Presentation on theme: "Problem Solving – a Math Review"— Presentation transcript:
1Problem Solving – a Math Review Unit 1Significant Figures, Scientific Notation & Dimensional Analysis
2Significant FiguresIn science, we describe a value as having a certain number of significant figures or digits.Includes all the #’s that are certain and 1 uncertain digit (the LAST one).There are rules that dictate which #’s are considered significant!
3Rules for Significant Figures Any non-zero # is considered significantZeroes!Any zeroes between 2 numbers is significantEx has 3 sig. figs.Ex has 7 sig. figs.Ex has 5 sig. figs.Any zeroes before a number are NOT significantEx has 2 sig. figs.Ex has 1 sig. fig.
4Rules for Significant Figures Zeroes! ContinuedAny zeroes after numbers may or may not be significant.If there is a decimal point in the number, then YES, they are significant!Ex has 5 sig. figs.Ex has 4 sig. figs.Ex has 7 sig. figs.If there is no decimal point in the number, then NO, they aren’t significant!Ex. 120 has 2 sig. figs.Ex has 2 sig. figs.
5Adding/ Subtracting and Significant Figures The ruleWhen adding or subtractingLook at the Significant Figures AFTER the decimal point. Which one has the least amount? That’s how many significant figures your answer can have
6Examples= 45.34(1 sig. fig after decimal) = 45.39.80 – = 5.318(2 sig. figs. After decimal) = 5.32
7Multiplying/ Dividing and Significant Figures The ruleWhen multiplying or dividing, check out how many significant figures (all of them) each number has. Which one has the least amount? That’s how many significant figures your answer can have.
9Scientific Notation Do you know this number? 300 000 000 m/s It’s the speed of light.kgIt’s the mass of a dust particle.
10Scientific NotationInstead of counting zeroes and getting confused, we use scientific notation to write really big or small numbers.3.00 × 108 m/s7.53 × kgThe 1st number is the COEFFICIENT- it is always a number between 1 and 10.The 2nd number is the BASE- it is the number 10 raised to a power, the power being the number of decimal places moved.
11Using a calculator with scientific notation A number written in scientific notation is NOT a math problem, it is a number in its own right. We put it into the calculator in a specific way!IF you have a scientific calculator, find the button that says EE or EXP.
13Scientific Calculators The EE or EXP button fills in for the × 10 part of the number written in scientific notation.Let’s say you are adding these two numbers3.21 × × 106 =This is how you would enter it into your calculator3.21 EE EE 6 =And you would get your answer.3.91 × 107
14Scientists generally work in metric units Scientists generally work in metric units. Common prefixes used are the following:
15Dimensional Analysisis a problem-solving method that uses the fact that any number or expression can be multiplied by one without changing its value. It is a useful technique. The only danger is that you may end up thinking that chemistry is simply a math problem - which it definitely is not.
16Dimensional AnalysisUnit factors may be made from any two terms that describe the same or equivalent "amounts" of what we are interested in. For example, we know that1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
17We can make two unit factors from this information: Now, we can solve some problems. Set up each problem by writing down what you need to find with a question mark. Then set it equal to the information that you are given. The problem is solved by multiplying the given data and its units by the appropriate unit factors so that only the desired units are present at the end.
18(1) How many centimeters are in 6.00 inches? (2) Express 24.0 cm in inches.
19You can also string many unit factors together. (3) How many seconds are in 2.0 years?
20Density- What is it?Density is the ratio of mass to volume of a substance.It can be used to identify a substance.Ex. Water has a density of 1.00 g/mLEx. Gold has a density of g/mLEx. Pumice has a density of 0.65 g/mL
21Density & Temperature Density = mass/ volume d = m/V Temperature = measure of the average kinetic energy a substance has3 scalesFahrenheit (°F)Celsius (°C)Kelvin (K)
22Temperature Scale Conversions From °C to °FT°F = 1.8(T°C) + 32°From °F to °CT°C = .56(T°F - 32°)From °C to KT = T + 273From K to °CT°C = TK - 273There are 3 temperature scales:Fahrenheit (°F)Celsius (°C)Kelvin (K)