTube’s FisherandFrey Channel
53 In what ways does this teacher check for understanding? Give participants time to discuss the video in small groups, then debrief.
56 Generative SentencesWhat are Comon Grammar Errors English Learners Make?Given a word and conditions about the placement of the word, write a sentenceForces attention to grammar and word meaningUse student examples for editing
63 Projects and Performances UsingProjects and PerformancestoCheck for Understanding
64 This was the schoolwide essential question for 9 weeks.
65 In English, students chose a worthy cause and established a Facebook page with information about it. A goal was to get at least 20 people to “Like” it. This provided great feedback to students, especially when asked for more information. Students were able to continue to refine their pages based on what others were commenting on. This assignment was the creative component for the question. Students also wrote a formal essay in response to the question. The next slides are examples from this portion of the assignment.
69 This is an example of a checklist developed for a photoessay assignment in 9th grade English. Students met with the teacher throughout the assignment to discuss their progress. The checklist gave the teacher a quick overview of the status of the student’s progress, as well as feedback about what to do next.
70 The rubric for the assignment gave students further information about the quality indictaors for the assignment.
71 What methods do you find to be especially successful for checking for understanding?
74 “Feedback should cause thinking.” Wiliam, 2011, p. 127
75 Make feedback useful Timely Specific Understandable Actionable “Frog” instead of “frag” on paper
76 Feedback about the task “You’re pointing to the right one.”Most common typeCorrective feedbackNot useful withoutadditional information“You’ll want a transition betweenthese two ideas in your paper.”“Reread Section 3 of the textbecause you have this one wrong.”
77 Feedback about the processing of the task Did you use the FOIL method to solve thatproblem?It seems like aprediction mighthelp here, right?ｷ I see that you’re estimating and that’s working for you.ｷ When I read this, I wondered if you remembered the descriptive words that you brainstormed.
78 Feedback about self-regulation When you put yourhead down, youstopped listeningto yourgroup members.I think you achievedwhat you set out toachieve, right?ｷ Your contributions to the group really seemed to result in everyone understanding.ｷ When you got out a paper and created a graphic organizer, you seemed to get back on track. Did that action help you?
79 of yourself because you Feedback about the self as a personYou have great staminabecause I can seeYou’ve been workingon this for severalminutes.I bet you’re proudof yourself because youused that strategyWe’ve beentalking about, and it’sworking for you.
80 Reflection What do teachers need to know about feedback? How do they act upon it?How do your students receive feedback?What do teachers need to know about feedback?
92 A Protocol for Common Assessments Step 1: Develop pacing guidesStep 2: Agree on instructional materialsStep 3: Administer common assessmentStep 4: Consensus scoring and item analysisStep 5: Revise pacing guides, review assessments, reteach, form intervention groups
93 Item Analysis in Science a) It gets its food from the soil.MisconceptionDoes not understand that nutrients are manufactured internally by the plant.b) It turns water and air into sugar.OversimplificationUnderstands that food is manufactured internally, but does not understand that water and the carbon dioxide (from the air) are used to make sugar and oxygen.c) It has chlorophyll to produce food.OvergeneralizationDoes not understand that some parasitic plants do not contain chlorophyll.d) It adds biomass through photosynthesis.Correct answer
96 How will you link this afternoon’s work with this process? “Taking Formative Assessment School-wide”Everyone: Introduction (p. 64)Divide: Steps 1-4 (pp.64-66)Half read “Genetics Knowledge”Half read “Pursuing Mastery in History”Everyone: Fruits of Precision Teaching (pp )How will you link this afternoon’s work with this process?
97 questioning listening student A Shift in Planning I used to do a lot of explaining I used to do a lot of talking I used to think about teaching the curriculumI do a lot of I think about teaching thebut now…questioningbut now…listeningQuote from teacherbut now…student
98 Quality Teaching through GRR Competencies and Standards-based Grading for Targeted LearningFeed-up, CfU, Feedback, Feed-forward