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Nutrition and You.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition and You."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition and You

2 Assessing Eating Behaviors: Are You What You Eat?
What Drives Us to Eat? Hunger – physiological impulse Appetite – more psychological Cultural and social meaning attached to food Convenience and advertising Habit or custom Emotional comfort Nutritional value Social interactions Regional/seasonal trends

3 Eating for Health Nutrition
The science of the relationship between physiological functions and essential elements of food Calorie Unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy we obtain from a food (cal) Characteristics of a Healthy Diet Adequate Moderate Balanced Varied Nutrient dense

4 Estimated Daily Caloric Needs

5 Trends in Per Capita Nutrient Consumption


7 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Digestive Process Sequence of functions by which the body breaks down larger food particles into smaller, more usable forms Our bodies cannot synthesize some essential nutrients. Some essential nutrients are obtained from food.

8 The Digestive Process

9 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Water: A Crucial Nutrient 50 to 60 percent of the body is water Too little water can cause dehydration, an abnormal depletion of body fluids. Too much water can cause hyponatremia, a decreased concentration of sodium in the blood Water is necessary for: Electrolyte and pH balance Major component of our blood, which carries oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, removes metabolic waste Recommended amount is 8 glasses/day (64 ounces) Is bottled water better?

10 Bottled Water Boom: Who Pays the Price?
Environmental Consequences Factories use about 18 million barrels of oil and 130 billion gallons of fresh water to make bottled water. Systems such as reverse osmosis purifiers use about 2 liters of fresh water running through a system. About 900,000 tons of plastic is needed to package bottles. Negative health risks are found in plastic bottles in bisphenol A (BPA), a component in some plastics. Bottled water is considered a “food” and requires much less frequent monitoring by the FDA for safety than tap water. In California alone, more than 1 billion water bottles are thrown into the trash. Entire populations are being left vulnerable to water shortages.

11 Bottled Water Boom: Who Pays the Price?
To Help to Curb the Environmental Threats: Don’t buy bottled water; instead use reusable stainless steel containers. When you have parties, use covered pitchers of ice water. Buy a water filter. Recycle any plastic bottles you use or see. Become involved in initiatives to ensure quality tap water in your community.

12 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Proteins (4 cal/g) Second most abundant substance in humans next to water Key to all cells, antibodies, enzymes, and hormones Transport oxygen and nutrients Important role in developing/repairing bone, muscle, and skin Vital for human life May need additional protein if fighting off infection, recovering from surgery or blood loss, or recovering from burns

13 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Amino acids Building blocks of protein 9 essential amino acids must be obtained from food. 11 nonessential amino acids are produced by the body. Link together to form Complete protein—supplies all essential amino acids Incomplete protein—may lack some amino acids, but these can be easily obtained from different sources. Few Americans suffer from protein deficiencies. 0.8g/kg Can you give examples of complete proteins?

14 Complementary Proteins

15 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Carbohydrates (4cal/g) Are the best fuel source and provide energy quickly and efficiently Brain work Simple Carbohydrates Glucose (monosaccharide)—most common form Fructose (monosaccharide)—fruit sugar Sucrose (disaccharide)—granulated table sugar Lactose (disaccharide)—milk sugar Maltose (disaccharide)—malt sugar Read labels! (corn syrup)

16 Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates (polysaccharides)
Starches—grains, cereals, and vegetables (flour, bread, pasta, rice, corn, oats, barley, potatoes) Stored in muscles and the liver as glycogen Fiber— indigestible aid; helps move foods through the digestive system, soften stools - dietary fiber (from plants), functional fiber (manufactured)

17 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Fiber Insoluble Found in bran, whole-grain breads, and most fruits and vegetables Found to reduce risk of several forms of cancer Soluble Found in oat bran, dried beans, and some fruits and vegetables Helps lower blood cholesterol levels Helps reduce risk of cardiovascular disease

18 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Benefits of fiber include protection against Colon and rectal cancer Breast cancer Constipation Diverticulosis - bulges on intestinal wall Heart disease Diabetes 2 Obesity Recommended amount is 20 to 35 grams/day

19 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Glycemic Index (GI) The Glycemic Index is a system for rating the potential of foods to raise blood glucose levels. Foods that break down quickly and result in fast blood glucose surge have a high GI index rating. Combining carbohydrates with fats and proteins can lower the overall GI. Glycemic load refers to the amount of carbohydrates in the food you eat multiplied by the glycemic index of that food.

20 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Fats (9cal/g) Also called lipids Misunderstood but a vital group of basic nutrients Maintain healthy skin Insulate body organs Maintain body temperature Promote healthy cell function Carry fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K Are a concentrated form of energy

21 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Triglycerides make up 95 percent of total body fat Cholesterol makes up 5 percent of total body fat Can accumulate on inner walls of arteries and contribute to cardiovascular disease Ratio of cholesterol HDL/LDL helps determine risk for heart disease Types of Dietary Fat Saturated are mainly from animal sources and are solid at room temperature. Unsaturated generally come from plants and are usually liquid at room temperature.

22 Percentages of Saturated, Monounsaturated, Polyunsaturated, and Trans Fats in Common Vegetable Oils

23 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Avoiding Trans Fatty Acid Created by process of making liquid oil into a solid Increase LDL levels while lowering HDL levels Eating trans fat increases risk of coronary and heart disease and sudden cardiac death Found in many margarines, baked goods, and restaurant deep-fried foods Read labels for partially hydrogenated oils, fractionated oils, shortening, lard or hydrogenation Don’t eliminate fat

24 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
New Fat Advice: Is More Fat Ever Better? According to the American Heart Association, eating fewer than 15 percent of our calories as fat can actually increase blood triglycerides. Eat fatty fish. Use healthier oils (including olive oil). Eat green, leafy vegetables. Eat walnuts and use walnut oil. Eat ground flaxseed.

25 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Use Moderation with Fat Intake Read food labels. Use olive oil for cooking. Avoid margarine with trans fatty acids. Choose lean meat, fish, and poultry. Eat fewer cold cuts and less bacon, sausages, hot dogs, and organ meats. Choose nonfat dairy products. Use substitutes for higher-fat products. Think of your food intake as an average, over a day or two—if you have a heavy breakfast, eat a light dinner.

26 Toward Sustainable Seafood
More than 70 percent of the world’s natural fishing grounds have been overfished. High levels of chemicals, parasites, bacteria, and toxins are now found in seafood. Mercury, a waste product of many industries, binds to proteins and stays in an animal’s body. Mercury can cause damage to the nervous system and kidneys, and cause birth defects. Farmed fish pose additional health risks and environmental concerns. Know where and how your fish is caught. See p. 265

27 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Vitamins Potent, essential, organic compounds Promote growth and help maintain life and health Two types Fat soluble—absorbed through intestinal tract with the help of fats. A, D, E, and K vitamins are fat soluble. Water soluble—dissolve in water. B-complex vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. Few Americans suffer from vitamin deficiencies. Overusing them can lead to a toxic condition known as hypervitaminosis.

28 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Antioxidants Most common are vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene Free radicals damage or kill healthy cells. Antioxidants scavenge free radicals, slow their formation, and repair oxidative stress damage. Carotenoids Lycopene (in tomatoes, papaya, pink grapefruit, and guava) reduces the risk of cancer. Lutein (in green leafy vegetables, spinach, broccoli, kale, and brussels sprouts) protects the eyes. Red, orange and yellow pigments in fruit and veggies

29 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Folate A form of vitamin B that is needed for DNA production in body cells Deficiency can result in spina bifida Dangers of taking too much folate include nerve damage, immunodeficiency problems, anemia, fatigue, headache, constipation, diarrhea, and weight loss.

30 A Guide to Water-Soluble Vitamins

31 A Guide to Water-Soluble Vitamins

32 A Guide to Fat-Soluble Vitamins

33 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Minerals Inorganic, indestructible elements that aid the body Vitamins cannot be absorbed without minerals Macrominerals are needed in large amounts. Sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, and chloride Trace minerals are needed in small amounts Iron, zinc, manganese, copper, and iodine Excesses or deficiencies of trace minerals can cause serious problems.

34 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Sodium Necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions. Recommended consumption less than 1 teaspoon of table salt per day, less than 2000 mg Pickles, snack foods, processed cheeses, canned soups, frozen dinners, breads, smoked meats, and sausages contain large amounts.

35 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Calcium Plays a vital role in building strong bones and teeth, muscle contraction, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, regulating heartbeat, and fluid balance within cell Recommended amount 1,000 to 1,200 mg/day Milk, calcium-fortified orange juice, soy milk, broccoli, cauliflower, peas, beans, nuts, and molasses are good sources.

36 Obtaining Essential Nutrients
Iron The most common nutrient deficiency globally Women aged 19 to 50 need about 18 mg per day, and men aged 19 to 50 need about 10 mg. Iron-deficiency anemia—body cells receive less oxygen, and carbon dioxide wastes are removed less efficiently Iron toxicity—ingesting too many iron containing supplements Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rapid heartbeat, weak pulse, dizziness, shock, confusion, men who consume excess iron have a higher risk of gallstones.

37 A Guide to Major Minerals

38 A Guide to Major Minerals

39 A Guide to Trace Minerals

40 A Guide to Trace Minerals

41 Reading a Food Label

42 Determining Your Nutritional Needs
Supplements: Research on the Daily Dose Dietary Supplements Products taken by mouth to supplement existing diets Includes vitamins, minerals, and herbs FDA does not evaluate supplements prior to their marketing; companies are responsible for their own monitoring A multivitamin added to a balanced diet will generally do more good than harm. Probiotics—live microorganisms found in fermented foods that optimize the bacterial environment in our intestines

43 Determining Your Nutritional Needs
The MyPyramid Food Guide Replaced the Food Guide Pyramid to account for varied nutritional needs throughout the U.S. population Emphasizes Personalization Gradual improvement Physical activity Variety Moderation Proportionality

44 MyPyramid Plan

45 Determining Your Nutritional Needs
Using the MyPyramid Plan Understanding serving sizes Discretionary calories Physical activity Eating nutrient-dense foods Use “Tracker”

46 Serving Size Card

47 Gender & Health Men and Women Have Different Needs
Women have cyclical changes. During pregnancy and lactation, women’s nutritional requirements increase substantially. During the menstrual cycle, many women report significant food cravings. Men have more lean tissue (burn more calories). Men also tend to consume more red meat and less fruits and vegetables than women do.

48 Vegetarianism Reasons for Pursuing a Vegetarian Lifestyle
Animal welfare Improving health Environmental concerns Natural approaches to wellness Food safety Weight loss Weight maintenance

49 Vegetarianism Types of Vegetarian Diets Vegan Lacto-vegetarian
Ovo-vegetarian Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Pesco-vegetarian Semivegetarian The MyPyramid Plan is adaptable for a vegetarian diet

50 Vegetarianism Benefits to a Balanced Vegetarian Diet May weigh less.
Have better cholesterol levels Have fewer problems with constipation and diarrhea Have lower risk of heart disease Have reduced risk of some cancers, particularly colon cancer Have reduced risk of kidney disease

51 Nutritional Needs for People with Different Energy Requirements

52 Improved Eating for the College Student
When Time and Money Are Short Ask for nutritional analyses of items. Order salads, but be careful about what you add to them. Avoid lard-based or other saturated-fat products and trans fats. Avoid giant sized portions, and refrain from ordering extras Limit beverages and foods high in added sugars. At least once per week, add a vegetable-based meat substitute into your fast-food choices.

53 Food Safety: A Growing Concern
Foodborne Illnesses Foodborne pathogens sicken over 76 million people and cause 400,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths per year. Signs Cramping Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Most of the time, symptoms occur 5 to 8 hours after eating.

54 Budget Nutrition Tips

55 Food Safety: A Growing Concern
Contributing Factors to the Increase in Foodborne Illnesses Globalization of food supply Introduction of pathogens to new geographic regions Exposure to unfamiliar foodborne hazards Changes in microbial populations Increased susceptibility of varying populations Insufficient education about food safety

56 Food Safety: A Growing Concern
Avoiding Risks in the Home Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Freeze or eat fish, poultry, or meats within 1 or 2 days. Eat leftovers within 3 days. Wash hands, cutting boards, counters, and knives. Use a meat thermometer. Never thaw foods at room temperature.

57 Food Safety: A Growing Concern
Food Irradiation: How Safe Is It? Approved by USDA in February 2000 Use gamma irradiation from radioactive cobalt, cesium, or other X-ray sources Breaks chemical bonds in the DNA of bacteria Rays essentially pass through the food Lengthens shelf life and prevents spread of microorganisms Reduces need for toxic chemicals currently used Marked with the radura logo U.S. FDA label

58 Food Safety: A Growing Concern
Food Additives Substances added to food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness, that prevent spoilage, enhance nutrient value, and enhance the look and taste of foods Examples of common additives include Antimicrobial agents Antioxidants Artificial color, nutrient additives, and flavor enhancers such as MSG Sulfites

59 Food Safety: A Growing Concern
Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? Food Allergies Abnormal response to a food triggered by the immune system Symptoms include rapid breathing or wheezing, hives, rash, eczema, runny nose, facial swelling, or respiratory problems (anaphylactic reaction) In 2004, Congress passed the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA), which requires food manufacturers to clearly label foods containing ingredients that are common allergens.

60 Food Safety: A Growing Concern
Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? Food Intolerances Less dramatic reaction than food allergies Not the result of immune system response Generally shows as gastric upset Lactose intolerance is common and also happens in response to food additives (MSG, sulfites, gluten) May have psychological triggers

61 Food Safety: A Growing Concern
Is Organic for You? Food developed, grown, or raised without use of synthetic pesticides, chemicals, or hormones As of 2010, organic food sales estimated to be about $23.8 billion Foods need to meet criteria set by USDA to be certified organic Locavores—people who eat only food grown or produced locally USDA label for certified organic foods

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