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1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show. To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lessons presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation Transparencies Image and Math Focus Bank Bellringers Standardized Test Prep CNN Videos Visual Concepts Resources

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Minerals of the Earths Crust Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Section 2 Identifying Minerals Section 3 The Formation, Mining, and Use of Minerals Chapter 3 Table of Contents

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Bellringer Compare the piece of pencil lead and the diamond in the photograph provided by your teacher. Both substances are composed of carbon. How can the same element form two substances with such different properties? Record your response in your Science journal. Chapter 3

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 3 Describe the structure of minerals. Describe the two major groups of minerals. Objectives

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 3 Mineral Structure A mineral is a naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure. You can tell whether an object is a mineral by asking four questions.

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 3 Mineral Structure, continued Is it a nonliving material? Is it a solid? Does it have a crystalline structure? Is it formed in nature?

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 3 Mineral Structure, continued To understand what a crystalline structure is, you need to know a little about the elements that make up a mineral. Elements are pure substances that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 3 Elements Click below to watch the Visual Concept. You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key. Visual Concept

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 3 Mineral Structure, continued Atoms and Compounds Minerals may be either elements or compounds. A compound is a substance made of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds.

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 3 Compounds Click below to watch the Visual Concept. You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key. Visual Concept

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 3 Mineral Structure, continued A mineral that is composed of only one element is called a native element. Gold and silver are examples of native elements.

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 3 Mineral Structure, continued Solid, geometric forms of minerals produced by a repeating pattern of atoms that is present through- out the mineral are called crystals. A crystals shape is determined by the arrangement of the atoms within the crystal. The arrangement of atoms in turn is determined by the kinds of atoms that make up the mineral.

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 3 Two Groups of Minerals Minerals are divided into two groups based on their chemical composition. Silicate minerals are minerals that contain a combination of silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Examples of silicate minerals are quartz, feldspar, and mica.

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 What Is a Mineral? Chapter 3 Two Groups of Minerals, continued Nonsilicate minerals are minerals that do not contain compounds of silicon and oxygen. There are six main classes of nonsilicate minerals. Native Elements Carbonates Halides Oxides Sulfates Sulfides

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Bellringer Look at the mineral samples provided by your teacher. List as many phrases as you can to describe each sample. Organize these phrases into categories to determine whether or not each sample is a different mineral. Record your response in your science journal. Chapter 3

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 3 Identify seven ways to determine the identity of minerals. Explain special properties of minerals. Objectives

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 3 Identifying Minerals You can determine the identity of a mineral by noting different properties. Color Minerals display a wide variety of colors, and often the same mineral can be found in many different colors. Because of this, color is usually not the best way to identify a mineral.

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 3 Identifying Minerals, continued The way a mineral reflects light is called luster. There are three types of mineral luster: Metallic Submetallic Nonmetallic

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 3 Identifying Minerals, continued The color of a mineral in powdered form is called the minerals streak. A minerals streak can be found by running the mineral against a piece of unglazed porcelain called a streak plate. The color of a minerals streak is not always the same as the color of the mineral sample.

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 3 Mineral Color, Luster, and Streak Click below to watch the Visual Concept. You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key. Visual Concept

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 3 Cleavage and Fracture Different types of minerals break in different ways. Cleavage is the tendency of some minerals to break along smooth, flat surfaces. Fracture is the tendency of some minerals to break unevenly along curved or irregular surfaces.

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 3 Hardness A minerals resistance to being scratched is called hardness. To determine the hardness of minerals, scientists use Mohs hardness scale, shown on the next slide.

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 3

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 3 Density Density is the measure of how much matter is in a given amount of space. Density is a ratio of an objects mass to its volume. Different minerals have different densities.

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 3 Special Properties Some properties are particular to only a few types of minerals. The properties shown on the next slide can help you quickly identify some minerals.

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Identifying Minerals Chapter 3

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals Bellringer Look at a mineral resource map of your state and locate the mines closest to where you live. Which mineral commodities are mined there? Write your response in your science journal. Chapter 3

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Describe the environments in which minerals forms. Compare the two types of mining. Describe two ways to reduce the effects of mining. Describe different uses for metallic and nonmetallic minerals. Objectives Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Formation of Minerals Minerals form in a variety of environments in the Earths crust. Each environment has a different set of physical and chemical conditions that determine the minerals properties. Evaporating Salt Water When a body of salt water dries up, minerals such as gypsum and halite are left behind. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Formation of Minerals, continued Metamorphic Rocks When changes in pressure, temperature, or chemical makeup alter a rock, metamorphism takes place. Minerals that form in metamorphic rock include calcite, garnet, graphite, hematite, magnetite, mica, and talc. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Formation of Minerals, continued Limestones Surface water and groundwater carry dissolved materials into lakes and seas, where they crystallized on the bottom. Minerals that form in this environment include calcite and dolomite. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Formation of Minerals, continued Hot-Water Solutions Groundwater works its way downward and is heated by magma, and then reacts with minerals to form a hot liquid solution. Dissolved metals and other elements crystallize out of the hot fluid to form new minerals, such as gold, copper, sulfur, pyrite, and galena. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Formation of Minerals, continued Pegmatites As magma rises upward from the Earths crust, it can form teardrop-shaped bodies called pegmatites. Many gemstones such as topaz and tourmaline, form in pegmatites. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Formation of Minerals, continued Plutons As magma rises upward through the crust, it sometimes stops moving before it reaches the surface and cools slowly, forming millions of mineral crystals. Eventually, the entire magma body solidifies, forming minerals such as mica, feldspar, magnetite, and quartz. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Mining Many kinds of rocks and minerals must be mined to extract the valuable elements they contain. Geologists use the term ore to describe a mineral deposit large enough and pure enough to be mined for profit. Rocks and minerals are removed from the ground by one of two methods. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Mining, continued Surface Mining When mineral deposits are located at or near the surface of the Earth, surface- mining methods are used to remove the minerals. Types of surface mines include open pits, surface coal mines, and quarries. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Mining, continued Subsurface Mining methods are used when mineral deposits are located too deep within the Earth to be surface mined. Subsurface mining often requires that passageways be dug into the Earth to reach the ore. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Responsible Mining Mining gives us the minerals we need, but it may also create problems. Mining can destroy or disturb the habitats of plants and animals. Waste products from a mine may get into water sources, which pollutes surface water and ground water. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Responsible Mining, continued One way to reduce the potential harmful effects of mining is to return the land to its original state after the mining is completed. Reclamation is the process by which land used for mining is returned to its original state. Reducing our need for minerals by recycling is another way to reduce the effects of mining. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 The Use of Minerals Metallic Minerals are good conductors of heat and electricity. They can be processed for various uses, including building aircraft, automobiles, and communications and electronic equipment. Examples of useful metallic minerals include gold, silver, and copper. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 The Use of Minerals, continued Nonmetallic Minerals are good insulators of electricity. They have uses that range from glass- making to producing computer chips. Calcite, one nonmetallic mineral, is a major component of concrete, which is used in building roads, buildings, bridges and other structures. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 The Use of Minerals, continued Gemstones are highly valued for their beauty and rarity, than for their usefulness. Important gemstones include diamond, sapphire, ruby, emerald, aquamarine, topaz, and tourmaline. Section 3 Formation, Mining, & Use of Minerals

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Minerals of the Earths Crust Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. Chapter 3 gems compounds atoms mineral ore mining minerals diamonds

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Minerals of the Earths Crust Chapter 3

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Minerals of the Earths Crust Chapter 3

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu End of Chapter 3 Show

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Read each of the passages. Then, answer the questions that follow each passage. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 1 In North America, copper was mined at least 6,700 years ago by the ancestors of the Native Americans who live on Michigans upper peninsula. Much of this mining took place on Isle Royale, an island in Lake Superior. These ancient people removed copper from the rock by using stone hammers and wedges. The rock was sometimes heated first to make breaking it up easier. Continued on the next slide Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 1, continued Copper that was mined was used to make jewelry, tools, weapons, fish hooks, and other objects. These objects were often marked with designs. The Lake Superior copper was traded over long distances along ancient trade routes. Copper objects have been found in Ohio, Florida, the Southwest, and the Northwest. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does ancient mean? A young B future C modern D early Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does ancient mean? A young B future C modern D early Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. According to the passage, what did the ancient copper miners do? F They mined copper in Ohio, Florida, the Southwest, and the Northwest. G They mined copper by cooling the rock in which the copper was found. H They mined copper by using stone tools. I They mined copper for their use only. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. According to the passage, what did the ancient copper miners do? F They mined copper in Ohio, Florida, the Southwest, and the Northwest. G They mined copper by cooling the rock in which the copper was found. H They mined copper by using stone tools. I They mined copper for their use only. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A Copper could be shaped into different objects. B Copper was unknown outside of Michigans upper peninsula. C Copper could be mined easily from the rock in which it was found. D Copper could not be marked with designs. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A Copper could be shaped into different objects. B Copper was unknown outside of Michigans upper peninsula. C Copper could be mined easily from the rock in which it was found. D Copper could not be marked with designs. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2 Most mineral names end in -ite. The practice of so naming minerals dates back to the ancient Romans and Greeks, who added -ites and -it is to common words to indicate a color, a use, or the chemistry of a mineral. More recently, mineral names have been used to honor people, such as scientists, mineral collectors, and even rulers of countries. Other minerals have been named after the place where they were discovered. These place names include mines, quarries, hills, mountains, towns, regions, and even countries. Finally, some minerals have been named after gods in Greek, Roman, and Scandinavian mythology. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does practice mean? A skill B custom C profession D use Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does practice mean? A skill B custom C profession D use Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. According to the passage, the ancient Greeks and Romans did not name minerals after what? F colors G chemical properties H people I uses Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. According to the passage, the ancient Greeks and Romans did not name minerals after what? F colors G chemical properties H people I uses Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A Minerals are sometimes named for the country in which they are discovered. B Minerals are never named after their collectors. C All mineral names end in -ite. D All of the known minerals were named by the Greeks and Romans. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements is a fact according to the passage? A Minerals are sometimes named for the country in which they are discovered. B Minerals are never named after their collectors. C All mineral names end in -ite. D All of the known minerals were named by the Greeks and Romans. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics A sample of feldspar was analyzed to find out what it was made of. The graph below shows the results of the analysis. Use the graph below to answer the questions that follow. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

65 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. The sample consists of four elements: potassium, K, aluminum, Al, silicon, Si, and oxygen, O. Which element makes up the largest percentage of your sample? A potassium B aluminum C silicon D oxygen Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. The sample consists of four elements: potassium, K, aluminum, Al, silicon, Si, and oxygen, O. Which element makes up the largest percentage of your sample? A potassium B aluminum C silicon D oxygen Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

67 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Silicate minerals, such as feldspar, contain a combination of silicon and oxygen. What percentage of your sample is composed of silicon and oxygen combined? F 30% G 40% H 50% I 70% Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

68 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Silicate minerals, such as feldspar, contain a combination of silicon and oxygen. What percentage of your sample is composed of silicon and oxygen combined? F 30% G 40% H 50% I 70% Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

69 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. If your sample has a mass of 10 g, how many grams of oxygen does it contain? A 1 g B 2 g C 4 g D 8 g Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

70 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. If your sample has a mass of 10 g, how many grams of oxygen does it contain? A 1 g B 2 g C 4 g D 8 g Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

71 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. Your sample of orthoclase has a hardness of 6. Which of the following minerals will scratch your sample? F gypsum G corundum H calcite I apatite Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

72 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. Your sample of orthoclase has a hardness of 6. Which of the following minerals will scratch your sample? F gypsum G corundum H calcite I apatite Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

73 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Math Read each question, and choose the best answer. Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

74 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. Gold classified as 24-karat is 100% gold. Gold classified as 18-karat is 18 parts gold and 6 parts another, similar metal. The gold is therefore 18/24, or 3/4, pure. What is the percentage of pure gold in 18-karat gold? A 10% B 25% C 50% D 75% Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

75 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. Gold classified as 24-karat is 100% gold. Gold classified as 18-karat is 18 parts gold and 6 parts another, similar metal. The gold is therefore 18/24, or 3/4, pure. What is the percentage of pure gold in 18-karat gold? A 10% B 25% C 50% D 75% Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

76 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Golds specific gravity is 19. Pyrites specific gravity is 5. What is the difference in the specific gravities of gold and pyrite? F 8 g/cm 3 G 10 g/cm 3 H 12 g/cm 3 I 14 g/cm 3 Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

77 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Golds specific gravity is 19. Pyrites specific gravity is 5. What is the difference in the specific gravities of gold and pyrite? F 8 g/cm 3 G 10 g/cm 3 H 12 g/cm 3 I 14 g/cm 3 Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

78 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. In a quartz crystal, there is one silicon atom for every two oxygen atoms. So, the ratio of silicon atoms to oxygen atoms is 1:2. If there were 8 million oxygen atoms in a sample of quartz, how many silicon atoms would there be in the sample? A 2 million B 4 million C 8 million D 16 million Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

79 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. In a quartz crystal, there is one silicon atom for every two oxygen atoms. So, the ratio of silicon atoms to oxygen atoms is 1:2. If there were 8 million oxygen atoms in a sample of quartz, how many silicon atoms would there be in the sample? A 2 million B 4 million C 8 million D 16 million Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

80 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 Standardized Test Preparation

81 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 3 CNN Videos Greening Sudbury Meteor Collision Geologist


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