2Assessing Eating Behaviors: Are You What You Eat? What Drives Us to Eat?Hunger – physiological impulseAppetite – more psychologicalCultural and social meaning attached to foodConvenience and advertisingHabit or customEmotional comfortNutritional valueSocial interactionsRegional/seasonal trends
3Eating for Health Nutrition The science of the relationship between physiological functions and essential elements of foodCalorieUnit of measure that indicates the amount of energy we obtain from a food (cal)Characteristics of a Healthy DietAdequateModerateBalancedVariedNutrient dense
7Obtaining Essential Nutrients Digestive ProcessSequence of functions by which the body breaks down larger food particles into smaller, more usable formsOur bodies cannot synthesize some essential nutrients.Some essential nutrients are obtained from food.
9Obtaining Essential Nutrients Water: A Crucial Nutrient50 to 60 percent of the body is waterToo little water can cause dehydration, an abnormal depletion of body fluids.Too much water can cause hyponatremia, a decreased concentration of sodium in the bloodWater is necessary for:Electrolyte and pH balanceMajor component of our blood, which carries oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, removes metabolic wasteRecommended amount is 8 glasses/day (64 ounces)Is bottled water better?
10Bottled Water Boom: Who Pays the Price? Environmental ConsequencesFactories use about 18 million barrels of oil and 130 billion gallons of fresh water to make bottled water.Systems such as reverse osmosis purifiers use about 2 liters of fresh water running through a system.About 900,000 tons of plastic is needed to package bottles.Negative health risks are found in plastic bottles in bisphenol A (BPA), a component in some plastics.Bottled water is considered a “food” and requires much less frequent monitoring by the FDA for safety than tap water.In California alone, more than 1 billion water bottles are thrown into the trash.Entire populations are being left vulnerable to water shortages.
11Bottled Water Boom: Who Pays the Price? To Help to Curb the Environmental Threats:Don’t buy bottled water; instead use reusable stainless steel containers.When you have parties, use covered pitchers of ice water.Buy a water filter.Recycle any plastic bottles you use or see.Become involved in initiatives to ensure quality tap water in your community.
12Obtaining Essential Nutrients Proteins (4 cal/g)Second most abundant substance in humans next to waterKey to all cells, antibodies, enzymes, and hormonesTransport oxygen and nutrientsImportant role in developing/repairing bone, muscle, and skinVital for human lifeMay need additional protein if fighting off infection, recovering from surgery or blood loss, or recovering from burns
13Obtaining Essential Nutrients Amino acidsBuilding blocks of protein9 essential amino acids must be obtained from food.11 nonessential amino acids are produced by the body.Link together to formComplete protein—supplies all essential amino acidsIncomplete protein—may lack some amino acids, but these can be easily obtained from different sources.Few Americans suffer from protein deficiencies.0.8g/kgCan you give examples of complete proteins?
15Obtaining Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates (4cal/g)Are the best fuel source and provide energy quickly and efficientlyBrain workSimple CarbohydratesGlucose (monosaccharide)—most common formFructose (monosaccharide)—fruit sugarSucrose (disaccharide)—granulated table sugarLactose (disaccharide)—milk sugarMaltose (disaccharide)—malt sugarRead labels! (corn syrup)
16Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) Starches—grains, cereals, and vegetables (flour, bread, pasta, rice, corn, oats, barley, potatoes)Stored in muscles and the liver as glycogenFiber— indigestible aid; helps move foods through the digestive system, soften stools- dietary fiber (from plants), functional fiber (manufactured)
17Obtaining Essential Nutrients FiberInsolubleFound in bran, whole-grain breads, and most fruits and vegetablesFound to reduce risk of several forms of cancerSolubleFound in oat bran, dried beans, and some fruits and vegetablesHelps lower blood cholesterol levelsHelps reduce risk of cardiovascular disease
18Obtaining Essential Nutrients Benefits of fiber include protection againstColon and rectal cancerBreast cancerConstipationDiverticulosis - bulges on intestinal wallHeart diseaseDiabetes 2ObesityRecommended amount is 20 to 35 grams/day
19Obtaining Essential Nutrients Glycemic Index (GI)The Glycemic Index is a system for rating the potential of foods to raise blood glucose levels.Foods that break down quickly and result in fast blood glucose surge have a high GI index rating.Combining carbohydrates with fats and proteins can lower the overall GI.Glycemic load refers to the amount of carbohydrates in the food you eat multiplied by the glycemic index of that food.
20Obtaining Essential Nutrients Fats (9cal/g)Also called lipidsMisunderstood but a vital group of basic nutrientsMaintain healthy skinInsulate body organsMaintain body temperaturePromote healthy cell functionCarry fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and KAre a concentrated form of energy
21Obtaining Essential Nutrients Triglycerides make up 95 percent of total body fatCholesterol makes up 5 percent of total body fatCan accumulate on inner walls of arteries and contribute to cardiovascular diseaseRatio of cholesterol HDL/LDL helps determine risk for heart diseaseTypes of Dietary FatSaturated are mainly from animal sources and are solid at room temperature.Unsaturated generally come from plants and are usually liquid at room temperature.
22Percentages of Saturated, Monounsaturated, Polyunsaturated, and Trans Fats in Common Vegetable Oils
23Obtaining Essential Nutrients Avoiding Trans Fatty AcidCreated by process of making liquid oil into a solidIncrease LDL levels while lowering HDL levelsEating trans fat increases risk of coronary and heart disease and sudden cardiac deathFound in many margarines, baked goods, and restaurant deep-fried foodsRead labels for partially hydrogenated oils, fractionated oils, shortening, lard or hydrogenationDon’t eliminate fat
24Obtaining Essential Nutrients New Fat Advice: Is More Fat Ever Better?According to the American Heart Association, eating fewer than 15 percent of our calories as fat can actually increase blood triglycerides.Eat fatty fish.Use healthier oils (including olive oil).Eat green, leafy vegetables.Eat walnuts and use walnut oil.Eat ground flaxseed.
25Obtaining Essential Nutrients Use Moderation with Fat IntakeRead food labels.Use olive oil for cooking.Avoid margarine with trans fatty acids.Choose lean meat, fish, and poultry.Eat fewer cold cuts and less bacon, sausages, hot dogs, and organ meats.Choose nonfat dairy products.Use substitutes for higher-fat products.Think of your food intake as an average, over a day or two—if you have a heavy breakfast, eat a light dinner.
26Toward Sustainable Seafood More than 70 percent of the world’s natural fishing grounds have been overfished.High levels of chemicals, parasites, bacteria, and toxins are now found in seafood.Mercury, a waste product of many industries, binds to proteins and stays in an animal’s body.Mercury can cause damage to the nervous system and kidneys, and cause birth defects.Farmed fish pose additional health risks and environmental concerns.Know where and how your fish is caught.See p. 265
27Obtaining Essential Nutrients VitaminsPotent, essential, organic compoundsPromote growth and help maintain life and healthTwo typesFat soluble—absorbed through intestinal tract with the help of fats. A, D, E, and K vitamins are fat soluble.Water soluble—dissolve in water. B-complex vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble.Few Americans suffer from vitamin deficiencies.Overusing them can lead to a toxic condition known as hypervitaminosis.
28Obtaining Essential Nutrients AntioxidantsMost common are vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-caroteneFree radicals damage or kill healthy cells.Antioxidants scavenge free radicals, slow their formation, and repair oxidative stress damage.CarotenoidsLycopene (in tomatoes, papaya, pink grapefruit, and guava) reduces the risk of cancer.Lutein (in green leafy vegetables, spinach, broccoli, kale, and brussels sprouts) protects the eyes.Red, orange and yellow pigments in fruit and veggies
29Obtaining Essential Nutrients FolateA form of vitamin B that is needed for DNA production in body cellsDeficiency can result in spina bifidaDangers of taking too much folate include nerve damage, immunodeficiency problems, anemia, fatigue, headache, constipation, diarrhea, and weight loss.
33Obtaining Essential Nutrients MineralsInorganic, indestructible elements that aid the bodyVitamins cannot be absorbed without mineralsMacrominerals are needed in large amounts.Sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and chlorideTrace minerals are needed in small amountsIron, zinc, manganese, copper, and iodineExcesses or deficiencies of trace minerals can cause serious problems.
34Obtaining Essential Nutrients SodiumNecessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions.Recommended consumption less than 1 teaspoon of table salt per day, less than 2000 mgPickles, snack foods, processed cheeses, canned soups, frozen dinners, breads, smoked meats, and sausages contain large amounts.
35Obtaining Essential Nutrients CalciumPlays a vital role in building strong bones and teeth, muscle contraction, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, regulating heartbeat, and fluid balance within cellRecommended amount 1,000 to 1,200 mg/dayMilk, calcium-fortified orange juice, soy milk, broccoli, cauliflower, peas, beans, nuts, and molasses are good sources.
36Obtaining Essential Nutrients IronThe most common nutrient deficiency globallyWomen aged 19 to 50 need about 18 mg per day, and men aged 19 to 50 need about 10 mg.Iron-deficiency anemia—body cells receive less oxygen, and carbon dioxide wastes are removed less efficientlyIron toxicity—ingesting too many iron containing supplementsNausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rapid heartbeat, weak pulse, dizziness, shock, confusion, men who consume excess iron have a higher risk of gallstones.
42Determining Your Nutritional Needs Supplements: Research on the Daily DoseDietary SupplementsProducts taken by mouth to supplement existing dietsIncludes vitamins, minerals, and herbsFDA does not evaluate supplements prior to their marketing; companies are responsible for their own monitoringA multivitamin added to a balanced diet will generally do more good than harm.Probiotics—live microorganisms found in fermented foods that optimize the bacterial environment in our intestines
43Determining Your Nutritional Needs The MyPyramid Food GuideReplaced the Food Guide Pyramid to account for varied nutritional needs throughout the U.S. populationEmphasizesPersonalizationGradual improvementPhysical activityVarietyModerationProportionality
47Gender & Health Men and Women Have Different Needs Women have cyclical changes.During pregnancy and lactation, women’s nutritional requirements increase substantially.During the menstrual cycle, many women report significant food cravings.Men have more lean tissue (burn more calories).Men also tend to consume more red meat and less fruits and vegetables than women do.
48Vegetarianism Reasons for Pursuing a Vegetarian Lifestyle Animal welfareImproving healthEnvironmental concernsNatural approaches to wellnessFood safetyWeight lossWeight maintenance
49Vegetarianism Types of Vegetarian Diets Vegan Lacto-vegetarian Ovo-vegetarianLacto-ovo-vegetarianPesco-vegetarianSemivegetarianThe MyPyramid Plan is adaptable for a vegetarian diet
50Vegetarianism Benefits to a Balanced Vegetarian Diet May weigh less. Have better cholesterol levelsHave fewer problems with constipation and diarrheaHave lower risk of heart diseaseHave reduced risk of some cancers, particularly colon cancerHave reduced risk of kidney disease
51Nutritional Needs for People with Different Energy Requirements
52Improved Eating for the College Student When Time and Money Are ShortAsk for nutritional analyses of items.Order salads, but be careful about what you add to them.Avoid lard-based or other saturated-fat products and trans fats.Avoid giant sized portions, and refrain from ordering extrasLimit beverages and foods high in added sugars.At least once per week, add a vegetable-based meat substitute into your fast-food choices.
53Food Safety: A Growing Concern Foodborne IllnessesFoodborne pathogens sicken over 76 million people and cause 400,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths per year.SignsCrampingNauseaVomitingDiarrheaMost of the time, symptoms occur 5 to 8 hours after eating.
55Food Safety: A Growing Concern Contributing Factors to the Increase in Foodborne IllnessesGlobalization of food supplyIntroduction of pathogens to new geographic regionsExposure to unfamiliar foodborne hazardsChanges in microbial populationsIncreased susceptibility of varying populationsInsufficient education about food safety
56Food Safety: A Growing Concern Avoiding Risks in the HomeKeep hot foods hot and cold foods cold.Freeze or eat fish, poultry, or meats within 1 or 2 days.Eat leftovers within 3 days.Wash hands, cutting boards, counters, and knives.Use a meat thermometer.Never thaw foods at room temperature.
57Food Safety: A Growing Concern Food Irradiation: How Safe Is It?Approved by USDA in February 2000Use gamma irradiation from radioactive cobalt, cesium, or other X-ray sourcesBreaks chemical bonds in the DNA of bacteriaRays essentially pass through the foodLengthens shelf life and prevents spread of microorganismsReduces need for toxic chemicals currently usedMarked with the radura logoU.S. FDA label
58Food Safety: A Growing Concern Food AdditivesSubstances added to food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness, that prevent spoilage, enhance nutrient value, and enhance the look and taste of foodsExamples of common additives includeAntimicrobial agentsAntioxidantsArtificial color, nutrient additives, and flavor enhancers such as MSGSulfites
59Food Safety: A Growing Concern Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?Food AllergiesAbnormal response to a food triggered by the immune systemSymptoms include rapid breathing or wheezing, hives, rash, eczema, runny nose, facial swelling, or respiratory problems (anaphylactic reaction)In 2004, Congress passed the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA), which requires food manufacturers to clearly label foods containing ingredients that are common allergens.
60Food Safety: A Growing Concern Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?Food IntolerancesLess dramatic reaction than food allergiesNot the result of immune system responseGenerally shows as gastric upsetLactose intolerance is common and also happens in response to food additives (MSG, sulfites, gluten)May have psychological triggers
61Food Safety: A Growing Concern Is Organic for You?Food developed, grown, or raised without use of synthetic pesticides, chemicals, or hormonesAs of 2010, organic food sales estimated to be about $23.8 billionFoods need to meet criteria set by USDA to be certified organicLocavores—people who eat only food grown or produced locallyUSDA label for certified organic foods